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1.
Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy : JACCP ; 5(4):442-449, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801596

ABSTRACT

Introduction Faculty and staff from Duquesne University and the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Pharmacy created a simulation activity focused on the care of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Students on remote, short‐term‐care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) rotations from both universities worked in comingled teams and completed two educational electronic health record reviews, complex simulation sessions, and debriefs. Individually, students completed two educational electronic health record reviews and verbal patient presentations before and after the simulation sessions. Objectives Evaluate the effects of a simulation activity during a remote short‐term‐care APPE on student confidence and knowledge surrounding the care of a critically ill patient with COVID‐19. Methods Student knowledge surrounding COVID‐19 short‐term‐care treatment principles was assessed through pre‐/postcase‐based multiple‐choice examinations and an intermittent clinical examination (ICE). Student confidence and perceptions were gathered through anonymous pre‐/postsurveys. The written examination and patient presentation recordings were compared from baseline to the final assessment using the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test. Results In total, 92 students participated in the activity. There was a statistically significant improvement from baseline to the final assessment (preassessment median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 55.3% [50%‐60.5%];postassessment median [IQR]: 68.4 [60.5%‐73.7%];P < .001) on the written examination. ICE total scores improved from baseline (preassessment median [range]: 33 [28‐36] vs postassessment median [range]: 36.5 [29.5‐43.52];P = .004) as well as the objective (P < .001), plan (P < .001), and monitoring (P < .001) subdomain scores. Student confidence reported on surveys improved from baseline in all domains. Conclusion Remote simulation sessions improve student knowledge and confidence and provide an opportunity for students to experience caring for patients with COVID‐19 in a safe environment. Collaboration between schools of pharmacy can be successfully employed to leverage resources and expertise to expand opportunities for students.

2.
J Am Coll Clin Pharm ; 5(4): 442-449, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802310

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Faculty and staff from Duquesne University and the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Pharmacy created a simulation activity focused on the care of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students on remote, short-term-care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) rotations from both universities worked in comingled teams and completed two educational electronic health record reviews, complex simulation sessions, and debriefs. Individually, students completed two educational electronic health record reviews and verbal patient presentations before and after the simulation sessions. Objectives: Evaluate the effects of a simulation activity during a remote short-term-care APPE on student confidence and knowledge surrounding the care of a critically ill patient with COVID-19. Methods: Student knowledge surrounding COVID-19 short-term-care treatment principles was assessed through pre-/postcase-based multiple-choice examinations and an intermittent clinical examination (ICE). Student confidence and perceptions were gathered through anonymous pre-/postsurveys. The written examination and patient presentation recordings were compared from baseline to the final assessment using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: In total, 92 students participated in the activity. There was a statistically significant improvement from baseline to the final assessment (preassessment median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 55.3% [50%-60.5%]; postassessment median [IQR]: 68.4 [60.5%-73.7%]; P < .001) on the written examination. ICE total scores improved from baseline (preassessment median [range]: 33 [28-36] vs postassessment median [range]: 36.5 [29.5-43.52]; P = .004) as well as the objective (P < .001), plan (P < .001), and monitoring (P < .001) subdomain scores. Student confidence reported on surveys improved from baseline in all domains. Conclusion: Remote simulation sessions improve student knowledge and confidence and provide an opportunity for students to experience caring for patients with COVID-19 in a safe environment. Collaboration between schools of pharmacy can be successfully employed to leverage resources and expertise to expand opportunities for students.

