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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287103, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241956

ABSTRACT

Maternal COVID-19 vaccination could protect infants who are ineligible for vaccine through antibody transfer during pregnancy and lactation. We measured the quantity and durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human milk and infant blood before and after maternal booster vaccination. Prospective cohort of lactating women immunized with primary and booster COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy or lactation and their infants. Milk and blood samples from October 2021 to April 2022 were included. Anti-nucleoprotein (NP) and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG and IgA in maternal milk and maternal and infant blood were measured and compared longitudinally after maternal booster vaccine. Forty-five lactating women and their infants provided samples. 58% of women were anti-NP negative and 42% were positive on their first blood sample prior to booster vaccine. Anti-RBD IgG and IgA in milk remained significantly increased through 120-170 days after booster vaccine and did not differ by maternal NP status. Anti-RBD IgG and IgA did not increase in infant blood after maternal booster. Of infants born to women vaccinated in pregnancy, 74% still had positive serum anti-RBD IgG measured on average 5 months after delivery. Infant to maternal IgG ratio was highest for infants exposed to maternal primary vaccine during the second trimester compared to third trimester (0.85 versus 0.29; p<0.001). Maternal COVID-19 primary and booster vaccine resulted in robust and long-lasting transplacental and milk antibodies. These antibodies may provide important protection against SARS-CoV-2 during the first six months of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactation , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Case Rep Crit Care ; 2023: 1699770, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321435

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients are extremely challenging. These patients can have atypical clinical courses, and there is a paucity of data regarding clinical features, diagnostic findings, and the safety and efficacy of available therapeutic agents used to treat COVID-19 in these patients. In this case series, we report atypical COVID-19 presentations in 4 immunocompromised pediatric patients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 a few weeks earlier. All patients included in this cohort showed persistent worsening respiratory symptoms for several weeks before hospital presentation. While they manifested common COVID-19 sequelae, they also had rare COVID-19-related pathognomonic and radiographic features developed along their hospital course. Multiple therapeutic agents were used in their COVID-19 management, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies. All three patients who have received concurrent therapy with remdesivir, hydrocortisone, and monoclonal antibodies survived, and only one patient died as a direct complication of COVID-19 ARDS with secondary pulmonary mucormycosis. Our outcomes suggest the potential benefit of remdesivir use in combination with hydrocortisone and monoclonal antibodies in the management of severe COVID-19 ARDS in this group, as well as the importance of close surveillance and early administration of broad empirical antimicrobial and antifungal coverage if clinically indicated in this high-risk population.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 363, 2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disruptions in essential health services during the COVID-19 pandemic have been reported in several countries. Yet, patterns in health service disruption according to country responses remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate associations between the stringency of COVID-19 containment policies and disruptions in 31 health services in 10 low- middle- and high-income countries in 2020. METHODS: Using routine health information systems and administrative data from 10 countries (Chile, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mexico, Nepal, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand) we estimated health service disruptions for the period of April to December 2020 by dividing monthly service provision at national levels by the average service provision in the 15 months pre-COVID (January 2019-March 2020). We used the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) index and multi-level linear regression analyses to assess associations between the stringency of restrictions and health service disruptions over nine months. We extended the analysis by examining associations between 11 individual containment or closure policies and health service disruptions. Models were adjusted for COVID caseload, health service category and country GDP and included robust standard errors. FINDINGS: Chronic disease care was among the most affected services. Regression analyses revealed that a 10% increase in the mean stringency index was associated with a 3.3 percentage-point (95% CI -3.9, -2.7) reduction in relative service volumes. Among individual policies, curfews, and the presence of a state of emergency, had the largest coefficients and were associated with 14.1 (95% CI -19.6, 8.7) and 10.7 (95% CI -12.7, -8.7) percentage-point lower relative service volumes, respectively. In contrast, number of COVID-19 cases in 2020 was not associated with health service disruptions in any model. CONCLUSIONS: Although containment policies were crucial in reducing COVID-19 mortality in many contexts, it is important to consider the indirect effects of these restrictions. Strategies to improve the resilience of health systems should be designed to ensure that populations can continue accessing essential health care despite the presence of containment policies during future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services , Health Facilities , Long-Term Care
4.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A small percentage of universities and colleges conducted mass SARS-CoV-2 testing. However, universal testing is resource-intensive, strains national testing capacity, and false negative tests can encourage unsafe behaviors. PARTICIPANTS: A large urban university campus. METHODS: Virus control centered on three pillars: mitigation, containment, and communication, with testing of symptomatic and a random subset of asymptomatic students. RESULTS: Random surveillance testing demonstrated a prevalence among asymptomatic students of 0.4% throughout the term. There were two surges in cases that were contained by enhanced mitigation and communication combined with targeted testing. Cumulative cases totaled 445 for the term, most resulting from unsafe undergraduate student behavior and among students living off-campus. A case rate of 232/10,000 undergraduates equaled or surpassed several peer institutions that conducted mass testing. CONCLUSIONS: An emphasis on behavioral mitigation and communication can control virus transmission on a large urban campus combined with a limited and targeted testing strategy.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 228(1): 37-45, 2023 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) control on college campuses is challenging given communal living and student social dynamics. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission among college students is important for the development of optimal control strategies. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 nasal swab samples were collected from University of Pittsburgh students for symptomatic testing and asymptomatic surveillance from August 2020 through April 2021 from 3 campuses. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 308 samples, and contact tracing information collected from students was used to identify transmission clusters. RESULTS: We identified 31 Pangolin lineages of SARS-CoV-2, the majority belonging to B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.2 lineages. Contact tracing identified 142 students (46%) clustering with each other; WGS identified 53 putative transmission clusters involving 216 students (70%). WGS identified transmissions that were missed by contact tracing. However, 84 cases (27%) could not be linked by either WGS or contact tracing. Clusters were most frequently linked to students residing in the same dormitory, off-campus roommates, friends, or athletic activities. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of SARS-CoV-2-positive samples clustered by WGS, indicating significant transmission across campuses. The combination of WGS and contact tracing maximized the identification of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on campus. WGS can be used as a strategy to mitigate, and further prevent transmission among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Students
6.
PLOS global public health ; 1(10), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2248152

