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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 619-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818381

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: India witnessed a massive second surge of COVID-19 cases since March 2021 after a period of decline from September 2020. Data collected under the National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) were analysed to describe the differences in demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 patients recruited during these two successive waves. Methods: The NCRC, launched in September 2020, is an ongoing multicentre observational initiative, which provided the platform for the current investigation. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data of hospitalized, confirmed COVID-19 patients were captured in an electronic data portal from 41 hospitals across India. Patients enrolled during September 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1 to May 11, 2021 constituted participants of the two successive waves, respectively. Results: As on May 11, 2021, 18961 individuals were recruited in the registry, 12059 and 6903 reflecting in-patients from the first and second waves, respectively. Mean age of the patients was significantly lower in the second wave [48.7 (18.1) yr vs. 50.7 (18.0) yr, P<0.001] with higher proportion of patients in the younger age group intervals of <20, and 20-39 yr. Approximately 70 per cent of the admitted patients were ≥ 40 yr of age in both waves of the pandemic. The proportion of males were slightly lower in second wave as compared to the first [4400 (63.7%) vs. 7886 (65.4%), P=0.02]. Commonest presenting symptom was fever in both waves. In the second wave, a significantly higher proportion [2625 (48.6%) vs. 4420 (42.8%), P<0.003] complained of shortness of breath, developed ARDS [422(13%) vs. 880 (7.9%), P<0.001], required supplemental oxygen [1637 (50.3%) vs. 4771 (42.7%), P<0.001], and mechanical ventilation [260 (15.9%) vs. 530 (11.1%), P<0.001]. Mortality also significantly increased in the second wave [OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.52)] in all age groups except in <20 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was slightly different in presentation than the first wave, with a younger demography, lesser comorbidities, and presentation with breathlessness in greater frequency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(6): 622-628, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A large number of studies describing the clinicoepidemiological features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients are available but very few studies have documented similar features of the deceased. This study was aimed to describe the clinicoepidemiological features and the causes of mortality of COVID-19 deceased patients admitted in a dedicated COVID center in India. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study done in adult deceased patients admitted in COVID ICU from April 4 to July 24, 2020. The clinical features, comorbidities, complications, and causes of mortality in these patients were analyzed. Pediatric deceased were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 654 adult patients were admitted in the ICU during the study period and ICU mortality was 37.7% (247/654). Among the adult deceased, 65.9% were males with a median age of 56 years [interquartile range (IQR), 41.5-65] and 94.74% had one or more comorbidities, most common being hypertension (43.3%), diabetes mellitus (34.8%), and chronic kidney disease (20.6%). The most common presenting features in these deceased were fever (75.7%), cough (68.8%), and shortness of breath (67.6%). The mean initial sequential organ failure assessment score was 9.3 ± 4.7 and 24.2% were already intubated at the time of admission. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (IQR, 3-11). The most common cause of death was sepsis with multi-organ failure (55.1%) followed by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (25.5%). All pediatric deceased had comorbid conditions and the most common cause of death in this group was severe ARDS. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adult deceased, most were young males with age less than 65 years with one or more comorbidities, hypertension being the most common. Only 5% of the deceased had no comorbidities. Sepsis with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome was the most common cause of death. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Aggarwal R, Bhatia R, Kulshrestha K, Soni KD, Viswanath R, Singh AK, et al. Clinicoepidemiological Features and Mortality Analysis of Deceased Patients with COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Center. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021; 25(6):622-628.

