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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240051

ABSTRACT

Humanity has faced three recent outbreaks of novel betacoronaviruses, emphasizing the need to develop approaches that broadly target coronaviruses. Here, we identify 55 monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent donors that bind diverse betacoronavirus spike proteins. Most antibodies targeted an S2 epitope that included the K814 residue and were non-neutralizing. However, 11 antibodies targeting the stem helix neutralized betacoronaviruses from different lineages. Eight antibodies in this group, including the six broadest and most potent neutralizers, were encoded by IGHV1-46 and IGKV3-20. Crystal structures of three antibodies of this class at 1.5-1.75-Å resolution revealed a conserved mode of binding. COV89-22 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern including Omicron BA.4/5 and limited disease in Syrian hamsters. Collectively, these findings identify a class of IGHV1-46/IGKV3-20 antibodies that broadly neutralize betacoronaviruses by targeting the stem helix but indicate these antibodies constitute a small fraction of the broadly reactive antibody response to betacoronaviruses after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 580, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228819

ABSTRACT

Despite rapid and ongoing vaccine and therapeutic development, SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve and evade, presenting a need for next-generation diverse therapeutic modalities. Here we show that nurse sharks immunized with SARS-CoV-2 recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD), RBD-ferritin (RFN), or spike protein ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) immunogens elicit a set of new antigen receptor antibody (IgNAR) molecules that target two non-overlapping conserved epitopes on the spike RBD. Representative shark antibody variable NAR-Fc chimeras (ShAbs) targeting either of the two epitopes mediate cell-effector functions, with high affinity to all SARS-CoV-2 viral variants of concern, including the divergent Omicron strains. The ShAbs potently cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.5, and SARS-CoV-1 pseudoviruses, and confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in the K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. Structural definition of the RBD-ShAb01-ShAb02 complex enabled design and production of multi-specific nanobodies with enhanced neutralization capacity, and picomolar affinity to divergent sarbecovirus clade 1a, 1b and 2 RBD molecules. These shark nanobodies represent potent immunotherapeutics both for current use, and future sarbecovirus pandemic preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Sharks
3.
Science ; 377(6607): 728-735, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968212

ABSTRACT

The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to broadly target this group of pathogens. We used an epitope-agnostic approach to identify six monoclonal antibodies that bind to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. All six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. COV44-62 and COV44-79 broadly neutralize alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants BA.2 and BA.4/5, albeit with lower potency than receptor binding domain-specific antibodies. In crystal structures of COV44-62 and COV44-79 antigen-binding fragments with the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide, the fusion peptide epitope adopts a helical structure and includes the arginine residue at the S2' cleavage site. COV44-79 limited disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in a Syrian hamster model. These findings highlight the fusion peptide as a candidate epitope for next-generation coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Peptides/immunology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109784, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442299

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineages that are more transmissible and resistant to currently approved antibody therapies poses a considerable challenge to the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, the need for ongoing discovery efforts to identify broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is of utmost importance. Here, we report a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies isolated using the linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq) technology from an individual who recovered from COVID-19. Of these antibodies, 54042-4 shows potent neutralization against authentic SARS-CoV-2 viruses, including variants of concern (VOCs). A cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of 54042-4 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals an epitope composed of residues that are highly conserved in currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Further, 54042-4 possesses uncommon genetic and structural characteristics that distinguish it from other potently neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Together, these findings provide motivation for the development of 54042-4 as a lead candidate to counteract current and future SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
5.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109604, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347524

ABSTRACT

Unrelated individuals can produce genetically similar clones of antibodies, known as public clonotypes, which have been seen in responses to different infectious diseases, as well as healthy individuals. Here we identify 37 public clonotypes in memory B cells from convalescent survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or in plasmablasts from an individual after vaccination with mRNA-encoded spike protein. We identify 29 public clonotypes, including clones recognizing the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein S1 subunit (including a neutralizing, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]-blocking clone that protects in vivo) and others recognizing non-RBD epitopes that bind the S2 domain. Germline-revertant forms of some public clonotypes bind efficiently to spike protein, suggesting these common germline-encoded antibodies are preconfigured for avid recognition. Identification of large numbers of public clonotypes provides insight into the molecular basis of efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and sheds light on the immune pressures driving the selection of common viral escape mutants.

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