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1.
Giovanetti, M.; Slavov, S. N.; Fonseca, V.; Wilkinson, E.; Tegally, H.; Patané, J. S. L.; Viala, V. L.; San, J. E.; Rodrigues, E. S.; Vieira Santos, E.; Aburjaile, F.; Xavier, J.; Fritsch, H.; Ribeiro Adelino, T. E.; Pereira, F.; Leal, A.; Campos de Melo Iani, F.; de Carvalho Pereira, G.; Vazquez, C.; Mercedes Estigarribia Sanabria, G.; de Oliveira, E. C.; Demarchi, L.; Croda, J.; Dos Santos Bezerra, R.; Oliveira de Lima, L. P.; Martins, A. J.; Dos Santos Barros, C. R.; Marqueze, E. C.; de Souza Todao Bernardino, J.; Moretti, D. B.; Brassaloti, R. A.; de Lello Rocha Campos Cassano, R.; Drummond Sampaio Corrêa Mariani, P.; Kitajima, J. P.; Santos, B.; Proto-Siqueira, R.; Cantarelli, V. V.; Tosta, S.; Brandão Nardy, V.; Reboredo de Oliveira da Silva, L.; Astete Gómez, M. K.; Lima, J. G.; Ribeiro, A. A.; Guimarães, N. R.; Watanabe, L. T.; Barbosa Da Silva, L.; da Silva Ferreira, R.; MP, F. da Penha, Ortega, M. J.; Gómez de la Fuente, A.; Villalba, S.; Torales, J.; Gamarra, M. L.; Aquino, C.; Martínez Figueredo, G. P.; Fava, W. S.; Motta-Castro, A. R. C.; Venturini, J.; do Vale Leone de Oliveira, S. M.; Cavalheiro Maymone Gonçalves, C.; Debur Rossa, M. D. C.; Becker, G. N.; Presibella, M. M.; Marques, N. Q.; Riediger, I. N.; Raboni, S.; Coelho, G. M.; Cataneo, A. H. D.; Zanluca, C.; Dos Santos, C. N. D.; Assato, P. A.; Allan da Silva da Costa, F.; Poleti, M. D.; Chagas Lesbon, J. C.; Mattos, E. C.; Banho, C. A.; Sacchetto, L.; Moraes, M. M.; Tommasini Grotto, R. M.; Souza-Neto, J. A.; Nogueira, M. L.; Fukumasu, H.; Coutinho, L. L.; Calado, R. T.; Neto, R. M.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M.; Venancio da Cunha, R.; Freitas, C.; Leonel Peterka, C. R.; Rangel Fernandes, C. F.; de Araújo, W. N.; do Carmo Said, R. F.; Almiron, M.; Campelo de Albuquerque, E. Melo C. F.; Lourenço, J.; de Oliveira, T.; Holmes, E. C.; Haddad, R.; Sampaio, S. C.; Elias, M. C.; Kashima, S.; de Alcantara, L. C. J.; Covas, D. T..
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-332259

ABSTRACT

Brazil has experienced some of the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths globally and from May 2021 made Latin America a pandemic epicenter. Although SARS-CoV-2 established sustained transmission in Brazil early in the pandemic, important gaps remain in our understanding of virus transmission dynamics at the national scale. Here, we describe the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 using near-full genomes sampled from 27 Brazilian states and a bordering country - Paraguay. We show that the early stage of the pandemic in Brazil was characterised by the co-circulation of multiple viral lineages, linked to multiple importations predominantly from Europe, and subsequently characterized by large local transmission clusters. As the epidemic progressed under an absence of effective restriction measures, there was a local emergence and onward international spread of Variants of Concern (VOC) and Variants Under Monitoring (VUM), including Gamma (P.1) and Zeta (P.2). In addition, we provide a preliminary genomic overview of the epidemic in Paraguay, showing evidence of importation from Brazil. These data reinforce the usefulness and need for the implementation of widespread genomic surveillance in South America as a toolkit for pandemic monitoring that provides a means to follow the real-time spread of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants with possible implications for public health and immunization strategies.

2.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326897

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in southern Africa has been characterised by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, whilst the second and third waves were driven by the Beta and Delta variants respectively1–3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here, we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296585

ABSTRACT

Characterizing SARS-CoV-2 evolution in specific geographies may help predict the properties of variants coming from these regions. We mapped neutralization of a SARS-CoV-2 strain that evolved over 6 months from the ancestral virus in a person with advanced HIV disease. Infection was before the emergence of the Beta variant first identified in South Africa, and the Delta variant. We compared early and late evolved virus to the ancestral, Beta, Alpha, and Delta viruses and tested against convalescent plasma from ancestral, Beta, and Delta infections. Early virus was similar to ancestral, whereas late virus was similar to Beta, exhibiting vaccine escape and, despite pre-dating Delta, strong escape of Delta-elicited neutralization. This example is consistent with the notion that variants arising in immune-compromised hosts, including those with advanced HIV disease, may evolve immune escape of vaccines and enhanced escape of Delta immunity, with implications for vaccine breakthrough and reinfections. Highlights: A prolonged ancestral SARS-CoV-2 infection pre-dating the emergence of Beta and Delta resulted in evolution of a Beta-like serological phenotypeSerological phenotype includes strong escape from Delta infection elicited immunity, intermediate escape from ancestral virus immunity, and weak escape from Beta immunityEvolved virus showed substantial but incomplete escape from antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 vaccination. Graphical abstract:

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