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Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 16(5): e009652, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261935


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved through multiple phases characterized by new viral variants, vaccine development, and changes in therapies. It is unknown whether rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles and complications have changed over time. METHODS: We analyzed the American Heart Association COVID-19 CVD registry, a national multicenter registry of hospitalized adults with active COVID-19 infection. The time period from April 2020 to December 2021 was divided into 3-month epochs, with March 2020 analyzed separately as a potential outlier. Participating centers varied over the study period. Trends in all-cause in-hospital mortality, CVD risk factors, and in-hospital CVD outcomes, including a composite primary outcome of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, new heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction, were evaluated across time epochs. Risk-adjusted analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 46 007 patient admissions from 134 hospitals were included (mean patient age 61.8 years, 53% male, 22% Black race). Patients admitted later in the pandemic were younger, more likely obese, and less likely to have existing CVD (Ptrend ≤0.001 for each). The incidence of the primary outcome increased from 7.0% in March 2020 to 9.8% in October to December 2021 (risk-adjusted Ptrend=0.006). This was driven by an increase in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and stroke (Ptrend<0.0001 for each). The overall rate of in-hospital mortality was 14.2%, which declined over time (20.8% in March 2020 versus 10.8% in the last epoch; adjusted Ptrend<0.0001). When the analysis was restricted to July 2020 to December 2021, no temporal change in all-cause mortality was seen (adjusted Ptrend=0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a shifting risk factor profile toward a younger population with lower rates of established CVD, the incidence of diagnosed cardiovascular complications of COVID increased from the onset of the pandemic through December 2021. All-cause mortality decreased during the initial months of the pandemic and thereafter remained consistently high through December 2021.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Risk Factors , Pandemics , American Heart Association , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Registries , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Circulation ; 143(24): 2332-2342, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304327


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in health risks and outcomes in the United States. We aimed to identify racial and ethnic differences in presentation and outcomes for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: The American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry is a retrospective observational registry capturing consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We present data on the first 7868 patients by race/ethnicity treated at 88 hospitals across the United States between January 17, 2020, and July 22, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and COVID-19 cardiorespiratory ordinal severity score (worst to best: death, cardiac arrest, mechanical ventilation with mechanical circulatory support, mechanical ventilation with vasopressors/inotrope support, mechanical ventilation without hemodynamic support, and hospitalization alone. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between race/ethnicity and each outcome adjusting for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and presentation features, and accounting for clustering by hospital. RESULTS: Among 7868 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 33.0% were Hispanic, 25.5% were non-Hispanic Black, 6.3% were Asian, and 35.2% were non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Black patients were younger than non-Hispanic White and Asian patients and were more likely to be uninsured. Black patients had the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Black patients also had the highest rates of mechanical ventilation (23.2%) and renal replacement therapy (6.6%) but the lowest rates of remdesivir use (6.1%). Overall mortality was 18.4% with 53% of all deaths occurring in Black and Hispanic patients. The adjusted odds ratios for mortality were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.76-1.14) for Black patients, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.73-1.11) for Hispanic patients, and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.96-1.80) for Asian patients compared with non-Hispanic White patients. The median odds ratio across hospitals was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.74-2.48). Results were similar for major adverse cardiovascular events. Asian patients had the highest COVID-19 cardiorespiratory severity at presentation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.90]). CONCLUSIONS: Although in-hospital mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events did not differ by race/ethnicity after adjustment, Black and Hispanic patients bore a greater burden of mortality and morbidity because of their disproportionate representation among COVID-19 hospitalizations.

COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , American Heart Association , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Race Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(8): e006967, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602107


BACKGROUND: In response to the public health emergency created by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, American Heart Association volunteers and staff aimed to rapidly develop and launch a resource for the medical and research community to expedite scientific advancement through shared learning, quality improvement, and research. In <4 weeks after it was first announced on April 3, 2020, AHA's COVID-19 CVD Registry powered by Get With The Guidelines received its first clinical records. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participating hospitals are enrolling consecutive hospitalized patients with active COVID-19 disease, regardless of CVD status. This hospital quality improvement program will allow participating hospitals and health systems to evaluate patient-level data including mortality rates, intensive care unit bed days, and ventilator days from individual review of electronic medical records of sequential adult patients with active COVID-19 infection. Participating sites can leverage these data for onsite, rapid quality improvement, and benchmarking versus other institutions. After 9 weeks, >130 sites have enrolled in the program and >4000 records have been abstracted in the national dataset. Additionally, the aggregate dataset will be a valuable data resource for the medical research community. CONCLUSIONS: The AHA COVID-19 CVD Registry will support greater understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular disease and will inform best practices for evaluation and management of patients with COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Guideline Adherence , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Quality Improvement , Registries , American Heart Association , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology