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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4801, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751764

ABSTRACT

Ubiquitous microthromboses in the pulmonary vasculature play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Excess of Willebrand factor (vWf) with intravascular multimer formation was identified as a key driver of this finding. Plasma exchange (PLEX) might be a therapeutic option to restore the disbalance between vWf and ADAMTS13. We report the effects of PLEX on vWf, ADAMTS13, inflammatory cytokines and parameters of ventilation. We investigated 25 patients, who were on mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia with ARDS at two German university hospitals. All patients received PLEX as an ultima ratio measure for refractory ARDS. VWf antigen (vWf:Ag), ADAMTS13 activity, a cytokine panel mirroring the inflammatory situation and clinical parameters were assessed before and after three to six PLEX therapies with fresh frozen plasma. Before the PLEX sequence there was an excessive release of vWf:Ag (425.4 ± 167.5%) and mildly reduced ADAMTS13 activity (49.7 ± 23.3%). After the PLEX series, there was a significant increase of ADAMTS13 activity to 62.4 ± 17.7% (p = 0.029) and a significant decrease of vWf:Ag to 336.1 ± 138.2% (p = 0.041) resulting in a 63% improvement of the ADAMT13/vWf:Ag ratio from 14.5 ± 10.0 to 23.7 ± 14.6, p = 0.024. Comparison of parameters before and after individual PLEX sessions (n = 35) revealed a mean reduction of vWf from 387.8 ± 165.1 to 213.2 ± 62.3% (p = 0.001) and an increase of ADAMTS13 activity from 60.4 ± 20.1 to 70.5 ± 14.0% (p = 0.001). Parallelly, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-18 decreased significantly (p = 0.034 each). Along the PLEX sequence lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), and positive end expiratory pressure (p = 0.01) significantly decreased accompanied by an improvement of Horovitz index (p = 0.001). PLEX restores the disbalance between ADAMTS13 and vWf:Ag, a driver of immunothrombosis. Moreover, it reduces the inflammatory state and is associated with a benefit of ventilation parameters. These findings render a further rationale to regard PLEX as a therapeutic option in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , von Willebrand Factor , ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(11): e13714, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471196

ABSTRACT

Risk stratification of COVID-19 patients is essential for pandemic management. Changes in the cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, can precede the host immune response to infection, potentially making such a biomarker an earlier triage tool. Here, we evaluate whether hFwe-Lose gene expression can outperform conventional methods in predicting outcomes (e.g., death and hospitalization) in COVID-19 patients. We performed a post-mortem examination of infected lung tissue in deceased COVID-19 patients to determine hFwe-Lose's biological role in acute lung injury. We then performed an observational study (n = 283) to evaluate whether hFwe-Lose expression (in nasopharyngeal samples) could accurately predict hospitalization or death in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients with acute lung injury, hFwe-Lose is highly expressed in the lower respiratory tract and is co-localized to areas of cell death. In patients presenting in the early phase of COVID-19 illness, hFwe-Lose expression accurately predicts subsequent hospitalization or death with positive predictive values of 87.8-100% and a negative predictive value of 64.1-93.2%. hFwe-Lose outperforms conventional inflammatory biomarkers and patient age and comorbidities, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.93-0.97 in predicting hospitalization/death. Specifically, this is significantly higher than the prognostic value of combining biomarkers (serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio), patient age and comorbidities (AUROC of 0.67-0.92). The cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, accurately predicts outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This finding demonstrates how tissue fitness pathways dictate the response to infection and disease and their utility in managing the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Flowers , Humans , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 598379, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954188

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. Lung-protective ventilation is the current standard of care in patients with ARDS, but it might lead to hypercapnia, which is independently associated with worse outcomes. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy to avoid progression of clinical severity and limit further ventilator-induced lung injury, but its use in COVID-19 has not been described yet. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common among critically ill COVID-19 patients. In centers with available dialysis, low-flow ECCO2R (<500 mL/min) using RRT platforms could be carried out by dialysis specialists and might be an option to efficiently allocate resources during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with hypercapnia as the main indication. Here, we report the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ECCO2R using an RRT platform to provide either standalone ECCO2R or ECCO2R combined with RRT in four hypercapnic patients with moderate ARDS. A randomized clinical trial is required to assess the overall benefit and harm. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04351906.

5.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(4): L590-L599, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945036

ABSTRACT

Despite the pandemic status of COVID-19, there is limited information about host risk factors and treatment beyond supportive care. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) could be a potential treatment target. Our aim was to determine the incidence of IgG deficiency and associated risk factors in a cohort of 62 critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to two German ICUs (72.6% male, median age: 61 yr). Thirteen (21.0%) of the patients displayed IgG deficiency (IgG < 7 g/L) at baseline (predominant for the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 subclasses). Patients who were IgG-deficient had worse measures of clinical disease severity than those with normal IgG levels (shorter duration from disease onset to ICU admission, lower ratio of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and higher levels of ferritin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and serum creatinine). Patients who were IgG-deficient were also more likely to have sustained lower levels of lymphocyte counts and higher levels of ferritin throughout the hospital stay. Furthermore, patients who were IgG-deficient compared with those with normal IgG levels displayed higher rates of acute kidney injury (76.9% vs. 26.5%; P = 0.001) and death (46.2% vs. 14.3%; P = 0.012), longer ICU [28 (6-48) vs. 12 (3-18) days; P = 0.012] and hospital length of stay [30 (22-50) vs. 18 (9-24) days; P = 0.004]. Univariable logistic regression showed increasing odds of 90-day overall mortality associated with IgG-deficiency (odds ratio 5.14, 95% confidence interval 1.3-19.9; P = 0.018). IgG deficiency might be common in patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill, and warrants investigation as both a marker of disease severity as well as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulins/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
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