3.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 54(1): 18-22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is increased incidence of barotrauma in COVID-19 patients, probably due to disease pathology, oxygen therapy and coughing. We aimed to retrospectively compare the characteristics, associations and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with and without barotrauma in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: All adults admitted between October 1st and December 31st 2020 in the ICUs of a COVID-19 hospital were retrospectively analysed for presence of a 'barotrauma event' (presence of at least one of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema or bronchopleural fistula). A control group was formed by matching each case to a patient belonging to the same gender and age range from the remaining patients in the cohort, i.e., those without barotrauma. Demographic details, ICU stay details, details of oxygen therapy and ventilation, and outcomes were noted and compared. RESULTS: Of 827 patients, 30 patients (3.6%) developed barotrauma events. The typical patient was middle aged (median age 55.5 years) and male (73.3%). The mortality rate was significantly higher in the barotrauma group (83.3% vs. 43.3%, P < 0.001), and odds of survival decreased by 85% if barotrauma occurred (OR 0.15; 95% CI: 0.46-0.51). Patients who developed barotrauma spent a longer time on a high-flow nasal cannula (median 6.7 vs. 1.73 days, P = 0.04), and mechanical ventilation (median 9.54 vs. 0.867 days, P < 0.001), and had a longer ICU stay (median 15.5 vs. 9 days, P = 0.014). The most common event was pneumothorax (26/30). CONCLUSIONS: Barotrauma in the COVID-19 ICU is associated with prolonged ICU stay, higher odds of mortality and longer duration spent on mechanical ventilation and a high-flow nasal cannula. Key words: barotrauma, ICU, COVID-19, mortality, pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Adult , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
4.
Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care ; 11(3):1140-1145, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1753782

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) had generated considerable interest for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prophylaxis. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary care hospital in India, with dedicated COVID-19 care facilities. Objectives: Primary objective was incidence of adverse effects, secondary objective being efficacy in preventing COVID-19. Methods: Healthcare workers were recruited and grouped based on voluntary HCQ prophylaxis as per national guidelines. Side effects in HCQ group were graded in accordance with national cancer institute-common terminology criteria for adverse events (NCI-CTCAE) version 5.0. At 3–7-week follow-up, groups were compared for COVID-19 exposure, symptoms development and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR results. Results: Among 358 participants recruited, 216 (60.3%) were males and mean age was 31.2 ± 6.6 years. Chemoprophylaxis was initiated by 258 (72%) participants. After loading dose, 7 (2.7%) reported grade 2 and 1 (0.4%) grade 3 adverse effects. Discontinuation of HCQ due to side effects was reported in 11 (4.3%) participants. Electrocardiogram was done by 50 (19.4%) participants on HCQ;no abnormalities were noted. A total of 106 (41%) among those taking and 63 (63%) among those not taking HCQ were tested for SARS-CoV-2 due to influenza-like illness or significant exposure. Among all participants, 25 (6.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3–9.6) developed COVID-19 during the study period. In the group taking HCQ, 10 (3.9%) tested positive compared to 15 (15%) in the group not taking HCQ (P < 0.001). Odds ratio with HCQ intake was 0.34 (95% CI 0.13–0.83, P = 0.01) and the number needed to treat was 12. Conclusion: HCQ is safe at the recommended dose for pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Family Medicine & Primary Care is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311096

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COVID-19 (COrona VIrus Disease 2019). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-9 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 were performed for assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis was used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that among a total of 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues and 15 lung biopsies in non-COVID-19 patients included, ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318838

ABSTRACT

Background: - The sharp uptick in the cases of mucormycosis in the background of the COVID19 pandemic is a cause of concern and the reasons and it’s impact remains to be seen. We studied the clinical characteristics in patients with mucormycosis and COVID19 co-infection and performed a literature review. Methods: - This retrospective study was conducted at tertiary centre in India. All patients admitted with COVID19 and mucormycosis were included, clinical details were obtained from hospital records. We did review of literatures using the terms “SARS-CoV2” OR “COVID19” AND “Mucormycosis” AND “co-infection” on Pubmed published before February 20, 2021. Results: - Sixteen cases (M:F–13:3), mean age 46·5 years (24-75years), were included. Fourteen had known risk factors for mucormycosis, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Most patients (n=14) were symptomatic with mucormycosis before diagnosis of COVID19. There was delay in surgery by 22.5 days (IQR–>17.75–29.5), pending SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity. There were six deaths in this cohort, unrelated to the COVID19 severity. The literature review revealed eleven case reports on co-infection. Patients who had developed mucormycosis were found to have history of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: - The apparent increase in the incidence of mucormycosis may be due to decompensation of underlying comorbidities (decreased access to healthcare), and increased use of immunosuppressants in COVID19. Patients with co-infection were noted to have poorer outcomes.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318805