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected job satisfaction among healthcare workers;yet this has not been empirically examined in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We addressed this gap by examining job satisfaction and associated factors among healthcare workers in Ghana and Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional study with healthcare workers (N = 1012). The two phased data collection included: (1) survey data collected in Ghana from April 17 to May 31, 2020, and (2) survey data collected in Ghana and Kenya from November 9, 2020, to March 8, 2021. We utilized a quantitative measure of job satisfaction, as well as validated psychosocial measures of perceived preparedness, stress, and burnout;and conducted descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable analysis using ordered logistic regression. We found high levels of job dissatisfaction (38.1%), low perceived preparedness (62.2%), stress (70.5%), and burnout (69.4%) among providers. High perceived preparedness was positively associated with higher job satisfaction (adjusted proportional odds ratio (APOR) = 2.83, CI [1.66,4.84]);while high stress and burnout were associated with lower job satisfaction (APOR = 0.18, CI [0.09,0.37] and APOR = 0.38, CI [0.252,0.583] for high stress and burnout respectively). Other factors positively associated with job satisfaction included prior job satisfaction, perceived appreciation from management, and perceived communication from management. Fear of infection was negatively associated with job satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted job satisfaction among healthcare workers. Inadequate preparedness, stress, and burnout are significant contributing factors. Given the already strained healthcare system and low morale among healthcare workers in SSA, efforts are needed to increase preparedness, better manage stress and burnout, and improve job satisfaction, especially during the pandemic.

