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1.
Brain Sci ; 12(9)2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997519

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the mental health impact of having a family member or friend infected with COVID-19. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive national assessment of the psychological impact of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, or death among family members and friends. A multi-item valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online to recruit adults in the U.S. A total of 2797 adult Americans without a history of COVID-19 infection participated in the study and reported that they had a family member or friend infected with (54%), hospitalized due to (48%), or die (36%) of COVID-19 infection. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both (i.e., psychological distress) were statistically significantly higher among those who had family members/friends infected, hospitalized, or die due to COVID-19. Also, this study found that the greater the number of family members/friends affected by COVID-19, or the more severe the COVID-19 infection outcome (i.e., hospitalization vs. death), the higher the odds of symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. There is an urgent need to develop educational interventions and implement policy measures that address the growing mental health needs of this subgroup of the population that was not infected but indirectly affected by COVID-19 infections among social networks.

3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. AIMS AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. RESULTS: A total of 3,473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight (40%) before the pandemic. Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home; and time since last bodyweight check. CONCLUSIONS: Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Weight Gain/physiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
4.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615210

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. Aims and methods The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. Results A total of 3473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight before the pandemic (40%). Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home;and time since last bodyweight check. Conclusions Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403602

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among family and friends on vaccination preferences is not well explored. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk to recruit a national random sample of adult Americans to understand COVID-19 vaccination preferences and its relationship with COVID-19 infection in social networks. A total of 1602 individuals participated in the study where the majority had taken at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (79%) and almost a tenth were planning to do so (10%) or did not want to take the vaccine (11%). Compared to those who knew family members or friends affected by COVID-19, those who did not know anyone infected with (AOR = 3.20), hospitalized for (AOR = 3.60), or died of COVID-19 (AOR = 2.97) had statistically significantly higher odds of refusing the vaccines. Most strategies for reducing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy focus on highlighting the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines. We suggest that the dangers of not getting the vaccine should also be emphasized as many people who do not know someone who was affected with COVID-19 are also hesitant towards vaccination. These individuals may not fully appreciate the morbidity and mortality impact of COVID-19 infections and the messaging can be tailored to highlight the risk of not having vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , Vaccination
7.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 12: 100213, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051477
8.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): 246-253, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health impact of the pandemic after the initial lockdowns has not been well studied in the USA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic national assessment of the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the adult US population. METHODS: A multi-item, valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk and social media sites to recruit adult US participants in the general population across the USA. A total of 1978 individuals participated in the study, where the majority were: females (51%), whites (74%), non-Hispanic (81%), married (56%), employed full time (68%) and with a bachelor's degree or higher (78%). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (39%), anxiety (42%) and psychological distress (39%) were computed from the PHQ-4 scale. In multiple regression analyses, depression, anxiety and psychological distress burden (assessed by PHQ-4 scale) was predicted significantly based on race, ethnicity, age, having children at home, employment as a healthcare worker, annual household income and area of residence. Males were more likely to have depression, and females were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety, interdisciplinary and multisectoral approaches are recommended in the USA along with population-based interventions on mental health improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 270-277, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002126

ABSTRACT

Given the results from early trials, COVID-19 vaccines will be available by 2021. However, little is known about what Americans think of getting immunized with a COVID-19 vaccine. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic national assessment of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a community-based sample of the American adult population. A multi-item valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk and social media sites to recruit U.S. adults from the general population. A total of 1878 individuals participated in the study where the majority were: females (52%), Whites (74%), non-Hispanic (81%), married (56%), employed full time (68%), and with a bachelor's degree or higher (77%). The likelihood of getting a COVID-19 immunization in the study population was: very likely (52%), somewhat likely (27%), not likely (15%), definitely not (7%), with individuals who had lower education, income, or perceived threat of getting infected being more likely to report that they were not likely/definitely not going to get COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., vaccine hesitancy). In unadjusted group comparisons, compared to their counterparts, vaccine hesitancy was higher among African-Americans (34%), Hispanics (29%), those who had children at home (25%), rural dwellers (29%), people in the northeastern U.S. (25%), and those who identified as Republicans (29%). In multiple regression analyses, vaccine hesitancy was predicted significantly by sex, education, employment, income, having children at home, political affiliation, and the perceived threat of getting infected with COVID-19 in the next 1 year. Given the high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, evidence-based communication, mass media strategies, and policy measures will have to be implemented across the U.S. to convert vaccines into vaccinations and mass immunization with special attention to the groups identified in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
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