ABSTRACT

Background: Calcium has been shown to have a vital role in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV diseases but less is known about hypocalcemia in COVID-19 patients and its association with the disease severity and the final outcome. Therefore, this study was conducted with an aim to assess the clinical features in the COVID-19 patients having hypocalcemia and to observe its impact on COVID-19 disease severity and final outcome. Method: In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients of all age groups were enrolled. Demographical, clinical and laboratory details were collected and analysed. On the basis of albumin-corrected calcium level patients were classified into normocalcemic (n=51) and hypocalcemic (n=110). Death was the primary outcome. Results: : The mean age of hypocalcemic were significantly lower (p<0.05). A significantly higher number of normocalcemic patients had severe COVID-19 disease(92.73%, p<0.01), had comorbidities (82.73%, p<0.05) and required ventilator support(39.09%, p<0.01)compared to the hypocalcemic patients. The mortality rate was significantly higher (33.63%, p<0.05) in the hypocalcemic patients when compared with the normocalcemic patients (15.69%). Haemoglobin (p<0.01), hematocrit (p<0.01) and red cell count (p<0.01) were significantly lower with higher levels of absolute neutrophil count (<0.05) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p<0.01) in the hypocalcemic patients. Albumin-corrected calcium level had a significant positive correlation with haemoglobin level, haematocrit, red cell count, total protein, albumin and albumin to globulin ratio and a significant negative correlation with absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. Conclusion: The disease severity, ventilator requirement and mortality were considerably higher in hypocalcemic COVID-19 patients.

9.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 161-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638319

ABSTRACT

The authors describe a case series of co-infection with COVID-19 and scrub typhus in two Indian patients. Clinical features like fever, cough, dyspnea and altered sensorium were common in both patients. Case 1 had lymphopenia, elevated IL-6 and history of hypertension, while case 2 had leukocytosis and an increased liver enzymes. Both patients had hypoalbuminemia and required admission to the intensive care unit; one of them succumbed to acute respiratory distress syndrome further complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Seasonal tropical infections in COVID-19 patients in endemic settings may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, high clinical suspicion and an early diagnosis for co-infections among COVID-19 patients are essential for better patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Scrub Typhus/complications , Scrub Typhus/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Cough , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea , Early Diagnosis , Fever , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Scrub Typhus/blood
11.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
12.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

Background: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. Results: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. Conclusion: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

13.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20072, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579878

ABSTRACT

Introduction During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in India, several characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, based on demographics, mortality predictors, and presence of comorbidities, were found to be associated with poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify such epidemiological and clinical characteristics among the patients admitted at a tertiary-care center in India that may have predisposed them to COVID-19-related mortality. Methods This retrospective observational study conducted at the Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, in May 2021 included 141 COVID-19 confirmed patients. The medical history, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical findings, and laboratory data of each patient were obtained. The data were analyzed to identify significant clinical and laboratory parameters that led to the adverse final outcomes. Results Hypertension was the most common comorbidity and the presence of diabetes with hypertension led to poorer final outcomes. Lower oxygen saturation and requirement of oxygen supplementation at admission along with worse prognostic scores during admission led to poorer outcomes. Twenty-seven patients needed non-invasive ventilation (NIV) during the hospital course, and all ultimately landed up among the 56 patients who were managed on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis performed identified COVID-19 severity at admission, co-existence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, and serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dL to be associated with higher COVID-19 mortality. Conclusion COVID-19 patients having the co-existence of diabetes and hypertension constitute a high-risk group and may be targeted by prompt vaccination strategies. The presence of severe disease along with a need for oxygen therapy and other intensive care interventions ultimately led to unfavorable outcomes.

