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1.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 28: 18-29, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are a common problem in female patients. Management is mainly based on empirical prescribing, but there are concerns about overtreatment and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially in patients with recurrent uUTIs. METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of experts met to discuss diagnosis, treatment, prevention, guidelines, AMR, clinical trial design and the impact of COVID-19 on clinical practice. RESULTS: Symptoms remain the cornerstone of uUTI diagnosis, and urine culture is necessary only when empirical treatment fails or rapid recurrence of symptoms or AMR is suspected. Specific antimicrobials are first-line therapy (typically nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pivmecillinam, dependent on availability and local resistance data). Fluoroquinolones are not first-line options for uUTIs primarily due to safety concerns but also rising resistance rates. High-quality data to support most non-antimicrobial approaches are lacking. Local AMR data specific to community-acquired uUTIs are needed, but representative information is difficult to obtain; instead, identification of risk factors for AMR can provide a basis to guide empirical antimicrobial prescribing. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the management of uUTIs in some countries and may have long-lasting implications for future models of care. CONCLUSION: Management of uUTIs in female patients can be improved without increasing complexity, including simplified diagnosis and empirical antimicrobial prescribing based on patient characteristics, including a review of recent antimicrobial use and past pathogen resistance profiles, drug availability and guidelines. Current data for non-antimicrobial approaches are limited. The influence of COVID-19 on telehealth could provide an opportunity to enhance patient care in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Consensus , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
2.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(1): 26-29, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 patients can present gastrointestinal symptoms, being diarrhoea one of the most frequent, suggesting intestinal health can be impacted by COVID-19. Here, we will discuss whether there is a correlation between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in faeces and diarrhoea, the relevance of gastrointestinal symptoms in disease diagnosis and transmission, and how COVID-19 can impact the gut microbial balance. RECENT FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been reported in faeces or rectal swabs of COVID-19 patients with and without diarrhoea, suggesting faecal shedding can occur independently of gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the presence of the virus in the intestine can persist beyond its presence in the respiratory tract, with some reports suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 in the faeces can be infectious.COVID-19 can impact the gut microbiota causing an enhancement of biosynthesis pathways that favour the expansion of bacterial pathogens in the inflamed gut, and causing a decline in commensals involved in the human immune response. SUMMARY: Gastrointestinal symptoms may be the first indication of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 in faeces can potentiate routes of disease transmission, particularly as the high viral loads reported in patients with severe illness suggest virus replication in the intestine may be possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Feces , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1637, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid lateral flow test (LFT) versus polymerase chain reaction testing in the asymptomatic general population attending testing centres. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Community LFT pilot at covid-19 testing sites in Liverpool, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 5869 asymptomatic adults (≥18 years) voluntarily attending one of 48 testing sites during 6-29 November 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were tested using both an Innova LFT and a quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test based on supervised self-administered swabbing at testing sites. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of LFT compared with RT-qPCR in an epidemic steady state of covid-19 among adults with no classic symptoms of the disease. RESULTS: Of 5869 test results, 22 (0.4%) LFT results and 343 (5.8%) RT-qPCR results were void (that is, when the control line fails to appear within 30 minutes). Excluding the void results, the LFT versus RT-qPCR showed a sensitivity of 40.0% (95% confidence interval 28.5% to 52.4%; 28/70), specificity of 99.9% (99.8% to 99.99%; 5431/5434), positive predictive value of 90.3% (74.2% to 98.0%; 28/31), and negative predictive value of 99.2% (99.0% to 99.4%; 5431/5473). When the void samples were assumed to be negative, a sensitivity was observed for LFT of 37.8% (26.8% to 49.9%; 28/74), specificity of 99.6% (99.4% to 99.8%; 5431/5452), positive predictive value of 84.8% (68.1% to 94.9%; 28/33), and negative predictive value of 93.4% (92.7% to 94.0%; 5431/5814). The sensitivity in participants with an RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) of <18.3 (approximate viral loads >106 RNA copies/mL) was 90.9% (58.7% to 99.8%; 10/11), a Ct of <24.4 (>104 RNA copies/mL) was 69.4% (51.9% to 83.7%; 25/36), and a Ct of >24.4 (<104 RNA copies/mL) was 9.7% (1.9% to 23.7%; 3/34). LFT is likely to detect at least three fifths and at most 998 in every 1000 people with a positive RT-qPCR test result with high viral load. CONCLUSIONS: The Innova LFT can be useful for identifying infections among adults who report no symptoms of covid-19, particularly those with high viral load who are more likely to infect others. The number of asymptomatic adults with lower Ct (indicating higher viral load) missed by LFT, although small, should be considered when using single LFT in high consequence settings. Clear and accurate communication with the public about how to interpret test results is important, given the chance of missing some cases, even at high viral loads. Further research is needed to understand how infectiousness is reflected in the viral antigen shedding detected by LFT versus the viral loads approximated by RT-qPCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , United Kingdom
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(5): ofaa114, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109307