4.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 117-125, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People experiencing homelessness are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study reports the point prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during testing conducted at sites serving people experiencing homelessness in Toronto during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored the association between site characteristics and prevalence rates. METHODS: The study included individuals who were staying at shelters, encampments, COVID-19 physical distancing sites, and drop-in and respite sites and completed outreach-based testing for SARS-CoV-2 during the period April 17 to July 31, 2020. We examined test positivity rates over time and compared them to rates in the general population of Toronto. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between each shelter-level characteristic and SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates. We also compared the rates across 3 time periods (T1: April 17-April 25; T2: April 26-May 23; T3: May 24-June 25). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 8.5% (394/4657). Site-specific rates showed great heterogeneity with infection rates ranging from 0% to 70.6%. Compared to T1, positivity rates were 0.21 times lower (95% CI: 0.06-0.75) during T2 and 0.14 times lower (95% CI: 0.04-0.44) during T3. Most cases were detected during outbreak testing (384/394 [97.5%]) rather than active case finding. CONCLUSION: During the first wave of the pandemic, rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection at sites for people experiencing homelessness in Toronto varied significantly over time. The observation of lower rates at certain sites may be attributable to overall time trends, expansion of outreach-based testing to include sites without known outbreaks, and/or individual site characteristics.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIFS: Les personnes en situation d'itinérance courent un risque accru de contracter une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2. Notre étude rend compte de la prévalence ponctuelle des infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 au cours de tests de dépistage menés dans des lieux de services aux personnes en situation d'itinérance de Toronto au cours de la première vague de la pandémie de COVID-19. Nous avons aussi exploré l'association entre les caractéristiques de ces lieux et les taux de prévalence. MéTHODE: L'étude a inclus les personnes séjournant dans des refuges, des campements, des lieux de distanciation physique et des centres d'accueil et de répit et ayant subi un test de dépistage de proximité du SRAS-CoV-2 entre le 17 avril et le 31 juillet 2020. Nous avons examiné les taux de positivité des tests au fil du temps et nous les avons comparés aux taux dans la population générale de Toronto. Des analyses de régression binomiales négatives ont été effectuées pour étudier la relation entre chaque caractéristique au niveau des refuges et les taux de positivité au SRAS-CoV-2. Nous avons aussi comparé les taux de trois intervalles (I1: 17 au 25 avril; I2: 26 avril au 23 mai; I3: 24 mai au 25 juin). RéSULTATS: La prévalence globale des infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 était de 8,5 % (394/4 657). Les taux d'infection spécifiques aux lieux de services ont présenté une grande hétérogénéité, soit de 0 % à 70,6 %. Comparés au 1er intervalle (I1), les taux de positivité ont été 0,21 fois plus faibles (IC de 95% : 0,06 ­ 0,75) durant l'I2 et 0,14 fois plus faibles (IC de 95% : 0,04 ­ 0,44) durant l'I3. La plupart des cas ont été détectés lors d'un dépistage en cours d'éclosion (384/394 [97,5%]) et non lors d'une recherche active de cas. CONCLUSION: Au cours de la première vague de la pandémie, les taux d'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 dans les lieux de services aux personnes en situation d'itinérance de Toronto ont varié de façon significative au fil du temps. L'observation de taux plus faibles dans certains lieux pourrait s'expliquer par les tendances temporelles globales, par l'expansion des activités de dépistage de proximité pour inclure les lieux sans éclosion connue et/ou par les caractéristiques individuelles des lieux.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S496-S497, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602224

ABSTRACT

Background Wave one of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada, resulted in significant institutional outbreaks associated with high case fatality among older adults. Our hospital formally partnered with congregate care homes in north Toronto to support infection control and clinical management before wave two of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of this program on resident and healthcare worker (HCW) outcomes. Methods A multicentre quasi-experimental study was conducted comparing outcomes between wave one (March-June, 2020) and wave two (October-December, 2020) among 17 congregate care homes (4 long term care homes and 13 residential homes). During wave two, weekly meetings and 42 on-site visits were conducted along with on-site daily hospital presence for all COVID-19 outbreaks to support infection control and resident management. The primary outcomes included COVID-19-case fatality rate as well as overall resident fatality including COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 related causes. Secondary outcomes included healthcare worker COVID-19 infections, and infection control practices among homes with paired audits (n=6), including hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, environmental cleaning and physical distancing practices. Results Among 2203 residents during wave one and 2287 residents during wave two, there was reduction in COVID-19 case fatality rate (38.1% vs. 13.4%;p< 0.01), overall COVID-19-related fatality (2.3% vs. 1.0%;p< 0.01) and non COVID-19 related fatality (8.3% vs. 3.5%;p< 0.01). Weekly staff testing and increased syndromic surveillance was implemented during wave two. Among 2590 staff, there were 2.6% vs.4.2% staff who tested positive for COVID-19 during wave one and two, respectively. Changes in infection control practice were observed in regard to directly observed hand hygiene (83.3% vs. 100%), use of personal protective equipment (16.7% vs. 83.3%), environmental cleaning (66.7% vs. 100%) and physical distancing (66.7% vs. 83.3%). Conclusion Integration of hospital with community congregate care homes was associated with improvements in resident outcomes during wave two of the pandemic. Further longitudinal support and evaluation is needed to ensure sustainability. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

6.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1175-E1180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable reports on hand hygiene performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking as most hospitals continue to rely on direct observation to measure this quality indicator. Using group electronic hand hygiene monitoring, we sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to hand hygiene. METHODS: Across 12 Ontario hospitals (5 university and 7 community teaching hospitals), a group electronic hand hygiene monitoring system was installed before the pandemic to provide continuous measurement of hand hygiene adherence across 978 ward and 367 critical care beds. We performed an interrupted time-series study of institutional hand hygiene adherence in association with a COVID-19 inpatient census and the Ontario daily count of COVID-19 cases during a baseline period (Nov. 1, 2019, to Feb. 29, 2020), the pre-peak period of the first wave of the pandemic (Mar. 1 to Apr. 24, 2020), and the post-peak period of the first wave (Apr. 25 to July 5, 2020). We used a Poisson regression model to assess the association between the hospital COVID-19 census and institutional hand hygiene adherence while adjusting for the correlation within inpatient units. RESULTS: At baseline, the rate of hand hygiene adherence was 46.0% (6 325 401 of 13 750 968 opportunities) and this improved beginning in March 2020 to a daily peak of 79.3% (66 640 of 84 026 opportunities) on Mar. 30, 2020. Each patient admitted with COVID-19 was associated with improved hand hygiene adherence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.0621, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0619-1.0623). Increasing Ontario daily case count was similarly associated with improved hand hygiene (IRR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0021-1.0032). After peak COVID-19 community and inpatient numbers, hand hygiene adherence declined and returned to baseline. INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant improvement in hand hygiene adherence, measured using a group electronic monitoring system. Future research should seek to determine whether strategies that focus on health care worker perception of personal risk can achieve sustainable improvements in hand hygiene performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Public Health Surveillance
10.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S311-S312, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1565005

ABSTRACT

Background Hand hygiene (HH) is a standard infection prevention and control precaution to be applied in healthcare settings to prevent transmission of COVID-19. Many healthcare institutions observed significant improvements in HH performance during wave one of the COVID-19 pandemic but the sustainability of this change is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate long-term HH performance throughout subsequent waves of the pandemic across acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Methods HH adherence was measured using a previously validated group electronic monitoring system which was installed on all alcohol handrub and sink soap dispensers inside and outside each patient room across 56 inpatient units (35 wards and 21 critical care units) spanning 13 acute care hospitals (6 university and 7 community teaching hospitals) from 1 November 2019 to 31 May 2021. Daily HH adherence was compared with daily COVID-19 case count across Ontario. During this period, weekly performance continued to be reported to units but unit-based quality improvement discussions were inconsistent due to the COVID-19 response. Results Figure 1 depicts daily aggregate HH adherence plotted against the new daily COVID-19 case count across Ontario. An elevation in HH adherence was seen prior to the start of the first wave, rising almost to 80% and then remained above 70% for the peak of wave one. During waves two and three, peak COVID-19 case counts were associated with a maximum HH adherence of 51%, only marginally above the pre-pandemic baseline. After the end of wave one (from 1 July 2020 to 31 May 2021) the median HH performance was only 49% (interquartile range 47%-50%). Figure 1. Hand hygiene adherence across 13 acute care hospitals in comparison to overall new daily COVID-19 cases in Ontario Conclusion Initial improvements in HH adherence preceding the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were not sustained, possibly due to increasing comfort and reduced anxiety associated with providing care to COVID-19 patients leading to a perception of reduced COVID-19 transmission risk. These findings highlight the need for HH monitoring to be tied to longitudinal unit-led quality improvement in order to achieve durable changes in practice. Disclosures Susy S. Hota, MSc MD FRCPC, Finch Therapeutics (Research Grant or Support) Susy S. Hota, MSc MD FRCPC, Finch Therapeutics (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support

11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S312-S312, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564710

ABSTRACT

Background In April 2021, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre opened a Mobile Health Unit (MHU, i.e. medical tents) under the direction of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care in response to a surge in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 during wave three of the pandemic. Providing care to patients in non-conventional spaces is not new, however, experience in safely caring for COVID-19 patients in these settings is lacking. Our aim is to describe the implementation of our MHU and associated outcomes of these COVID-19 patients. Methods A multidisciplinary clinical and operations team was created to plan, execute and operate a safe environment for COVID-19 patients and healthcare workers within the MHU. Patient selection was restricted to patients with COVID-19 who were clinically recovering from severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Ventilation was optimized with air flow directed away from patient areas, velocity reduced to below 0.25 meters per second, and air exchanges of 24-28 per hour. All healthcare workers working in the MHU were offered COVID-19 vaccine and required to complete mandatory education if they declined (vaccination rate of 87% was achieved among dedicated staff). Universal masking and eye protection was used throughout the MHU with designated areas for donning and doffing personal protective equipment. Results In total, 32 patients with COVID-19 were managed in the MHU between 26 April and 21 May, 2021. Table 1 provides the summary of patient characteristics. All patients had a median of one-day of transmission-based precautions remaining in their course and were infected with Alpha variant with exception of one patient with the Gamma variant. Among those patients with genotyping available, all were infected with SARS-CoV-2 carrying the N501Y mutation. Four of the 32 patients required transfer to the main hospital for medical indication while the others were discharged home or to rehabilitation. None of the healthcare workers who worked within the MHU developed COVID-19 infection. Conclusion We safely cared for patients recovering from COVID-19 infection in an MHU to support system healthcare capacity. Our experience, including the specific hierarchy of controls implemented, may be helpful for future pandemic planning. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S493-S493, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564432

ABSTRACT

Background Transmission of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from environment to patient and patient to patient can both occur in healthcare settings. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a cohort of exposed patients on an inpatient unit with an extensive VRE outbreak needed to switch physical locations with a non-exposed patient population. By comparing outcomes of both cohorts, we aimed to determine the role of the physical environment (both direct and indirect contact) as compared to the patient population, in ongoing VRE transmission. Methods From 10 March to 21 April 2021, 41 new nosocomial acquisitions of VRE were detected as part of a VRE outbreak on a 34-bed acute care unit. Prior to the switch of units, extensive cleaning of the unit was conducted including electrostatic adjuncts to standard cleaning and environmental swabbing for VRE yielded no positive surfaces. The exposed cohort included 3 of 30 patients with VRE while the non-exposed cohort had 0 of 28 VRE positive patients based on prevalence testing on 21 April 2021. Following the physical relocation of both cohorts on 22 April, 2021, prospective VRE screening was performed on both units for one month including on admission, discharge and weekly prevalence screening. Hand hygiene compliance rates on both units was measured using group electronic monitoring. Results Figure 1 depicts the timeline and number of VRE cases before and after the unit switch. Following relocation of the VRE exposed cohort to the new unit, no further VRE transmission was detected (0/235 VRE screens;0 VRE cases per 1000 patient days). Conversely, there were new VRE transmissions (3/99 VRE screens, 5 VRE cases per 1000 patient days) in the non-exposed cohort. When the units resumed their original location, one additional case of VRE was identified in the exposed cohort upon return to their original location. These transmissions occurred despite HH compliance of 94% (141,610/150,706) during the entire study period on the outbreak unit, which was consistently higher than on the non-outbreak unit (141,589/227,136, 62%).Figure 1. Conclusion The environmental reservoir for VRE may be more important in transmission than the patient reservoir. These findings underscore the importance of environmental cleaning to contain VRE outbreaks. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S319-S319, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563944