14.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 557-561, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579083

ABSTRACT

Risk factors which led to the outbreak of COVID-19 associated Mucormycosis still remains elusive. Face masks can become contaminated by fungal spores that are present ubiquitously in the environment. However the exact burden of such contamination is not known. Fifty masks of patients who attended the Employees Health Scheme COVID-19 facility of a tertiary healthcare centre in India were sampled by direct impression smears on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Agar plates were screened for any growth within five days after incubation. Growth was identified by microscopy on the Lactophenol Cotton Blue mount. Mask hygiene practices of participants was assessed using a pre-designed proforma. Out of 50 masks, fungal contamination was seen in 35/50 (70%) masks, with Aspergillus sp. being isolated from 26/50 (52%) masks and Mucorales being isolated from 9/50 (18%) of the masks. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus a rrhizus and Syncephalastrum sp. were the most common species isolated. Same mask was worn for a median duration of 8 days (2-30 days) at a stretch with or without washing. Thirty one patients washed and re-wore their masks, with median time duration since last wash being 12 hours (4-72 hours). None of the factors assessed for mask hygiene were associated with fungal contamination. High rates of fungal contamination observed in our study emphasizes the need for better mask hygiene in the COVID-19 era.

15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(11): 4030-4035, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573607

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aims to predict the likelihood of and likely time required to attain herd immunity against COVID-19 in New Delhi due to natural infection. Method: An ODE-based mathematical model was constructed by extending the classical SEIR model to predict the seroprevalence rate. We estimated the parameter values for Delhi using available data (reported cases and the seroprevalence rate) and used them for future prediction. Also, changes in the seroprevalence rate with different possibilities of reinfection were predicted. Results: Maximum seroprevalence rate obtained through our model is 31.65% and also a reduction in the seroprevalence rate was observed for the upcoming one month (month of January, 2021) due to the reduced transmission rate. After increasing the transmission rate to the value same as the third wave in New Delhi, we obtained a maximum value of 54.96%. This maximum value significantly decreased with the reduction in the reinfection possibilities. Also, a little impact of the duration of persistence of antibodies, 180 vs 105 days, was observed on the maximum seroprevalence. Conclusion: This modelling study suggests that natural infection alone, as gauged by serial sero-surveys, may not result in attainment of herd immunity in the state of Delhi.

16.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 57-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, indolent forms of aspergillosis have been rarely described. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinico-radio-microbiological data of 10 patients of subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (SAIA), who presented to our hospital with recent history of COVID-19 pneumonia along with cavitary lung disease, positive IgG (against Aspergillus) with or without positive respiratory samples for Aspergillus spp. RESULT: The mean age of presentation of SAIA was 50.7 ± 11.8 years. All the patients had recently recovered from severe COVID-19 illness with a mean duration of 29.2 ± 12 days from COVID-19 positivity. Cough was the predominant symptom seen in 8/10 (80%) patients followed by haemoptysis. 7/10 (70%) patients were known diabetic. While serum galactomannan was positive in 5/9 patients (55.5%), fungal culture was positive in 2/7 patients (28.5%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Aspergillus was positive in three patients. Eight (80%) patients presented with a single cavitary lesion; pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery was seen in two patients and post-COVID-19 changes were seen in all patients. All patients were treated with voriconazole, out of which four (40%) patients died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: SAIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cavitating lung lesions in patients with recent history of COVID-19 in the background of steroid use with or without pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Voriconazole
17.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 668-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566723

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: Occurrence of stroke has been reported among patients with COVID-19. The present study compares clinical features and outcomes of stroke patients with and without COVID-19. Methods: The COVID-19 Stroke Study Group (CSSG) is a multicentric study in 18 sites across India to observe and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with stroke admitted during the current pandemic period and a similar epoch in 2019. The present study reports patients of stroke with and without COVID-19 (CoVS and non-CoVS, respectively) seen between February 2020 and July 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome details of patients were collected. Results: The mean age and gender were comparable between the two groups. CoVS patients had higher stroke severity and extent of cerebral involvement on imaging. In-hospital complications and death were higher among CoVS patients (53.06% vs. 17.51%; P < 0.001) and (42.31% vs. 7.6%; P < 0.001), respectively. At 3 months, higher mortality was observed among CoVS patients (67.65% vs. 13.43%; P < 0.001) and good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS]: 0-2) was seen more often in non-CoVS patients (68.86% vs. 33.33%; P < 0.001). The presence of COVID-19 and baseline stroke severity were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: CoVS is associated with higher severity, poor outcome, and increased mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and baseline stroke severity are independent predictors of mortality.

