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1.
Int J Pharm ; 603: 120701, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225261

ABSTRACT

In this work, we have developed and tested a dry powder form of niclosamide made by thin-film freezing (TFF) and administered it by inhalation to rats and hamsters to gather data about its toxicology and pharmacokinetics. Niclosamide, a poorly water-soluble drug, is an interesting drug candidate because it was approved over 60 years ago for use as an anthelmintic medication, but recent studies demonstrated its potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral with pharmacological effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. TFF was used to develop a niclosamide inhalation powder composition that exhibited acceptable aerosol performance with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 86.0% and a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.11 µm and 2.84, respectively. This formulation not only proved to be safe after an acute three-day, multi-dose tolerability and exposure study in rats as evidenced by histopathology analysis, and also was able to achieve lung concentrations above the required IC90 levels for at least 24 h after a single administration in a Syrian hamster model. To conclude, we successfully developed a niclosamide dry powder inhalation that overcomes niclosamide's limitation of poor oral bioavailability by targeting the drug directly to the primary site of infection, the lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Niclosamide , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Animals , Cricetinae , Dry Powder Inhalers , Freezing , Humans , Particle Size , Powders , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006936

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir exhibits in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and was granted approval for emergency use. To maximize delivery to the lungs, we formulated remdesivir as a dry powder for inhalation using thin film freezing (TFF). TFF produces brittle matrix nanostructured aggregates that are sheared into respirable low-density microparticles upon aerosolization from a passive dry powder inhaler. In vitro aerodynamic testing demonstrated that drug loading and excipient type affected the aerosol performance of remdesivir. Remdesivir combined with optimal excipients exhibited desirable aerosol performance (up to 93.0% FPF< 5 µm; 0.82 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter). Remdesivir was amorphous after the TFF process, which benefitted drug dissolution in simulated lung fluid. TFF remdesivir formulations are stable after one month of storage at 25 °C/60% relative humidity. An in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that TFF remdesivir-leucine was poorly absorbed into systemic circulation while TFF remdesivir-Captisol® demonstrated increased systemic uptake compared to leucine. Remdesivir was hydrolyzed to the nucleoside analog GS-441524 in the lung, and levels of GS-441524 were greater in the lung with leucine formulation compared to Captisol®. In conclusion, TFF technology produces high-potency remdesivir dry powder formulations for inhalation that are suitable to treat patients with COVID-19 on an outpatient basis and earlier in the disease course where effective antiviral therapy can reduce related morbidity and mortality.

3.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11):1002, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-884368

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir exhibits in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and was granted approval for emergency use. To maximize delivery to the lungs, we formulated remdesivir as a dry powder for inhalation using thin film freezing (TFF). TFF produces brittle matrix nanostructured aggregates that are sheared into respirable low-density microparticles upon aerosolization from a passive dry powder inhaler. In vitro aerodynamic testing demonstrated that drug loading and excipient type affected the aerosol performance of remdesivir. Remdesivir combined with optimal excipients exhibited desirable aerosol performance (up to 93.0% FPF<5 µm;0.82 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter). Remdesivir was amorphous after the TFF process, which benefitted drug dissolution in simulated lung fluid. TFF remdesivir formulations are stable after one month of storage at 25 °C/60% relative humidity. An in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that TFF remdesivir–leucine was poorly absorbed into systemic circulation while TFF remdesivir-Captisol®demonstrated increased systemic uptake compared to leucine. Remdesivir was hydrolyzed to the nucleoside analog GS-441524 in the lung, and levels of GS-441524 were greater in the lung with leucine formulation compared to Captisol®. In conclusion, TFF technology produces high-potency remdesivir dry powder formulations for inhalation that are suitable to treat patients with COVID-19 on an outpatient basis and earlier in the disease course where effective antiviral therapy can reduce related morbidity and mortality.

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