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1.
Ecology and Society ; 27(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2202869

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a range of effects on the environment and particularly on wildlife, through diverse and sometimes contradictory impact pathways. In this study, based on data collected among indigenous people and local communities from South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru), we investigated changes in the use of wildlife resources for food during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study generated unique data collected from 756 households in 60 communities and nine sites. We confirm the hypothesis that wildlife use increased as a short-term response to food insecurity during the pandemic, and fish played a more significant role than wild meat in that endeavor. The increase in wild-meat consumption as a response to food insecurity was conditioned by prices and availability (unsuccessful hunts). Wildlife use did not increase as an alternative means to generate income, because communities were cut off from the market economy for several months. Also, whereas the reliance on wildlife emerged as an immediate solution during the first months of the crisis, longer-term strategies prioritized at household level involved diversifying food sources through domestic meat and crop production. Among all available animal-based proteins, local chicken came just after fish as the animal-based source of protein whose consumption increased the most during the first months of the crisis, as a response to food insecurity. We caution that relying on wildlife as a safety net may constitute a poverty trap in cases where the resource is depleted. Although not specifically studied here, access to land and the transmission of traditional knowledge/skills are possible additional determinants of the role that wildlife may play in times of crisis, and this is proposed as an area for future research. Results also attest to local communities expecting more support from their respective national governments, and confirm results from Walters et al. (2021) that governments were generally absent or unable to react quickly during the pandemic, leaving households (or their local leaders) with the responsibility to innovate with local solutions and pro-actively adapt to the rapid impacts of the crisis.

2.
JAMA Network Open ; 6(1):e2249191, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172239

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, child mortality in England was the lowest on record, but if this trend will continue, or if unrecognized morbidity during the first year of the pandemic will manifest as increased deaths over the next few years is unclear.

3.
Am J Disaster Med ; 17(2):163-169, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2164058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth emerged early as an important tool to provide clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic, but statewide implementation strategies were lacking. Needs assessment: We performed a needs assessment at 15 pediatrics clinics in Washington regarding their ability to institute telehealth. Fourteen clinics (93 percent response rate) responded;none had ability to perform telehealth visits. Clinics needed the following specific support structures: (1) an easily implementable, low-cost system, and (2) parity billing for telehealth services. Disaster effort: Two weeks after the needs assessment was performed, we facilitated direct telehealth initiation support to 45 Washington clinics and created a coalition of statewide advocacy groups. These groups advocated for (1) a statewide solution for non-network or poorly resourced providers, which was delivered by the WA Health Care Authority, and (2) parity billing, which was delivered by emergency governor action. CONCLUSION: Engagement with our regional pediatric disaster network was essential in providing guidance and expertise in this needs assessment, telehealth initiation process, and subsequent advocacy efforts. The power we have as pediatricians to coordinate with regional experts helped improve access to telehealth across Washington.

4.
Nature ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2151057

ABSTRACT

Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection through the modulation of viral host receptors, such as ACE2(1), could represent a new chemoprophylactic approach for COVID-19 complementing vaccination(2,3). However, the mechanisms controlling ACE2 expression remain elusive. Here, we identify the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a direct regulator of ACE2 transcription in multiple COVID19-affected tissues, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. We then use the over-the-counter compound z-guggulsterone (ZGG) and the off-patent drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) to reduce FXR signalling and downregulate ACE2 in human lung, cholangiocyte and intestinal organoids and in the corresponding tissues in mice and hamsters. We demonstrate that UDCA-mediated ACE2 downregulation reduces susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, in vivo and in human lungs and livers perfused ex situ. Furthermore, we illustrate that UDCA reduces ACE2 expression in the nasal epithelium in humans. Finally, we identify a correlation between UDCA treatment and positive clinical outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection using retrospective registry data, and confirm these findings in an independent validation cohort of liver transplant recipients. In conclusion, we identify a novel function of FXR in controlling ACE2 expression and provide evidence that modulation of this pathway could be beneficial for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection, paving the road for future clinical trials.

5.
Mapping the Future of Undergraduate Career Education: Equitable Career Learning, Development, and Preparation in the New World of Work ; : 104-121, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2144477

ABSTRACT

First-generation college and working-class (FGWC) students come to higher education with multiple work experiences. Many come to college having worked in various contexts - but these experiences are not reflective of the capital and career development experiences valued by employers post college. This chapter unpacks the complexity of FGWC students and their value to the future workforce while also reflecting on gaps on college campuses and with employers around how to build a bridge toward meaningful purpose-filled and equitable opportunities to launch their careers. The chapter includes recommendations for institutions and career development professionals as well as implications in light of the Covid-19 pandemic, emerging technologies, and the shifting nature of work. © 2023 selection and editorial matter, Melanie V. Buford, Michael J. Sharp, and Michael J. Stebleton;individual chapters, the contributors.