7.
Telemed J E Health ; 2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239432

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, use of telehealth technology increased dramatically. Nonpharmacological approaches to pain management may be well suited for virtual care. Yet, it is not widely understood if this treatment modality is effective when delivered via videoconferencing. This review examines the effectiveness of movement-based and psychologically informed chronic pain management interventions delivered via videoconferencing compared to in-person care. Methods: Searches of MEDLINE® (via Ovid®), Embase (via Elsevier), CINAHL Complete (via EBSCO), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (via Ovid) were performed from inception to June 10, 2021. All articles meeting eligibility criteria were included for data abstraction. Results: Eight thousand two hundred fifty-two citations were identified, and after removing duplicates, 4,661 citations remained. One study investigating acceptance and commitment therapy met eligibility criteria. The noninferiority randomized trial found no statistically significant difference in outcomes between delivery modalities. A horizon scan was conducted to assess planned or recent studies. Horizon scan results yielded six protocols in trial databases, one pilot study, and three published protocols for ongoing studies. Discussion: Findings from this study indicate that virtually delivered pain management is a possible substitute for in-person care. Given the paucity of evidence on this topic, further comparative and adequately powered studies that assess the impact of movement-based and psychologically informed pain management delivered via videoconferencing are needed. Conclusions: Research is needed to understand patient preferences of such interventions within a variety of settings. Such evaluations will be needed to guide clinical and operations practice to optimize equitable deployment and access to high-quality health care delivered via videoconferencing.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2254909, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234746

ABSTRACT

Importance: Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses, which continued to circulate during the COVID-19 pandemic, are commonly detected in pediatric patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Yet detailed characterization of rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection over time is limited, especially by age group and health care setting. Objective: To quantify and characterize rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents seeking medical care for ARI at emergency departments (EDs) or hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN), a multicenter, active, prospective surveillance platform, for pediatric patients who sought medical care for fever and/or respiratory symptoms at 7 EDs or hospitals within NVSN across the US between December 2016 and February 2021. Persons younger than 18 years were enrolled in NVSN, and respiratory specimens were collected and tested for multiple viruses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients in whom rhinovirus and/or enterovirus, or another virus, was detected by calendar month and by prepandemic (December 1, 2016, to March 11, 2020) or pandemic (March 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021) periods. Month-specific adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results (among all tested) by setting (ED or inpatient) and age group (<2, 2-4, or 5-17 years) were calculated, comparing each month during the pandemic to equivalent months of previous years. Results: Of the 38 198 children and adolescents who were enrolled and tested, 11 303 (29.6%; mean [SD] age, 2.8 [3.7] years; 6733 boys [59.6%]) had rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results. In prepandemic and pandemic periods, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in 29.4% (9795 of 33 317) and 30.9% (1508 of 4881) of all patients who were enrolled and tested and in 42.2% (9795 of 23 236) and 73.0% (1508 of 2066) of those with test positivity for any virus, respectively. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were the most frequently detected viruses in both periods and all age groups in the ED and inpatient setting. From April to September 2020 (pandemic period), rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detectable at similar or lower odds than in prepandemic years, with aORs ranging from 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.19) to 0.76 (95% CI, 0.55-1.05) in the ED and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01-0.11) to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.07) in the inpatient setting. However, unlike some other viruses, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses soon returned to prepandemic levels and from October 2020 to February 2021 were detected at similar or higher odds than in prepandemic months in both settings, with aORs ranging from 1.47 (95% CI, 1.12-1.93) to 3.01 (95% CI, 2.30-3.94) in the ED and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03-1.79) to 2.44 (95% CI, 1.78-3.34) in the inpatient setting, and in all age groups. Compared with prepandemic years, during the pandemic, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in patients who were slightly older, although most (74.5% [1124 of 1508]) were younger than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study show that rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses persisted and were the most common respiratory virus group detected across all pediatric age groups and in both ED and inpatient settings. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses remain a leading factor in ARI health care burden, and active ARI surveillance in children and adolescents remains critical for defining the health care burden of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Male , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Rhinovirus , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 21(1): 14, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224182

