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Environmetrics ; : e2751, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966045


Recent ecological analyses suggest air pollution exposure may increase susceptibility to and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Individual-level studies are needed to clarify the relationship between air pollution exposure and COVID-19 outcomes. We conduct an individual-level analysis of long-term exposure to air pollution and weather on peak COVID-19 severity. We develop a Bayesian multinomial logistic regression model with a multiple imputation approach to impute partially missing health outcomes. Our approach is based on the stick-breaking representation of the multinomial distribution, which offers computational advantages, but presents challenges in interpreting regression coefficients. We propose a novel inferential approach to address these challenges. In a simulation study, we demonstrate our method's ability to impute missing outcome data and improve estimation of regression coefficients compared to a complete case analysis. In our analysis of 55,273 COVID-19 cases in Denver, Colorado, increased annual exposure to fine particulate matter in the year prior to the pandemic was associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. We also found COVID-19 disease severity to be associated with interactions between exposures. Our individual-level analysis fills a gap in the literature and helps to elucidate the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 outcomes.

Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 241: 113949, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757396


Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion was estimated to cause 2.31 million deaths worldwide in 2019; cardiovascular disease is a substantial contributor to the global burden. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between household air pollution (24-h gravimetric kitchen and personal particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC)) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured in dried blood spots among 107 women in rural Honduras using wood-burning traditional or Justa (an engineered combustion chamber) stoves. A suite of 6 additional markers of systemic injury and inflammation were considered in secondary analyses. We adjusted for potential confounders and assessed effect modification of several cardiovascular-disease risk factors. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) 24-h-average personal PM2.5 concentration was 115 µg/m3 (65,154 µg/m3) for traditional stove users and 52 µg/m3 (39, 81 µg/m3) for Justa stove users; kitchen PM2.5 and BC had similar patterns. Higher concentrations of PM2.5 and BC were associated with higher levels of CRP (e.g., a 25% increase in personal PM2.5 was associated with a 10.5% increase in CRP [95% CI: 1.2-20.6]). In secondary analyses, results were generally consistent with a null association. Evidence for effect modification between pollutant measures and four different cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., high blood pressure) was inconsistent. These results support the growing evidence linking household air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , C-Reactive Protein , Cooking/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Honduras/epidemiology , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Wood/analysis , Wood/chemistry