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1.
Thrombosis Research ; 218:171-176, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004546

ABSTRACT

Background Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in respiratory syndromes but also in vascular complications such as thromboembolism (TE). In this regard, immunothrombosis, resulting from inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissues, has been described. Data on TE in COVID-19 are mainly based on clinical observational and/or incomplete autopsy studies. The true burden of TE and the relevance of genetic predisposition, however, have not been resolved. Objectives Here, we report on a consecutive cohort of 100 fully autopsied patients deceased by SARS-CoV-2 infections during the first wave of the pandemic (March to April 2020). We investigated the localization of TE, potential clinical risk factors, and the prothrombotic gene mutations, factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, in postmortem blood or tissue samples. Results

2.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5038-5043, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888757

ABSTRACT

We aimed to provide in vitro data on the neutralization capacity of different monoclonal antibody (mAb) preparations against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta and omicron variant, respectively, and describe the in vivo RNA kinetics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients treated with the respective mAbs. Virus neutralization assays were performed to assess the neutralizing effect of the mAb formulations casirivimab/imdevimab and sotrovimab on the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant. Additionally, respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA kinetics are provided for 25 COVID-19 patients infected with either delta variant (n = 18) or omicron variant (n = 7) treated with the respective mAb formulations during their hospital stay. In the virus neutralization assay, sotrovimab exhibits neutralizing capacity at therapeutically achievable concentrations against the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant. In contrast, casivirimab/imdevimab had neutralizing capacity against the delta variant but failed neutralization against the omicron variant except for a very high concentration above the currently recommended therapeutic dosage. In patients with delta variant infections treated with casivirimab/imdevimab, we observed a rapid decrease of respiratory viral RNA at day 3 after mAb therapy. In contrast, no such prompt decline was observed in patients with delta variant or omicron variant infections receiving sotrovimab.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Treatment Outcome , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
3.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 824-833, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of lung biopsy, there are various algorithms for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients that rely on clinical signs, underlying conditions, radiological features and mycology. The aim of the present study was to compare four diagnostic algorithms in their ability to differentiate between probable IPA (i.e., requiring treatment) and colonisation. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we included a mixed ICU population with a positive Aspergillus culture from respiratory secretions and applied four different diagnostic algorithms to them. We compared agreement among the four algorithms. In a subgroup of patients with lung tissue histopathology available, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of the single algorithms. RESULTS: A total number of 684 critically ill patients (69% medical/31% surgical) were included between 2005 and 2020. Overall, 79% (n = 543) of patients fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to at least one diagnostic algorithm. Only 4% of patients (n = 29) fulfilled the criteria for probable IPA according to all four algorithms. Agreement among the four diagnostic criteria was low (Cohen's kappa 0.07-0.29). From 85 patients with histopathological examination of lung tissue, 40% (n = 34) had confirmed IPA. The new EORTC/MSGERC ICU working group criteria had high specificity (0.59 [0.41-0.75]) and sensitivity (0.73 [0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of mixed ICU patients, the agreement among four algorithms for the diagnosis of IPA was low. Although improved by the latest diagnostic criteria, the discrimination of invasive fungal infection from Aspergillus colonisation in critically ill patients remains challenging and requires further optimization.


Subject(s)
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792420

ABSTRACT

Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), namely deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE), and death. The optimal anticoagulation strategy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. This study investigated the ante mortem incidence as well as postmortem prevalence of VTE, the factors predictive of VTE, and the impact of changed anticoagulation practice on patient survival. We conducted a consecutive retrospective analysis of postmortem COVID-19 (n = 64) and non-COVID-19 (n = 67) patients, as well as ante mortem COVID-19 (n = 170) patients admitted to the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany). Baseline patient characteristics, parameters related to the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the clinical and autoptic presence of VTE were evaluated and statistically compared between groups. The occurrence of VTE in critically ill COVID-19 patients is confirmed in both ante mortem (17%) and postmortem (38%) cohorts. Accordingly, comparing the postmortem prevalence of VTE between age- and sex-matched COVID-19 (43%) and non-COVID-19 (0%) cohorts, we found the statistically significant increased prevalence of VTE in critically ill COVID-19 cohorts (p = 0.001). A change in anticoagulation practice was associated with the statistically significant prolongation of survival time (HR: 2.55, [95% CI 1.41-4.61], p = 0.01) and a reduction in VTE occurrence (54% vs. 25%; p = 0.02). In summary, in the autopsy as well as clinical cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, we found that VTE was a frequent finding. A change in anticoagulation practice was associated with a statistically significantly prolonged survival time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701768