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has prompted the use of readily available administrative data to track health system performance in times of crisis and to monitor disruptions in essential healthcare services. In this commentary we describe our experience working with these data and lessons learned across countries. Since April 2020, the Quality Evidence for Health System Transformation (QuEST) network has used administrative data and routine health information systems (RHIS) to assess health system performance during COVID-19 in Chile, Ethiopia, Ghana, Haiti, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mexico, Nepal, South Africa, Republic of Korea and Thailand. We compiled a large set of indicators related to common health conditions for the purpose of multicountry comparisons. The study compiled 73 indicators. A total of 43% of the indicators compiled pertained to reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Only 12% of the indicators were related to hypertension, diabetes or cancer care. We also found few indicators related to mental health services and outcomes within these data systems. Moreover, 72% of the indicators compiled were related to volume of services delivered, 18% to health outcomes and only 10% to the quality of processes of care. While several datasets were complete or near-complete censuses of all health facilities in the country, others excluded some facility types or population groups. In some countries, RHIS did not capture services delivered through non-visit or nonconventional care during COVID-19, such as telemedicine. We propose the following recommendations to improve the analysis of administrative and RHIS data to track health system performance in times of crisis: ensure the scope of health conditions covered is aligned with the burden of disease, increase the number of indicators related to quality of care and health outcomes; incorporate data on nonconventional care such as telehealth; continue improving data quality and expand reporting from private sector facilities; move towards collecting patient-level data through electronic health records to facilitate quality-of-care assessment and equity analyses; implement more resilient and standardized health information technologies; reduce delays and loosen restrictions for researchers to access the data; complement routine data with patient-reported data; and employ mixed methods to better understand the underlying causes of service disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Groups , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Data Accuracy , Electronic Health Records , Ethiopia
10.
Euro Surveill ; 28(3)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215127

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPost-authorisation vaccine safety surveillance is well established for reporting common adverse events of interest (AEIs) following influenza vaccines, but not for COVID-19 vaccines.AimTo estimate the incidence of AEIs presenting to primary care following COVID-19 vaccination in England, and report safety profile differences between vaccine brands.MethodsWe used a self-controlled case series design to estimate relative incidence (RI) of AEIs reported to the national sentinel network, the Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners Clinical Informatics Digital Hub. We compared AEIs (overall and by clinical category) 7 days pre- and post-vaccination to background levels between 1 October 2020 and 12 September 2021.ResultsWithin 7,952,861 records, 781,200 individuals (9.82%) presented to general practice with 1,482,273 AEIs, 4.85% within 7 days post-vaccination. Overall, medically attended AEIs decreased post-vaccination against background levels. There was a 3-7% decrease in incidence within 7 days after both doses of Comirnaty (RI: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91-0.94 and RI: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98, respectively) and Vaxzevria (RI: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.98). A 20% increase was observed after one dose of Spikevax (RI: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.00-1.44). Fewer AEIs were reported as age increased. Types of AEIs, e.g. increased neurological and psychiatric conditions, varied between brands following two doses of Comirnaty (RI: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.28-1.56) and Vaxzevria (RI: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97-1.78).ConclusionCOVID-19 vaccines are associated with a small decrease in medically attended AEI incidence. Sentinel networks could routinely report common AEI rates, contributing to reporting vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(12): e39141, 2022 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Oxford-Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC) is one of Europe's oldest sentinel systems, working with the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) and its predecessor bodies for 55 years. Its surveillance report now runs twice weekly, supplemented by online observatories. In addition to conducting sentinel surveillance from a nationally representative group of practices, the RSC is now also providing data for syndromic surveillance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the cohort profile at the start of the 2021-2022 surveillance season and recent changes to our surveillance practice. METHODS: The RSC's pseudonymized primary care data, linked to hospital and other data, are held in the Oxford-RCGP Clinical Informatics Digital Hub, a Trusted Research Environment. We describe the RSC's cohort profile as of September 2021, divided into a Primary Care Sentinel Cohort (PCSC)-collecting virological and serological specimens-and a larger group of syndromic surveillance general practices (SSGPs). We report changes to our sampling strategy that brings the RSC into alignment with European Centre for Disease Control guidance and then compare our cohort's sociodemographic characteristics with Office for National Statistics data. We further describe influenza and COVID-19 vaccine coverage for the 2020-2021 season (week 40 of 2020 to week 39 of 2021), with the latter differentiated by vaccine brand. Finally, we report COVID-19-related outcomes in terms of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. RESULTS: As a response to COVID-19, the RSC grew from just over 500 PCSC practices in 2019 to 1879 practices in 2021 (PCSC, n=938; SSGP, n=1203). This represents 28.6% of English general practices and 30.59% (17,299,780/56,550,136) of the population. In the reporting period, the PCSC collected >8000 virology and >23,000 serology samples. The RSC population was broadly representative of the national population in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, National Health Service Region, socioeconomic status, obesity, and smoking habit. The RSC captured vaccine coverage data for influenza (n=5.4 million) and COVID-19, reporting dose one (n=11.9 million), two (n=11 million), and three (n=0.4 million) for the latter as well as brand-specific uptake data (AstraZeneca vaccine, n=11.6 million; Pfizer, n=10.8 million; and Moderna, n=0.7 million). The median (IQR) number of COVID-19 hospitalizations and ICU admissions was 1181 (559-1559) and 115 (50-174) per week, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The RSC is broadly representative of the national population; its PCSC is geographically representative and its SSGPs are newly supporting UKHSA syndromic surveillance efforts. The network captures vaccine coverage and has expanded from reporting primary care attendances to providing data on onward hospital outcomes and deaths. The challenge remains to increase virological and serological sampling to monitor the effectiveness and waning of all vaccines available in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , State Medicine , Vaccination , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Department of Veterans Affairs (US), Washington (DC) ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2170078

ABSTRACT

As both the largest integrated health system and largest provider of telehealth in the country, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has a particular interest in understanding how best to implement and utilize virtual care. VHA has long embraced virtual care as part of its mission to "serve all who have served” regardless of their socioeconomic and geographic circumstances. Having begun conducting "virtual care” in the 1960s when doctors first communicated with patient's via TV screens,1 VHA has since provided over 2.6 million episodes of care to more than 900,000 Veterans in 20192 and has distributed over 50,000 data- and video-enabled iPads for Veterans throughout the country.3 Virtual care within VHA includes services such as MyHealtheVet secure messaging, the Home Telehealth program that combines case management principles with remote monitoring to improve access and coordinate care, and the VA Video Connect (VVC) video platform for synchronous visits within both specialty and primary care.4 Increasing Veteran access to care via virtual care has been an integral part of VHA's strategy for improving chronic disease management for a population that is on average older and sicker than their civilian counterparts.5,6 Given the importance that virtual care has for Veteran care even beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the strengths and limitations associated with synchronous virtual care will be critical in shaping how VHA utilizes virtual care going forward.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(24):16761, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163588

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) permits the sustainable surveillance of pathogens in large populations and does not discriminate between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. WBE allows health authorities and policymakers to make swift decisions to limit the impact of local and regional disease outbreaks, minimise the spread of infection and mitigate the effects of pathogen importation. Biosensors are an exciting addition to conventional WBE analytical approaches. Combined with sentinel surveillance programs, biosensors can be reactive to novel variants of a virus in the community. However, progress developing biosensors for wastewater surveillance is severely limited compared to advances in clinical diagnostics, with a lack of well-developed biosensors currently being available. Whilst the field of biosensors is vast, this review focuses on trends in monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater over a key period (2020-2021). We explore the complexities involved in sampling within wastewater networks, the options for target selection, and reflect on the ethical considerations and limitations of this approach by highlighting the complex transdisciplinary connections needed. The outlook for WBE biosensors is assessed to be on a positive trajectory as current technical challenges are overcome. Finally, we outline the current status and where further development is needed to have a systematic feedback mechanism which would allow wastewater biosensors to be kept current and relevant to emergent pathogens.