ABSTRACT

Background The emergence of the E484K mutation of SARS-CoV-2 poses a risk of immune evasion but the risk of re-infection during acute infection is not well defined. Our aim was to assess the risk of re-infection among patients with existing acute E484K mutation negative COVID-19 infection who were exposed to an E484K mutation positive SARS-CoV-2 infected patient. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with acute E484K negative COVID-19 infection and shared a hospital room with a patient who was E484K mutation positive during their period of communicability. The primary outcome was laboratory confirmed and/or clinical evidence of re-infection within the E484K negative population within 30 days of exposure and the secondary outcome was the 30-day risk of death or re-admission to hospital due to COVID-19. Results We identified 41 patients who were E484K mutation negative who shared a hospital room with some of the identified 34 E484K positive patients. Six (14%) underwent repeat COVID-19 testing and remained E484K negative and none developed signs or symptoms of COVID-19 re-infection during the 30 days following exposure. The mortality rate was 7% (3/41) and re-admission rate was zero at 30 days from exposure. Conclusion Despite the small sample size, we did not observe any evidence of re-infection among patients with COVID-19 who shared a hospital room with E484K positive patients during their acute infection. If necessary due to high hospital occupancy, patients with discordant E484K results can be safely cohorted in a shared room. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

14.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(11): 1429-1431, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372866

ABSTRACT

In a multifacility prospective cohort study, we identified 116 acute care, 26 long-term care, and 67 rehabilitation patients who received direct care from a universally masked healthcare worker while communicable with COVID-19. Among 133(64%) patients with at least 14-day follow-up, 3 (2.3%, 95% CI, 0.77-6.4) became positive for SARS-CoV-2. Universal masking, embedded with other infection control practices, is associated with low risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from healthcare workers to patients and residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Prospective Studies
15.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(4): e12492, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK), to describe volume and pattern of calls to emergency ambulance services, proportion of calls where an ambulance was dispatched, proportion conveyed to hospital, and features of triage used. METHODS: Semistructured electronic survey of all UK ambulance services (n = 13) and a request for routine service data on weekly call volumes for 22 weeks (February 1-July 3, 2020). Questionnaires and data request were emailed to chief executives and research leads followed by email and telephone reminders. The routine data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and questionnaire data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 12 services. Call volume varied widely between services, with a UK peak at week 7 at 13.1% above baseline (service range -0.5% to +31.4%). All services ended the study period with a lower call volume than at baseline (service range -3.7% to -25.5%). Suspected COVID-19 calls across the UK totaled 604,146 (13.5% of all calls), with wide variation between services (service range 3.7% to 25.7%), and in service peaks of 11.4% to 44.5%. Ambulances were dispatched to 478,638 (79.2%) of these calls (service range 59.0% to 100.0%), with 262,547 (43.5%) resulting in conveyance to hospital (service range 32.0% to 53.9%). Triage models varied between services and over time. Two primary call triage systems were in use across the UK. There were a large number of products and arrangements used for secondary triage, with services using paramedics, nurses, and doctors to support decision making in the call center and on scene. Frequent changes to triage processes took place. CONCLUSIONS: Call volumes were highly variable. Case mix and workload changed significantly as COVID-19 calls displaced other calls. Triage models and prehospital outcomes varied between services. We urgently need to understand safety and effectiveness of triage models to inform care during further waves and pandemics.