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide healthcare threat. High critical care admission rates related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure were observed. Medical advances helped increase the number of patients surviving the acute critical illness. However, some patients require prolonged critical care. Data on the outcome of patients with a chronic critical illness (CCI) are scarce. Single-center retrospective study including all adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between 1 March 2020 and 8 August 2021. We identified 304 critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the study period. Of those, 55% (n = 167) had an ICU stay ≥21 days and were defined as chronic critical illness, and 45% (n = 137) had an ICU stay <21 days. Age, sex and BMI were distributed equally between both groups. Patients with CCI had a higher median SAPS II (CCI: 39.5 vs. no-CCI: 38 points, p = 0.140) and SOFA score (10 vs. 6, p < 0.001) on admission. Seventy-three per cent (n = 223) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (86% vs. 58%; p < 0.001). The median duration of MV was 30 (17-49) days and 7 (4-12) days in patients with and without CCI, respectively (p < 0.001). The regression analysis identified ARDS (OR 3.238, 95% CI 1.827-5.740, p < 0.001) and referral from another ICU (OR 2.097, 95% CI 1.203-3.654, p = 0.009) as factors significantly associated with new-onset of CCI. Overall, we observed an ICU mortality of 38% (n = 115) in the study cohort. In patients with CCI we observed an ICU mortality of 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 69) in patients without CCI (p < 0.001). The 90-day mortality was 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 70), respectively (p < 0.001). More than half of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffer from CCI. Short and long-term survival rates in patients with CCI were high compared to patients without CCI, and prolonged therapy should not be withheld when resources permit prolonged therapy.

6.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1920-1925, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589024

ABSTRACT

The role of respiratory superinfections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia remains unclear. We investigated the prevalence of early- and late-onset superinfections in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to our department of intensive care medicine between March 2020 and November 2020. Of the 102 cases, 74 (72.5%) received invasive ventilation and were tested for viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens on Days 0-7, 8-14, and 15-21 after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. Approximately 45% developed one or more respiratory superinfections. There was a clear correlation between the duration of invasive ventilation and the prevalence of coinfecting pathogens. Male patients with obesity and those suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or diabetes mellitus had a significantly higher probability to develop a respiratory superinfection. The prevalence of viral coinfections was high, with a predominance of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), followed by cytomegalovirus. No respiratory viruses or intracellular bacteria were detected in our cohort. We observed a high coincidence between Aspergillus fumigatus and HSV infection. Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen group. Klebsiella aerogenes was detected early after intubation, while Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were related to a prolonged respiratory weaning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/epidemiology , Superinfection/microbiology
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(11): ofab509, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA loads in patient specimens may act as a clinical outcome predictor in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We evaluated the predictive value of viral RNA loads and courses in the blood compared with the upper and lower respiratory tract loads of critically ill COVID-19 patients. Daily specimen collection and viral RNA quantification by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed in all consecutive 170 COVID-19 patients between March 2020 and February 2021 during the entire intensive care unit (ICU) stay (4145 samples analyzed). Patients were grouped according to their 90-day outcome as survivors (n=100) or nonsurvivors (n=70). RESULTS: In nonsurvivors, blood SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were significantly higher at the time of admission to the ICU (P=.0009). Failure of blood RNA clearance was observed in 33/50 (66%) of the nonsurvivors compared with 12/64 (19%) survivors (P<.0001). As determined by multivariate analysis, taking sociodemographic and clinical parameters into account, blood SARS-CoV-2 RNA load represents a valid and independent predictor of outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients (odds ratio [OR; log10], 0.23; 95% CI, 0.12-0.42; P<.0001), with a significantly higher effect for survival compared with respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads (OR [log10], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.85; P<.0001). Blood RNA loads exceeding 2.51×103 SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies/mL were found to indicate a 50% probability of death. Consistently, 29/33 (88%) nonsurvivors with failure of virus clearance exceeded this cutoff value constantly. CONCLUSIONS: Blood SARS-CoV-2 load is an important independent outcome predictor and should be further evaluated for treatment allocation and patient monitoring.