6.
United European Gastroenterology Journal ; 10(Supplement 8):210-211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2115468

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccines revolutionised the management of COVID19. Nevertheless, they lack efficacy in high-risk or vulnerable groups (e.g., immunosuppressed patients), who may not mount an appropriate immune response. Monoclonal antibodies represent the gold-standard agents for such cases;but they are limited by availability, need for parenteral administration and the risk for viral escape because of spike protein mutations. Therefore, there is a pressing need for new prophylactic agents less prone to resistance.The viral receptor ACE2 represents an ideal target as it is essential for viral entry and transmission and because being a host protein it is not affected by viral mutations. However, the regulation of ACE2 remains elusive, due to the lack of appropriatein vitromodels. Cholangiocytes show one of the highest ACE2 expression levels in the body, representing an ideal platform for these studies. Here, we use cholangiocyte organoids as proof-of-principleto identify that the bile acid receptor FXR regulates ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectionin vitro. We validate these findings in lung and gut organoids, animal models, human organs perfusedex situand patient cohorts. Aims & Methods: 1. Identify pathways controlling the transcriptional regulation of ACE2 2. Identify drugs modulating these pathways as novel prophylactic and therapeutic agents for COVID19. Organoids were propagated using established protocols. Marker expression was assessed using single-cell RNA sequencing, QPCR, and immunofluorescence. FXR binding on DNA was assessed with chromatin immunoprecipitation. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage of a COVID19 patient. Syrian golden hamsters were infected via direct inoculation and QPCR on oral swab, nasal turbinate and lung samples was used to measure SARS-CoV-2 infection. Human livers and lungs not used for transplantation were perfusedex-situusing normothermic perfusion. Nasopharyngeal swabs were used to measure ACE2 expression in nasal epithelial cells of healthy individuals taking UDCA at the standard therapeutic dose of 15 mg/kg/day. Patient registry data were compared using propensity score matching for sex, age, diabetes, NAFLD and Child- Turcotte-Pugh score. Result(s): We identified that FXR directly regulates ACE2 transcription in cholangiocyte organoids, while FXR inhibition with the approved drug ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), reduced ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectionin vitro. We confirmed this mechanism in organoids from other COVID19-affected tissues, including the respiratory and intestinal systems. We validated our findingsin vivoin Syrian golden hamsters, showing that treatment with UDCA downregulates ACE2 and prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection. We confirmed that UDCA reduces ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lungs and livers perfusedex-situ. We performed a clinical study demonstrating that UDCA lowers ACE2 levels in the nasal epithelium of 6 healthy volunteers. Finally, we identified a correlation between UDCA and better clinical outcomes (hospitalisation, ICU admission and death) in COVID19 patients receiving UDCA for cholestatic diseases using the COVID-Hep and SECURELiver registry data. Conclusion(s): We identified FXR as a novel regulator of ACE2 expression. Using a bench-to-bedside approach combining in vitroand in vivomodels, exsituperfused human organs and clinical data we showed that FXR inhibition prevents or reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection and identified UDCA as an approved, cost-effective drug which could be repurposed for COVID19, paving the road for future clinical trials.

7.
International Ocean Discovery Program: Preliminary Reports ; 395, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100458

ABSTRACT

International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 390C and 395E were implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393, South Atlantic Transect 1 and 2. Expedition 395E completed most of the preparatory work that Expedition 390C did not have time to complete. The overall objective of Expeditions 390C and 395E was to core one hole at each of the South Atlantic Transect sites with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment to a few meters into basement in a second hole. Expedition 395E started in Cape Town, South Africa, and ended in Reykjavík, Iceland, after 20 days of on-site operations. We cored to basement at two new sites, U1560 and U1561, and completed reentry systems at three sites, U1556, U1557, and U1560. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393. Hole U1560A (Proposed Site SATL-25A) lies in ~15.2 Ma crust and is composed of carbonate-rich sediments to 120 meters below seafloor (mbsf) and 2.5 m of underlying basalt. A reentry system was deployed in Hole U1560B to 122.0 mbsf. We then moved to the sites at the western end of the transect on ~61 Ma crust. In Hole U1557D, 10¾ inch casing was deployed to 571.6 mbsf to deepen the 16 inch casing that was deployed during Expedition 390C, and in Hole U1556B, a reentry system was deployed to 284.2 mbsf. The remaining operations time was insufficient to install a reentry system at the originally planned site, Proposed Site SATL-33B. Instead, we cored Hole U1561A (Proposed Site SATL-55A) to 47 mbsf. It is composed of red clay and carbonate ooze overlying 3 m of basalt. The six primary sites of the South Atlantic Transect lie perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate-spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies. © 2021 Authors. All rights reserved.