ABSTRACT

The leading risk factor for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is broad-spectrum antibiotics, which lead to low microbial diversity, or dysbiosis. Current therapeutic strategies for CDI are insufficient, as they do not address the key role of the microbiome in preventing C. difficile spore germination into toxin-producing vegetative bacteria, which leads to symptomatic disease. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) appears to reduce the risk of recurrent CDI through microbiome restoration. However, a wide range of efficacy rates have been reported, and few placebo-controlled trials have been conducted, limiting our understanding of FMT efficacy and safety. We discuss the current knowledge gaps driven by questions around the quality and consistency of clinical trial results, patient selection, diagnostic methodologies, use of suppressive antibiotic therapy, and methods for adverse event reporting. We provide specific recommendations for future trial designs of FMT to provide improved quality of the clinical evidence to better inform treatment guidelines.

5.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 37(1): 4-8, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873136

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the potential role of the faecal chain in COVID-19 and highlight recent studies using waste water-based epidemiology (WBE) to track severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: WBE has been suggested as an adjunct to improve disease surveillance and aid early detection of circulating disease. SARS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19, is an enveloped virus, and as such, typically not associated with the waste water environment, given high susceptibility to degradation in aqueous conditions. A review of the current literature supports the ability to detect of SARS-CoV-2 in waste water and suggests methods to predict community prevalence based on viral quantification. SUMMARY: The summary of current practices shows that while the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 is possible from waste water, issues remain regarding the efficacy of virial concentration and subsequent quantification and alignment with epidemiological data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sewage/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Global Health , Humans
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 141364, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728846

ABSTRACT

The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces has led to speculation that it can be transmitted via the fecal-oral/ocular route. This review aims to critically evaluate the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, the quantity and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine, and whether these pose an infection risk in sanitary settings, sewage networks, wastewater treatment plants, and the wider environment (e.g. rivers, lakes and marine waters). A review of 48 independent studies revealed that severe GI dysfunction is only evident in a small number of COVID-19 cases, with 11 ± 2% exhibiting diarrhea and 12 ± 3% exhibiting vomiting and nausea. In addition to these cases, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in feces from some asymptomatic, mildly- and pre-symptomatic individuals. Fecal shedding of the virus peaks in the symptomatic period and can persist for several weeks, but with declining abundances in the post-symptomatic phase. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is occasionally detected in urine, but reports in fecal samples are more frequent. The abundance of the virus genetic material in both urine (ca. 102-105 gc/ml) and feces (ca. 102-107 gc/ml) is much lower than in nasopharyngeal fluids (ca. 105-1011 gc/ml). There is strong evidence of multiplication of SARS-CoV-2 in the gut and infectious virus has occasionally been recovered from both urine and stool samples. The level and infectious capability of SARS-CoV-2 in vomit remain unknown. In comparison to enteric viruses transmitted via the fecal-oral route (e.g. norovirus, adenovirus), the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 being transmitted via feces or urine appears much lower due to the lower relative amounts of virus present in feces/urine. The biggest risk of transmission will occur in clinical and care home settings where secondary handling of people and urine/fecal matter occurs. In addition, while SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic material can be detected by in wastewater, this signal is greatly reduced by conventional treatment. Our analysis also suggests the likelihood of infection due to contact with sewage-contaminated water (e.g. swimming, surfing, angling) or food (e.g. salads, shellfish) is extremely low or negligible based on very low predicted abundances and limited environmental survival of SARS-CoV-2. These conclusions are corroborated by the fact that tens of million cases of COVID-19 have occurred globally, but exposure to feces or wastewater has never been implicated as a transmission vector.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Diarrhea , Feces , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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