8.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524051

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a viable therapy option for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, veno-venous (vv) ECMO is frequently used in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). VV-ECMO was also frequently utilised during the influenza pandemic and experience with this complex and invasive treatment has increased worldwide since. However, data on comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19 and influenza-related severe ARDS treated with vv-ECMO are scarce. This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with vv/(veno-arterial)va-ECMO between January 2009 and January 2021 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 or influenza were included. Patient characteristics, parameters related to ICU and vv/va-ECMO as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Mortality was assessed up to 90 days after vv/va-ECMO initiation. Overall, 113 patients were included, 52 (46%) with COVID-19 and 61 (54%) with influenza-related ARDS. Median age of patients with COVID-19 and influenza was 58 (IQR 53-64) and 52 (39-58) years (p < 0.001), 35% and 31% (p = 0.695) were female, respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3 (1-5) and 2 (0-5) points in the two groups (p = 0.309). Median SAPS II score pre-ECMO was 27 (24-36) vs. 32 (28-41) points (p = 0.009), and SOFA score was 13 (11-14) vs. 12 (8-15) points (p = 0.853), respectively. Median P/F ratio pre-ECMO was 64 (46-78) and 73 (56-104) (p = 0.089); pH was 7.20 (7.16-7.29) and 7.26 (7.18-7.33) (p = 0.166). Median days on vv/va-ECMO were 17 (7-27) and 11 (7-20) (p = 0.295), respectively. Seventy-one percent and sixty-nine percent had renal replacement therapy (p = 0.790). Ninety-four percent of patients with COVID-19 and seventy-seven percent with influenza experienced vv/va-ECMO-associated bleeding events (p = 0.004). Thirty-four percent and fifty-five percent were successfully weaned from ECMO (p = 0.025). Ninety-day mortality was 65% and 57% in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively (p = 0.156). Median length of ICU stay was 24 (13-44) and 28 (16-14) days (p = 0.470), respectively. Despite similar disease severity, the use of vv/va-ECMO in ARDS related to COVID-19 and influenza resulted in similar outcomes at 90 days. A significant higher rate of bleeding complications and thrombosis was observed in patients with COVID-19.

9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480539

ABSTRACT

1.1 Based on the initial data from Table 1 there were errors in the original article [...].

11.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(8): 1726-1729.e3, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317651

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects the nasopharynx and lungs and causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). It may impact the heart, brain, kidney, and liver.1 Although functional impairment of the liver has been correlated with worse clinical outcomes, little is known about the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and repair in COVID-19.2,3 Histologic evaluation has been limited to small numbers of COVID-19 cases with no control subjects2,4 and demonstrated largely heterogeneous patterns of pathology.2,3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney , Liver , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285366

ABSTRACT

Cefiderocol is a new siderophore-cephalosporin for the treatment of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. As a reserve agent, it will and should be used primarily in critically ill patients in the upcoming years. Due to the novelty of the substance little data on the pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients with septic shock and renal failure (including continuous renal replacement therapy and cytokine adsorber therapy) is available. We performed therapeutic drug monitoring in a cohort of five patients treated with cefiderocol, to improve the knowledge on pharmacokinetics in this vulnerable patient population. As expected for a cephalosporin with predominantly renal elimination the maintenance dose could be reduced in patients with renal impairment or on continuous renal replacement therapy. The manufacturer's dosing instructions were sufficient to achieve a drug level well above the MIC. However, the addition of a cytokine adsorber might reduce serum levels substantially, so that in this context therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment are recommended.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234757