8.
International Ocean Discovery Program: Preliminary Reports ; 390, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2100455

ABSTRACT

International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 390C was implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393. The objectives for Expedition 390C were to core one hole at each site with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment to between ~5 m above basement and <5 m into basement in a second hole. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled South Atlantic Transect Expeditions 390 and 393. The six primary sites for those expeditions form a transect perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies. Expedition 390C started in Kristiansand, Norway, and ended in Cape Town, South Africa, after 31 days of operations. We cored a single APC/XCB sediment hole to the contact with hard rock material at four of the six sites and successfully installed reentry systems with casing at three. Two failed attempts at drilling in casing and a reentry system into hard rock at Site U1558 indicate that the Dril-Quip reentry cones and running tools are incompatible with use in hard rock because the release mechanism does not work when the casing string weight cannot be fully removed from the running tool. Therefore, at Sites U1558 and U1559, casing was installed to ~10 m above basement. Site U1557 has a thick sediment cover (564 m) and will require multiple casing strings to reach basement;a single 16” casing string was installed to 60 meters below seafloor at this site, and later expeditions will extend casing. © 2021 Authors. All rights reserved.

9.
Ecology and Society ; 27(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080800

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a range of effects on the environment and particularly on wildlife, through diverse and sometimes contradictory impact pathways. In this study, based on data collected among indigenous people and local communities from South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Peru), we investigated changes in the use of wildlife resources for food during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study generated unique data collected from 756 households in 60 communities and nine sites. We confirm the hypothesis that wildlife use increased as a short-term response to food insecurity during the pandemic, and fish played a more significant role than wild meat in that endeavor. The increase in wild-meat consumption as a response to food insecurity was conditioned by prices and availability (unsuccessful hunts). Wildlife use did not increase as an alternative means to generate income, because communities were cut off from the market economy for several months. Also, whereas the reliance on wildlife emerged as an immediate solution during the first months of the crisis, longer-term strategies prioritized at household level involved diversifying food sources through domestic meat and crop production. Among all available animal-based proteins, local chicken came just after fish as the animal-based source of protein whose consumption increased the most during the first months of the crisis, as a response to food insecurity. We caution that relying on wildlife as a safety net may constitute a poverty trap in cases where the resource is depleted. Although not specifically studied here, access to land and the transmission of traditional knowledge/skills are possible additional determinants of the role that wildlife may play in times of crisis, and this is proposed as an area for future research. Results also attest to local communities expecting more support from their respective national governments, and confirm results from Walters et al. (2021) that governments were generally absent or unable to react quickly during the pandemic, leaving households (or their local leaders) with the responsibility to innovate with local solutions and pro-actively adapt to the rapid impacts of the crisis. © 2022, Resilience Alliance. All rights reserved.

10.
European Journal of Migration and Law ; 24(2):217-240, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079131

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has placed the contradictions that characterize the conditions of migrant workers in Dutch horticulture in the spotlight. Central and Eastern European (CEE) workers' low labour and living standards contrast with the sector's high productivity. This article disentangles these contradictions by analysing their legal, economic, and social causes through the lens of the power resources approach. Countering discourses that depict rights abuses as exceptional and relate them to rogue employers, the article shows that migrant precarity has been legalised in the context of the highly flexibilised Dutch labour market. Workers' location at the bottom of an agri-food chain dominated by retailers and their dependency on employers weakens their economic position. Trade unions' lack of effective outreach to CEE migrants has not helped to counter this disempowerment. Engaging with these sources of migrant farmworkers' disempowerment also helps us to identify entry points for change sketched in the article's conclusion. Keywords © 2022 Copyright 2022 by Karin Astrid Siegmann et al.