17.
Dermatol Clin ; 39(4): 619-625, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252648

ABSTRACT

In this article, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on various areas of global health dermatology, including patient care, neglected tropical diseases, education, and collaborations. Information was collected from literature review and informal interviews with more than 20 dermatologists from around the world. Many of the setbacks and hardships experienced by the global health community in the last year highlight long-standing global interdependencies and systems that perpetuate ethnic, economic, and social inequalities on local and global scales. The pandemic has brought discussions on global health colonialism and domestic health inequality to the forefront.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatology/trends , Global Health , Health Status Disparities , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Skin Diseases/therapy , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa348, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007390

ABSTRACT

A strategy titled "Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America" aims to reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence in the United States by at least 90% by 2030, using diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. Texas is a Southern state that has one of the highest numbers of new HIV diagnoses and people with HIV in the country, and where HIV disproportionately impacts minorities. We retrace the historical epidemic in its largest city, Houston, to illustrate the lessons learned and milestones accomplished, which could serve as guideposts for the future. We examine the current epidemic in Texas, including the achieved levels of HIV testing, treatment continua, and pre-exposure prophylaxis prescription, and compare and contrast these with the national estimates and Plan targets. Our findings call for urgent and accelerated expansion of efforts to end HIV in Texas.

19.
in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-851861

ABSTRACT

Background. Human coronaviruses (CoVs) are a major cause of respiratory infection and institutional outbreaks, yet the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of these viruses is poorly described among the elderly residing in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of LTCF residents with positive nasopharyngeal or mid-turbinate swabs for CoVs (OC43, 229E, NL63 and HKU1) between January 2013 and December 2018. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from resident charts including clinical presentation, treatment, outcome, and transmission to other residents. Variables were compared using univariate analysis. Results. 3268 residents met inclusion criteria (median age 93 years, 90% male) comprising 7.5% (246/3268) of all positive respiratory virus specimens detected during the study period. 97(39%) of cases were associated with a respiratory outbreak while 149(61%) were sporadic cases that did not result in transmission. OC43 (52%) was the most commonly identified CoV and was more commonly associated with outbreak cases (76% vs. 37%; P < 0.001). In total, 87% of all cases had two or more of runny nose/ congestion, cough, sore throat/hoarse voice or fever. The most common symptoms among residents were cough (85%), runny nose/congestion (79%), and sore throat/ hoarse voice (59%) and only 17% of residents had a measured temperature of ≥ 37.8C. Only 6% of residents received antibiotic treatment for suspected secondary bacterial pneumonia. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.7% with 67% of deaths attributable to the CoV infection. There was no statistically significant difference in symptoms, treatment or outcomes associated with outbreaks or seasonality. Conclusion. CoVs make up an important proportion of respiratory viral infections among LTCF residents and may result in frequent outbreaks. Most residents remain afebrile and have self-limited illness while only a small minority develop secondary bacterial pneumonia and death. Given these findings the benefits of control measures should be weighed against the impact on resident quality of life.

20.
J Clin Virol ; 126: 104338, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the need for improved surveillance and understanding of the health burden imposed by non-influenza RNA respiratory viruses. Human coronaviruses (CoVs) are a major cause of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections with associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to characterize the epidemiology of CoVs in our tertiary care centre, and identify clinical correlates of disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of 226 patients admitted with confirmed CoV respiratory tract infection between 2010 and 2016. Variables consistent with a severe disease burden were evaluated including symptoms, length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. RESULTS: CoVs represented 11.3% of all positive respiratory virus samples and OC43 was the most commonly identified CoV. The majority of infections were community-associated while 21.6% were considered nosocomial. The average length of stay was 11.8 days with 17.3% of patients requiring ICU admission and an all-cause mortality of 7%. In a multivariate model, female gender and smoking were associated with increased likelihood of admission to ICU or death. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the significant burden of CoVs and justifies the need for surveillance in the acute care setting.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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