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1.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13215, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553950

ABSTRACT

Establishment of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) has resulted in a surveillance system which provides regular, reliable, timely, and accurate data on children's weight status-through standardized measurement of bodyweight and height-in the WHO European Region. Additional data on dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior, family background, and school environments are collected in several countries. In total, 45 countries in the European Region have participated in COSI. The first five data collection rounds, between 2007 and 2021, yielded measured anthropometric data on over 1.3 million children. In COSI, data are collected according to a common protocol, using standardized instruments and procedures. The systematic collection and analysis of these data enables intercountry comparisons and reveals differences in the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight, normal weight, and obesity between and within populations. Furthermore, it facilitates investigation of the relationship between overweight, obesity, and potential risk or protective factors and improves the understanding of the development of overweight and obesity in European primary-school children in order to support appropriate and effective policy responses.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Child , Exercise , Humans , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Schools , World Health Organization
2.
Obes Rev ; 22 Suppl 6: e13222, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546396

ABSTRACT

Childhood obesity is a public health concern globally, with generally higher prevalence rates in boys compared to girls. Although biological sex is an important determinant, gender roles and norms influence the exposure and vulnerability to risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Norms and roles might be reinforced or change due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related measures as well as the exposure to risk factors for childhood obesity. COVID-19 related changes, such as home confinement, influence a child's risk of obesity. Using Dahlgren and Whitehead's model of the main determinants of health, this paper aims to provide a roadmap for future research on sex, gender, and childhood obesity during the time of COVID-19. It examines how COVID-19 has led to important changes in children's general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions, social and community networks, and individual lifestyle factors and how these may affect a child's risk for obesity. It focuses on the influence of gender and sex and outlines key considerations and indicators to examine in future studies concerned with promoting health and gender equity and equality. We need to understand the differential impact of COVID-19 related measures on girls' and boys' risk for obesity to adequately react with preventive measures, policies, and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
3.
Food Secur ; 12(4): 859-864, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671431

ABSTRACT

Dietary health and sustainability are inextricably linked. Food systems that are not sustainable often fail to provide the amount or types of food needed to ensure population health. The ongoing pandemic threatens to exacerbate malnutrition, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This paper discusses threats and opportunities for food environments and health status across the WHO European Region in the current context . These opportunities and threats are focused around four key areas: NCDs and health systems; dietary behaviour; food insecurity and vulnerable groups; and food supply mechanisms. Food systems were already under great stress. Now with the pandemic, the challenges to food systems in the WHO European Region have been exacerbated, demanding from all levels of government swift adaptations to manage healthiness, availability, accessibility and affordability of food. Cities and governments in the Region should capitalize on this unique opportunity to 'build back better' and make bold and lasting changes to the food system and consequently to the health and wellbeing of people and sustainability of the planet.

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