18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295883

ABSTRACT

Background Due to the unprecedented speed of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, their efficacy trials and issuance of emergency use approvals and marketing authorizations, additional scientific questions remain that need to be answered regarding vaccine effectiveness, vaccination regimens and the need for booster doses. While long-term studies on the correlates of protection, vaccine effectiveness, and enhanced surveillance are awaited, studies on breakthrough infections help us understand the nature and course of this illness among vaccinated individuals and guide in public health preparedness. Methods This observational cohort study aimed at comparing the differences in clinical, biochemical parameters and the hospitalization outcomes of 53 fully vaccinated individuals with those of unvaccinated (1,464) and partially vaccinated (231) individuals, among a cohort of 2,080 individuals hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Completing the course of vaccination protected individuals from developing severe COVID-19 as evidence by lower proportions of those with hypoxia, abnormal levels of inflammatory markers, requiring ventilatory support and death compared to unvaccinated and partially vaccinated individuals. There were no differences in these outcomes among patients who received either vaccine type approved in India. Conclusion With a current rate of only 9.5% of the Indian population being fully vaccinated, efforts should be made to improve the vaccination rates as a timely measure to prepare for the upcoming waves of this highly transmissible pandemic. Vaccination rates of the communities may also guide in the planning of the health needs and appropriate use of medical resources. Research in context Evidence before this study The Government of India started vaccinating its citizens from the 16 th of January 2021, after emergency use authorization had been received for the use of two vaccines, BBV152, a COVID-19 vaccine based on the whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain NIV-2020-770, (Covaxin) and the recombinant replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector encoding the spike protein ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Covishield). These have been approved by the Indian regulatory authority based on randomized controlled studies. In these studies, was found that the vaccines led to more than 90% reduction in symptomatic COVID-19 disease. However, there is scarce evidence of the efficacy of these vaccines in real-world scenarios. A few studies have looked at vaccinated cohorts such as health care workers in whom the vaccines had an efficacy similar to the RCTs. In a study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, it was found that mortality in fully vaccinated patients was 12.5% as compared to 31.5% in the unvaccinated cohort. Added-value of this study This cohort of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was studied during the peak of the second wave of COVID-19 in India during which the delta variant of concern was the predominant infecting strain and had 26% patients who were partially vaccinated and 71.4% who were unvaccinated. Only 3% of the patients were fully vaccinated and developed a breakthrough infection. At the time of presentation, 13% of the individuals with breakthrough infection and 48·5% in the non-vaccinated group were hypoxic. Inflammatory markers were significantly lower in the completely vaccinated patients with breakthrough infection. The need for use of steroids and anti-viral agents such as remdesivir was also significantly low in the breakthrough infection group. A significantly less proportion of the individuals with breakthrough infection required oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support. Very few deteriorated or progressed to critical illness during their hospital stay. Only 3 individuals (5.7%) out of the 53 who developed breakthrough infection succumbed to illness while case fatality rates were significantly higher in the unvaccinated (22.8%) and pa tially vaccinated (19.5%) groups. Propensity score weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed lower odds of developing hypoxia, critical illness or death in those who were completely vaccinated. Implications of all the available evidence The real-world effectiveness of the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 seems to be similar to the randomized controlled trials. The vaccines are very effective in reducing the incidence of severe COVID-19, hypoxia, critical illness and death. The reduced need for oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation and the requirement of corticosteroids or other expensive medications such as anti-viral drugs could go a long way in redistributing scarce health care resources. All nations must move forward and vaccinate the citizens, as the current evidence suggests that ‘prevention is better than cure’.

