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1.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104066, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) residents have borne a disproportionate share of SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. Vaccines have limited hospitalisation and death from earlier variants in this vulnerable population. With the rise of Omicron and future variants, it is vital to sustain and broaden vaccine-induced protection. We examined the effect of boosting with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on humoral immunity and Omicron-specific neutralising activity among NH residents and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We longitudinally enrolled 85 NH residents (median age 77) and 48 HCWs (median age 51), and sampled them after the initial vaccination series; and just before and 2 weeks after booster vaccination. Anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralisation titres to the original Wuhan strain and neutralisation to the Omicron strain were obtained. FINDINGS: Booster vaccination significantly increased vaccine-specific anti-spike, anti-RBD, and neutralisation levels above the pre-booster levels in NH residents and HCWs, both in those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron-specific neutralisation activity was low after the initial 2 dose series with only 28% of NH residents' and 28% HCWs' titres above the assay's lower limit of detection. Omicron neutralising activity following the booster lifted 86% of NH residents and 93% of HCWs to the detectable range. INTERPRETATION: With boosting, the vast majority of HCWs and NH residents developed detectable Omicron-specific neutralising activity. These data provide immunologic evidence that strongly supports booster vaccination to broaden neutralising activity and counter waning immunity in the hope it will better protect this vulnerable, high-risk population against the Omicron variant. FUNDING: NIH AI129709-03S1, U01 CA260539-01, CDC 200-2016-91773, and VA BX005507-01.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692242

ABSTRACT

Antibody decline occurred from 2 weeks to 6 months post-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in nursing home (NH) residents and healthcare workers. Antispike, receptor-binding domain, and neutralization levels dropped >81% irrespective of prior infection. Notably, 69% of infection-naive NH residents had neutralizing antibodies at or below the assay's limit of detection.

4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(11): 3044-3050, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among nursing home residents, for whom age and frailty can blunt febrile responses to illness, the temperature used to define fever can influence the clinical recognition of COVID-19 symptoms. To assess the potential for differences in the definition of fever to characterize nursing home residents with COVID-19 infections as symptomatic, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic, we conducted a retrospective study on a national cohort of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Community Living Center (CLC) residents tested for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Residents with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests were classified as asymptomatic if they did not experience any symptoms, and as symptomatic or pre-symptomatic if the experienced a fever (>100.4°F) before or following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, respectively. All-cause 30-day mortality was assessed as was the influence of a lower temperature threshold (>99.0°F) on classification of residents with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. RESULTS: From March 2020 through November 2020, VA CLCs tested 11,908 residents for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, with a positivity of rate of 13% (1557). Among residents with positive tests and using >100.4°F, 321 (21%) were symptomatic, 425 (27%) were pre-symptomatic, and 811 (52%) were asymptomatic. All-cause 30-day mortality among residents with symptomatic and pre-symptomatic COVID-19 infections was 24% and 26%, respectively, while those with an asymptomatic infection had mortality rates similar to residents with negative SAR-CoV-2 tests (10% and 5%, respectively). Using >99.0°F would have increased the number of residents categorized as symptomatic at the time of testing from 321 to 773. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause 30-day mortality was similar among VA CLC residents with symptomatic or pre-symptomatic COVID-19 infection, and lower than rates reported in non-VA nursing homes. A lower temperature threshold would increase the number of residents recognized as having symptomatic infection, potentially leading to earlier detection and more rapid implementation of therapeutic interventions and infection prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Pathog Immun ; 5(1): 133-142, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contaminated surfaces are a potential source for spread of respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light is effective against RNA and DNA viruses and could be useful for decontamination of high-touch fomites that are shared by multiple users. METHODS: A modification of the American Society for Testing and Materials standard quantitative carrier disk test method (ASTM E-2197-11) was used to examine the effectiveness of UV-C light for rapid decontamination of plastic airport security bins inoculated at 3 sites with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and bacteriophages MS2, PhiX174, and Phi6, an enveloped RNA virus used as a surrogate for coronaviruses. Reductions of 3 log10 on inoculated plastic bins were considered effective for decontamination. RESULTS: UV-C light administered as 10-, 20-, or 30-second cycles in proximity to a plastic bin reduced contamination on each of the test sites, including vertical and horizontal surfaces. The 30-second cycle met criteria for decontamination of all 3 test sites for all the test organisms except bacteriophage MS2 which was reduced by greater than 2 log10 PFU at each site. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C light is an attractive technology for rapid decontamination of airport security bins. Further work is needed to evaluate the utility of UV-C light in real-world settings and to develop methods to provide automated movement of bins through a UV-C decontamination process.

6.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(8): 951-954, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549206

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, efficient methods are needed to decontaminate shared portable devices and large open areas such as waiting rooms. We found that wheelchairs, portable equipment, and waiting room chairs were frequently contaminated with potential pathogens. After minimal manual precleaning of areas with visible soiling, application of a dilute sodium hypochlorite disinfectant using an electrostatic sprayer provided rapid and effective decontamination and eliminated the benign virus bacteriophage MS2 from inoculated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/virology , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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