14.
Vaccine X ; 13: 100249, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159373

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Current influenza vaccines have limited effectiveness. COVID-19 vaccines using mRNA technology have demonstrated very high efficacy, suggesting that mRNA vaccines could be more effective for influenza. Several such influenza vaccines are in development. FRED, an agent-based modeling platform, was used to estimate the impact of more effective influenza vaccines on seasonal influenza burden. Methods: Simulations were performed using an agent-based model of influenza that included varying levels of vaccination efficacy (40-95 % effective). In some simulations, level of infectiousness and/or length of infectious period in agents with breakthrough infections was also decreased. Impact of increased and decreased levels of vaccine uptake were also modeled. Outcomes included number of symptomatic influenza cases estimated for the US. Results: Highly effective vaccines significantly reduced estimated influenza cases in the model. When vaccine efficacy was increased from 40 % to a maximum of 95 %, estimated influenza cases in the US decreased by 43 % to > 99 %. The base simulation (40 % efficacy) resulted in âˆ¼ 28 million total yearly cases in the US, while the most effective vaccine modeled (95 % efficacy) decreased estimated cases to âˆ¼ 22,000. Discussion: Highly effective vaccines could dramatically reduce influenza burden. Model estimates suggest that even modest increases in vaccine efficacy could dramatically reduce seasonal influenza disease burden.

16.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143721

ABSTRACT

Wide variability exists with host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection among individuals. Circulatory micro RNAs (miRNAs) are being recognized as promising biomarkers for complex traits, including viral pathogenesis. We hypothesized that circulatory miRNAs at 48 h post hospitalization may predict the length of stay (LOS) and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Plasma miRNA levels were compared between three groups: (i) healthy volunteers (C); (ii) COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir (an antiviral) plus dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) (with or without baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor) on the day of hospitalization (I); and COVID-19 patients at 48 h post treatment (T). Results showed that circulatory miR-6741-5p expression levels were significantly different between groups C and I (p < 0.0000001); I and T (p < 0.0000001); and C and T (p = 0.001). Our ANOVA model estimated that all patients with less than 12.42 Log2 CPM had a short LOS, or a good prognosis, whereas all patients with over 12.42 Log2 CPM had a long LOS, or a poor prognosis. In sum, we show that circulatory miR-6741-5p may serve as a prognostic biomarker effectively predicting mortality risk and LOS of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Length of Stay , Prognosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Biomarkers
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(10): 3633-3645, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nearly 20% of U.S. Americans report a hearing loss, yet our current health care system is poorly designed and equipped to effectively care for these individuals. Individuals with hearing loss report communication breakdowns, inaccessible health information, reduced awareness and training by health care providers, and decreased satisfaction while struggling with inadequate health literacy. These all contribute to health inequities and increased health care expenditures and inefficiencies. It is time to reframe the health care system for these individuals using existing models of best practices and accessibility to mitigate inequities and improve quality of care. METHOD: A review of system-, clinic-, provider-, and patient-level barriers, along with existing and suggested efforts to improve care for individuals with hearing loss, are presented. RESULTS: These strategies include improving screening and identification of hearing loss, adopting universal design and inclusion principles, implementing effective communication approaches, leveraging assistive technologies and training, and diversifying a team to better care for patients with hearing loss. Patients should also be encouraged to seek social support and resources from hearing loss organizations while leveraging technologies to help facilitate communication. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies described introduce actionable steps that can be made at the system, clinic, provider, and patient levels. With implementation of these steps, significant progress can be made to more proactively meet the needs of patients with hearing loss. Presentation Video: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21215843.


