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1.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104066, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) residents have borne a disproportionate share of SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. Vaccines have limited hospitalisation and death from earlier variants in this vulnerable population. With the rise of Omicron and future variants, it is vital to sustain and broaden vaccine-induced protection. We examined the effect of boosting with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on humoral immunity and Omicron-specific neutralising activity among NH residents and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We longitudinally enrolled 85 NH residents (median age 77) and 48 HCWs (median age 51), and sampled them after the initial vaccination series; and just before and 2 weeks after booster vaccination. Anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralisation titres to the original Wuhan strain and neutralisation to the Omicron strain were obtained. FINDINGS: Booster vaccination significantly increased vaccine-specific anti-spike, anti-RBD, and neutralisation levels above the pre-booster levels in NH residents and HCWs, both in those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron-specific neutralisation activity was low after the initial 2 dose series with only 28% of NH residents' and 28% HCWs' titres above the assay's lower limit of detection. Omicron neutralising activity following the booster lifted 86% of NH residents and 93% of HCWs to the detectable range. INTERPRETATION: With boosting, the vast majority of HCWs and NH residents developed detectable Omicron-specific neutralising activity. These data provide immunologic evidence that strongly supports booster vaccination to broaden neutralising activity and counter waning immunity in the hope it will better protect this vulnerable, high-risk population against the Omicron variant. FUNDING: NIH AI129709-03S1, U01 CA260539-01, CDC 200-2016-91773, and VA BX005507-01.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692242

ABSTRACT

Antibody decline occurred from 2 weeks to 6 months post-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in nursing home (NH) residents and healthcare workers. Antispike, receptor-binding domain, and neutralization levels dropped >81% irrespective of prior infection. Notably, 69% of infection-naive NH residents had neutralizing antibodies at or below the assay's limit of detection.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2112-2115, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562012

ABSTRACT

After BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination, antibody levels to spike, receptor-binding domain, and virus neutralization were examined in 149 nursing home residents and 110 healthcare worker controls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive nursing home residents' median post-second vaccine dose antibody neutralization titers are one-quarter that of SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
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