19.
Bhatnagar, Tarun, Chaudhuri, Sirshendu, Ponnaiah, Manickam, Yadav, Pragya, Sabarinathan, R.; Sahay, Rima, Ahmed, Faheem, Aswathy, S.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bilimale, Anil, Muthusamy, Santhosh Kumar, Logaraj, M.; Narlawar, Uday, Palanivel, C.; Patel, Prakash, Rai, Sanjay, Saxena, Vartika, Singh, Arvind, Thangaraj, Jeromie Wesley Vivian, Agarwal, Ashwini, Alvi, Yasir, Amoghashree, Ashok, P.; Babu, Dinesh, Bahurupi, Yogesh, Bhalavi, Sangita, Behera, Priyamadhaba, Biswas, Priyanka Pandit, Charan, Jaykaran, Chauhan, Nishant Kumar, Chetak, K. B.; Dar, Lalit, Das, Ayan, Deepashree, R.; Dhar, Minakshi, Dhodapkar, Rahul, Dipu, T. S.; Dudeja, Mridu, Dudhmal, Manisha, Gadepalli, Ravisekhar, Garg, Mahendra Kumar, Gayathri, A. V.; Goel, Akhil Dhanesh, Gowdappa, Basavana, Guleria, Randeep, Gupta, Manoj Kumar, Islam, Farzana, Jain, Mannu, Jain, Vineet, Jawahar, Lanord Stanley, Joshi, Rajendra, Kant, Shashi, Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar, Kalita, Deepjyoti, Khapre, Meenakshi, Khichar, Satyendra, Kombade, Sarika Prabhakar, Kohli, Sunil, Kumar, Abhinendra, Kumar, Anil, Kumar, Deepak, Kulirankal, Kiran, Leela, K. V.; Majumdar, Triparna, Mishra, Baijayantimala, Misra, Puneet, Misra, Sanjeev, Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab, Murthy, Narayana, Nyayanit, Dimpal, Patel, Manish, Pathania, Monika, Patil, Savita, Patro, Binod Kumar, Jalandra, Ramniwas, Rathod, Pragati, Shah, Naimesh, Shete, Anita, Shukla, Deepak, Shwethashree, M.; Sinha, Smita, Surana, Ashish, Trikha, Anjan, Tejashree, A.; Venkateshan, Mahalingam, Vijaykrishnan, G.; Wadhava, Sarita, Wig, Naveet, Gupta, Nivedita, Abraham, Priya, Murhekar, Manoj.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294258

ABSTRACT

Background: India introduced BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield vaccines from January 2021. We estimated effectiveness of these vaccines against severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among individuals aged >=45 years.<br><br>Methods: We did a multi-centric, hospital-based, case–control study between May and July 2021. Cases were severe COVID-19 patients and controls were COVID-19 negative individuals from 11 hospitals. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for full (2 doses ≥14days) and partial (1 dose ≥21 days) vaccination;duration between two vaccine doses and against the Delta variant. We used a random effects logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI after adjusting for relevant known confounders.<br><br>Findings: We enrolled 1,143 cases and 2,541 controls. The VE of full vaccination was 80% (95% CI: 73%-86%) with AZD1222/Covishield and 69% (95% CI: 54%-79%) with BBV152/Covaxin. The VE was highest for a gap of 6-8 weeks between two doses of AZD1222/Covishield (92%, 95% CI: 82%-96%) and BBV152/Covaxin (92%, 95% CI: 26%-99%). The VE estimates were similar against the Delta strain and sub-lineages.<br><br>Interpretation: BBV152/Covaxin and AZD1222/Covishield were effective against severe COVID-19 among the Indian population during the period of dominance of highly transmissible Delta variant in second wave of pandemic. An escalation of two-dose coverage with COVID-19 vaccines is critical to control the pandemic in the country.<br><br>Funding Information: Indian Council of Medical Research<br><br>Declaration of Interests: None to declare. <br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: We obtained written informed consent from all the participants or their legally authorized representatives. Study procedures were approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committees of all participating institutions.<br><br>

20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
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