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to an ongoing pandemic with a surge of critically ill patients. Very little is known about the occurrence and characteristic of cardiac arrest in critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim was to investigate the incidence and outcome of intensive care unit cardiac arrest (ICU-CA) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted (27 February 2020-14 January 2021) at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Of 183 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 18% (n = 33) had ICU-CA. The median age of the study population was 63 (55-73) years and 66% (n = 120) were male. Demographic characteristics and comorbidities did not differ significantly between patients with and without ICU-CA. Simplified Acute Physiological Score II (SAPS II) (ICU-CA: median 44 points vs. no ICU-CA: 39 points) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (median 12 points vs. 7 points) on admission were significantly higher in patients with ICU-CA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was present in 91% (n = 30) with and in 63% (n = 94) without ICU-CA (p = 0.002). Mechanical ventilation was more common in patients with ICU-CA (97% vs. 67%). The median stay in ICU before CA was 6 (1-17) days. A total of 33% (n = 11) of ICU-CAs occurred during the first 24 h of ICU stay. The initial rhythm was non-shockable (pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole) in 91% (n = 30); 94% (n = 31) had sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The median time to ROSC was 3 (1-5) minutes. Patients with ICU-CA had significantly higher ICU mortality (61% vs. 37%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the presence of ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 4.268, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.211-15.036; p = 0.024) and high SAPS II (OR 1.031, 95% CI 0.997-1.065; p = 0.077) were independently associated with the occurrence of ICU-CA. A total of 18% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered from a cardiac arrest within the intensive care unit. The occurrence of ICU-CA was associated with presence of ARDS and severity of illness.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 44, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 caused a pandemic and global threat for human health. Presence of liver injury was commonly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, reports on severe liver dysfunction (SLD) in critically ill with COVID-19 are lacking. We evaluated the occurrence, clinical characteristics and outcome of SLD in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical course and laboratory was analyzed from all patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICU of the university hospital. SLD was defined as: bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dl or elevation of aminotransferase levels (> 20-fold ULN). RESULTS: 72 critically ill patients were identified, 22 (31%) patients developed SLD. Presenting characteristics including age, gender, comorbidities as well as clinical presentation regarding COVID-19 overlapped substantially in both groups. Patients with SLD had more severe respiratory failure (paO2/FiO2: 82 (58-114) vs. 117 (83-155); p < 0.05). Thus, required more frequently mechanical ventilation (95% vs. 64%; p < 0.01), rescue therapies (ECMO) (27% vs. 12%; p = 0.106), vasopressor (95% vs. 72%; p < 0.05) and renal replacement therapy (86% vs. 30%; p < 0.001). Severity of illness was significantly higher (SAPS II: 48 (39-52) vs. 40 (32-45); p < 0.01). Patients with SLD and without presented viremic during ICU stay in 68% and 34%, respectively (p = 0.002). Occurrence of SLD was independently associated with presence of viremia [OR 6.359; 95% CI 1.336-30.253; p < 0.05] and severity of illness (SAPS II) [OR 1.078; 95% CI 1.004-1.157; p < 0.05]. Mortality was high in patients with SLD compared to other patients (68% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, SLD was independently associated with mortality [HR3.347; 95% CI 1.401-7.999; p < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: One-third of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffer from SLD, which is associated with high mortality. Occurrence of viremia and severity of illness seem to contribute to occurrence of SLD and underline the multifactorial cause.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5803, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132102