11.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A13-A14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064009

ABSTRACT

Aims Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes annual winter epidemics that usually peak in December in the UK and Ireland. Infants are disproportionately affected, with infection leading to lower respiratory tract disease, most commonly bronchiolitis, that often result in emergency department visits and hospitalisations. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) introduced globally to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 led to disruption of the typical RSV seasonality. Studies examining the aseasonal resurgence of RSV have been limited by sample size, and lack of information on secondary care episodes and clinical features. The BronchStart study is a prospective multicentre cohort study with the objective to monitor RSV disease in children under two years of age attending emergency departments (EDs) across the UK and Ireland and examine the impact on timing, age and severity of clinical presentations as NPI restrictions are reduced throughout the UK and Ireland in 2021. Methods Paediatric emergency departments (PED) within PERUKI (Paediatric Emergency Research in the UK and Ireland) submit data on all children under 2 years of age who visit a PED with symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection (diagnosed as bronchiolitis, lower respiratory tract infection, or first episode of acute wheeze), to a secure online Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) database. Followup information is submitted 7 days later. Here we present initial data for 10,347 infants and children from 44 study sites for the period 1st June to 5th December 2021. Results At the time of submission the aseasonal 2021 RSV epidemic in the UK has now come to an end, with infections having peaked in August (figure 1A). Comparing the age distribution of hospitalised infants <12 months to previous years at two large paediatric centres currently participating in the BronchStart Study (Leicester Children's Hospital and Bristol Royal Hospital for Children), we observed a similar age distribution (figure 1B). This suggests reduced community exposure to RSV during the 15 months preceding the start of the season did not result in a clinically significant lack of protective maternal antibody transfer to those <3 months of age, or that the NPIs introduced were not strong enough to prevent low level transmission. Disease severe enough to require intensive care was 2.5% in our cohort (for those aged 6 weeks to one year), comparable to 4.2% reported in previous studies. We also observed a substantial number of PED visits and admissions for RSV positive 12-23 month old children in BronchStart: 362 out of 1,468 (24.7%) admissions were in this age group. Conclusion We found that the 2021 summer lower respiratory tract infection peak in the UK and Ireland, although temporally disrupted and with an attenuated disease burden, predominantly affected younger age groups as in previous years The overall lower burden of disease in 2021 suggests incomplete infection by RSV of its usual susceptible population, probably due to the effect of ongoing non-pharmaceutical interventions over the study time period, and raises the strong possibility of a further wave of infection in the coming months.

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927706

ABSTRACT

Rationale We have previously reported blocking the IL-25 receptor (IL-17RB) prevented viral increased allergic airways inflammation and this was associated with reduced lung viral load. To investigate IL-25 regulation of airway anti-viral immunity we hypothesised that IL-25 directly inhibits airway epithelial cell (AEC) type I/III interferon expression and antibody blockade of IL-25 in vivo boosts lung interferon expression and reduces lung viral load in parallel with reduced type 2 airway inflammation. Methods In vitro Immunofluorescence was used to visualise epithelial IL-25 and IL- 17RB proteins in endobronchial biopsies from patients with asthma and healthy subjects and in AEC differentiated at ALI. AEC from n = 14 donors with asthma were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and infected with RV-A1, MOI=0.1. A subset of AECs was treated with anti-IL-25 mAb (LNR125) before infecting with RV-A1 or human coronavirus 229E. Differentiated AEC from healthy donors were treated with recombinant IL-25 protein and infected with RV-A1. Nanostring immune transcriptomic data expressed as digital mRNA counts for exact copy number or was expressed as log2 fold change ratio against -log10 Bejamini-Yekutieli-corrected p-values. In vivo 6- 8-week-old, BALB/c mice sensitised and intranasally challenged daily for 3 days with ovalbumin to induced allergic airways disease. A single subcutaneous injection of 250 μg LNR125 was administered during ovalbumin challenge. Mice were then infected i.n. with RV-A1, 6 hours after final allergen challenge. On day 1 and day 7 post-infection, BAL were collected, lung lobe tissue was collected for viral RNA and cytokine expression. Results IL-25 and IL-17RB were constitutively expressed at the apical surface of airway epithelium in biopsies and AEC cultures. RV infection increased IL-25 expression by AEC from asthmatic donors. LNR125 treatment reduced IL-25 mRNA and significantly increased RV induced IFN-β a and IFN-λ protein expression and this was confirmed by Nanostring transcriptomic analyses which also identified down-regulated type-2 immune genes CCL26 (eotaxin 3) and IL1RL1(IL-33 receptor). LN125 treatment also increased IFN-λ expression by 229E-infected differentiated AECs. IL-25 treatment increased viral load associated with 50% reduced expression of IFN-β and CXCL10 and 75% reduced IFN-λ. Allergen challenged, RV-infected mice treated with LNR125 had significantly increased BAL IFN-β protein and 60% reduction in lung viral load associated with reduced IL-25, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 BAL proteins compared to controls. Conclusion IL-25-induced inflammation combined with suppression of AEC anti-viral immunity identify IL-25 as a central mediator of viral asthma exacerbations and therefore a target for mAb-based treatment.