Subject(s)
Deafness , Hearing Loss , Communication , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , United States
18.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 1(10): e0000022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098662

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected job satisfaction among healthcare workers; yet this has not been empirically examined in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We addressed this gap by examining job satisfaction and associated factors among healthcare workers in Ghana and Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional study with healthcare workers (N = 1012). The two phased data collection included: (1) survey data collected in Ghana from April 17 to May 31, 2020, and (2) survey data collected in Ghana and Kenya from November 9, 2020, to March 8, 2021. We utilized a quantitative measure of job satisfaction, as well as validated psychosocial measures of perceived preparedness, stress, and burnout; and conducted descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable analysis using ordered logistic regression. We found high levels of job dissatisfaction (38.1%), low perceived preparedness (62.2%), stress (70.5%), and burnout (69.4%) among providers. High perceived preparedness was positively associated with higher job satisfaction (adjusted proportional odds ratio (APOR) = 2.83, CI [1.66,4.84]); while high stress and burnout were associated with lower job satisfaction (APOR = 0.18, CI [0.09,0.37] and APOR = 0.38, CI [0.252,0.583] for high stress and burnout respectively). Other factors positively associated with job satisfaction included prior job satisfaction, perceived appreciation from management, and perceived communication from management. Fear of infection was negatively associated with job satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted job satisfaction among healthcare workers. Inadequate preparedness, stress, and burnout are significant contributing factors. Given the already strained healthcare system and low morale among healthcare workers in SSA, efforts are needed to increase preparedness, better manage stress and burnout, and improve job satisfaction, especially during the pandemic.

19.
Immunity ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086313

ABSTRACT

Increased immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern highlights the need for new therapeutic neutralizing antibodies. Immunization with nanoparticles co-displaying spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) from eight sarbecoviruses (mosaic-8 RBD-nanoparticles) efficiently elicits cross-reactive polyclonal antibodies against conserved sarbecovirus RBD epitopes. Here, we identified monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of cross-reactive binding and neutralization of animal sarbecoviruses and SARS-CoV-2 variants by screening single mouse B cells secreting IgGs that bind two or more sarbecovirus RBDs. Single-particle cryo-EM structures of antibody-spike complexes, including a Fab-Omicron complex, mapped neutralizing mAbs to conserved class 1/4 RBD epitopes. Structural analyses revealed neutralization mechanisms, potentials for intra-spike trimer cross-linking by IgGs, and induced changes in trimer upon Fab binding. In addition, we identified a mAb-resembling Bebtelovimab, an EUA-approved human class 3 anti-RBD mAb. These results support using mosaic RBD-nanoparticle vaccination to generate and identify therapeutic pan-sarbecovirus and pan-variant mAbs.

20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1253-1259, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056547

ABSTRACT

The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) is a prospective, active, population-based surveillance platform that enrolls children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at seven pediatric medical centers. ARIs are caused by respiratory viruses including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which result in morbidity among infants and young children (1-6). NVSN estimates the incidence of pathogen-specific pediatric ARIs and collects clinical data (e.g., underlying medical conditions and vaccination status) to assess risk factors for severe disease and calculate influenza and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. Current NVSN inpatient (i.e., hospital) surveillance began in 2015, expanded to emergency departments (EDs) in 2016, and to outpatient clinics in 2018. This report describes demographic characteristics of enrolled children who received care in these settings, and yearly circulation of influenza, RSV, HMPV, HPIV1-3, adenovirus, human rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV),* and SARS-CoV-2 during December 2016-August 2021. Among 90,085 eligible infants, children, and adolescents (children) aged <18 years† with ARI, 51,441 (57%) were enrolled, nearly 75% of whom were aged <5 years; 43% were hospitalized. Infants aged <1 year accounted for the largest proportion (38%) of those hospitalized. The most common pathogens detected were RV/EV and RSV. Before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, detected respiratory viruses followed previously described seasonal trends, with annual peaks of influenza and RSV in late fall and winter (7,8). After the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and implementation of associated pandemic nonpharmaceutical interventions and community mitigation measures, many respiratory viruses circulated at lower-than-expected levels during April 2020-May 2021. Beginning in summer 2021, NVSN detected higher than anticipated enrollment of hospitalized children as well as atypical interseasonal circulation of RSV. Further analyses of NVSN data and continued surveillance are vital in highlighting risk factors for severe disease and health disparities, measuring the effectiveness of vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based prophylactics, and guiding policies to protect young children from pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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