ABSTRACT

While several studies have described the clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct comparisons with patients with seasonal influenza are scarce. We compared 166 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed between February 27 and June 14, 2020, and 255 patients with seasonal influenza diagnosed during the 2017-18 season at the same hospital to describe common features and differences in clinical characteristics and course of disease. Patients with COVID-19 were younger (median age [IQR], 59 [45-71] vs 66 [52-77]; P < 0001) and had fewer comorbidities at baseline with a lower mean overall age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (mean [SD], 3.0 [2.6] vs 4.0 [2.7]; P < 0.001) than patients with seasonal influenza. COVID-19 patients had a longer duration of hospitalization (mean [SD], 25.9 days [26.6 days] vs 17.2 days [21.0 days]; P = 0.002), a more frequent need for oxygen therapy (101 [60.8%] vs 103 [40.4%]; P < 0.001) and invasive ventilation (52 [31.3%] vs 32 [12.5%]; P < 0.001) and were more frequently admitted to the intensive care unit (70 [42.2%] vs 51 [20.0%]; P < 0.001) than seasonal influenza patients. Among immunocompromised patients, those in the COVID-19 group had a higher hospital mortality compared to those in the seasonal influenza group (13 [33.3%] vs 8 [11.6%], P = 0.01). In conclusion, we show that COVID-19 patients were younger and had fewer baseline comorbidities than seasonal influenza patients but were at increased risk for severe illness. The high mortality observed in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients emphasizes the importance of protecting these patient groups from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Clin Virol ; 137: 104782, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostics is facing material shortages and long turnaround times due to exponential increase of testing demand. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the analytic performance and handling of four rapid Antigen Point of Care Tests (AgPOCTs) I-IV (Distributors: (I) Roche, (II) Abbott, (III) MEDsan and (IV) Siemens). METHODS: 100 RT-PCR negative and 84 RT-PCR positive oropharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected and used to determine performance and accuracy of these AgPOCTs. Handling was evaluated by 10 healthcare workers/users through a questionnaire. RESULTS: The median duration from symptom onset to sampling was 6 days (IQR 2-12 days). The overall respective sensitivity were 49.4 % (CI95 %: 38.9-59.9), 44.6 % (CI95 %: 34.3-55.3), 45.8 % (CI95 %: 35.5-56.5) and 54.9 % (CI95 %: 43.4-65.9) for tests I, II, III and IV, respectively. In the high viral load subgroup (containing >106 copies of SARS-CoV-2 /swab, n = 26), AgPOCTs reached sensitivities of 92.3 % or more (range 92.3 %-100 %). Specificity was 100 % for tests I, II (CI95 %: 96.3-100 for both tests) and IV (CI95 %: 96.3-100) and 97 % (CI95 %: 91.5-98.9) for test III. Regarding handling, test I obtained the overall highest scores, while test II was considered to have the most convenient components. Of note, users considered all assays, with the exception of test I, to pose a significant risk for contamination by drips or spills. DISCUSSION: Besides some differences in sensitivity and handling, all four AgPOCTs showed acceptable performance in high viral load samples. However, due to the significantly lower sensitivity compared to RT-qPCR, a careful consideration of pro and cons of AgPOCT has to be taken into account before clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(12): 1030, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030407
20.
J Clin Virol ; 132: 104650, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents a unique challenge to diagnostic laboratories. There are preliminary studies correlating qRT-PCR results from different materials to clinical outcomes, yet, comparability is limited due to the plethora of different assays used for diagnostics. In this study we evaluate clinical performance and linear range for the SARS-CoV-2 IVD (cobas6800/8800 system, a fully automated sample-to-result platform) in different clinically relevant matrix materials outside official specifications. METHODS: Assay performance was assessed in human plasma, BAL/BL and transport medium following chemical inactivation. For analytical evaluation, respective matrix materials were spiked with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in ten-fold dilution series. The efficacy of chemical inactivation by guanidine hydrochloride solution was confirmed in cell culture infectivity experiments. For correlation, a total of 289 predetermined clinical samples including respiratory swabs, plasma and lower respiratory tract specimens were subjected to the SARS-CoV-2 IVD test and results were compared. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD showed excellent linearity over four to six log steps depending on matrix material. Chemical inactivation resulted in a reduction in plaque forming units of at least 3.5 log steps, while having no significant impact on assay performance. Inter-run consistency from three different testing sites demonstrated excellent comparability of RT-PCR results (maximum deviation was 1.53 CT). Clinical evaluation for respiratory swabs showed very good agreement with the comparator assay (Positive agreement 95.7 %, negative agreement 98.9 %). CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 IVD test for the cobas6800/8800 systems offers excellent linear range and inter-run consistency for quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in different matrices outside official specifications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cell Line , Humans , Linear Models , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results
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