13.
Early Music ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886395

ABSTRACT

Through the covid-19 pandemic, the choir of St Wulfram's Church, Grantham has approached elaborate Tudor polyphony via digital, virtual and hybrid methods. Remote music production devolves responsibility to individuals within a choir. It reframes trust dynamics among choir members, and between singers and their director. This helped singers to encounter polyphony in a new way while isolated from one another, rethinking repertory and re-evaluating their understanding of this period in music history. Re-creating historical performance factors by new means generated intriguing results. As in-person singing has gradually returned for parish church choirs, members have developed new confidence in singing polyphonic music.

14.
Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work ; : 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852798

ABSTRACT

In 2020 racial justice uprisings and COVID-19 and the push for institutional responses created pressure within social work to answer decades of calls for anti-racism action. CSWE responded and formed the Task Force for Antiracism. As members of the Task Force, we call on CSWE to continue this antiracism work. We describe a path forward to promote racial justice and dismantle systemic racism and white supremacy within social work education. We interrogate social work's complicity in white supremacy, provide examples of social work anti-racism pedagogy, and call for centering BIPOC voices to move social work toward its anti-racism future.

15.
Clinical Neuropsychologist ; 36(4):763-764, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848599
16.
94th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, WEFTEC 2021 ; : 1650-1664, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1801309

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a summary of case studies from water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) in the United States that have experienced wastewater process inhibitions as a result of COVID-19 countermeasures. Anecdotal feedback from staff operating impacted WRRFs and preliminary influent toxicity screening data point to quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) in the influent as the possible cause for the inhibition events. As such, a high-level overview of QACs, and a synopsis of their fate and potential impacts in WRRFs, are summarized in this paper. Empirical evidence from full-scale facilities is presented, demonstrating that high concentrations of disinfectants used during the pandemic caused nitrification inhibition. This paper also highlights the potential of disinfectants to inhibit enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), a treatment phenomenon not yet reported on in literature to our knowledge. Finally, the authors provide recommendations for best management operational practices to mitigate inhibitory impacts at WRRFs in the future. Copyright © 2021 Water Environment Federation

18.
Clinical Infection in Practice ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767983

ABSTRACT

The use of antimicrobials in the management of community-acquired COVID-19 is commonplace but evidence for coinfection with common bacterial pathogens to justify their use is lacking. We undertook a retrospective review of all respiratory cultures, blood cultures and urinary antigen tests in COVID-19 patients looking for co-infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and specifically to judge the utility of urinary antigen testing. 2674 GSTT patients were included who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 performed at GSTT between 03-March-2020 and 31-Jan-2021 and who had at least one other microbiology sample for review.

19.
Online Social Networks and Media ; 28, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1712896

ABSTRACT

This research proposes a conceptual framework for determining the adoption trajectory of information diffusion in connective action campaigns. This approach reveals whether an information campaign is accelerating, reached critical mass, or decelerating during its life cycle. The experimental approach taken in this study builds on the diffusion of innovations theory, critical mass theory, and previous s-shaped production function research to provide ideas for modeling future connective action campaigns. Most social science research on connective action has taken a qualitative approach. There are limited quantitative studies, but most focus on statistical validation of the qualitative approach, such as surveys, or only focus on one aspect of connective action. In this study, we extend the social science research on connective action theory by applying a mixed-method computational analysis to examine the affordances and features offered through online social networks (OSNs) and then present a new method to quantify the emergence of these action networks. Using the s-curves revealed through plotting the information campaigns usage, we apply a diffusion of innovations lens to the analysis to categorize users into different stages of adoption of information campaigns. We then categorize the users in each campaign by examining their affordance and interdependence relationships by assigning retweets, mentions, and original tweets to the type of relationship they exhibit. The contribution of this analysis provides a foundation for mathematical characterization of connective action signatures, and further, offers policymakers insights about campaigns as they evolve. To evaluate our framework, we present a comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 Twitter data. Establishing this theoretical framework will help researchers develop predictive models to more accurately model campaign dynamics. © 2022

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