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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692242

ABSTRACT

Antibody decline occurred from 2 weeks to 6 months post-BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in nursing home (NH) residents and healthcare workers. Antispike, receptor-binding domain, and neutralization levels dropped >81% irrespective of prior infection. Notably, 69% of infection-naive NH residents had neutralizing antibodies at or below the assay's limit of detection.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325456

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysregulation of immunohematologic function (IHF) promotes cardiovascular disease and impairs protective responses to cancer and infection. A pragmatic method to identify those as risk due to IHF could improve the precision of preventive interventions and provide insight into the heterogeneity of immunologic capacity. We developed and validated a method to distill complete blood cell count data into distinct IHF profiles of prognostic relevance. Methods: We adapted latent profile analysis methods to simultaneously identify distinct groups of patients with respect to 10 immunohematologic indicators and regress time to all-cause mortality on this latent IHF profile. The model was developed using data from 30274 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants and externally validated in 49851 outpatients in the Veterans Heath Administration (VHA) system and 44142 SARS-CoV-2 positive VHA patients.Findings: Ten distinct IHF profiles were identified. Profile 1, with relative mild pan-leukopenia in absence of red cell abnormalities, was associated with the best long term survival in each setting. Profiles 8-10, featuring anemia/anisocytosis especially in the setting of lymphopenia (Profiles 9-10) were associated with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) estimates of 1.76-2.62 for mortality across the three cohorts, compared to Profile 1. Profiles 6-7, featuring relative neutrophilia, were less common but also independently associated with mortality risk, especially after COVID-19 infection (Profile 7 HR [95% CI]: 2.51 [1.63 – 3.86]). The magnitude of adjusted risk conveyed by IHF profiles was greater than individual clinical risk factors (i.e., smoking, diabetes) or prevalent co-morbidities.Interpretation: Distinct immunohematologic endotypes can be identified during routine blood panels which project to mortality risk on par with a decade of life, additive to demographic and clinical factors. Applications that consider immunohematologic dysfunction may improve prevention of common fatal diseases, including COVID-19.Funding Information:This study was funded in part by The National Institute on Aging (R01AG055480;Dalton and Perzynski), the National Cancer Institute (U01CA260513;Zidar and Chan), and the United States Veteran Administration (COVID19-8900-05;Zidar). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Department of Veteran Affairs or the National Institutes of Health.Declaration of Interests: No conflict of interest exists between any of the authors and the contents of this paper.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Louis Stokes Cleveland VAMC.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2112-2115, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562012

ABSTRACT

After BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination, antibody levels to spike, receptor-binding domain, and virus neutralization were examined in 149 nursing home residents and 110 healthcare worker controls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-naive nursing home residents' median post-second vaccine dose antibody neutralization titers are one-quarter that of SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 3151-3160, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has mitigated the burden of COVID-19 among residents of long-term care facilities considerably, despite being excluded from the vaccine trials. Data on reactogenicity (vaccine side effects) in this population are limited. AIMS: To assess reactogenicity among nursing home (NH) residents. To provide a plausible proxy for predicting vaccine response among this population. METHODS: We enrolled and sampled NH residents and community-dwelling healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, to assess local or systemic reactogenicity and antibody levels (immunogenicity). RESULTS: NH residents reported reactions at a much lower frequency and lesser severity than the community-dwelling healthcare workers. These reactions were mild and transient with all subjects experiencing more local than systemic reactions. Based on our reactogenicity and immunogenicity data, we developed a linear regression model predicting log-transformed anti-spike, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), and neutralizing titers, with a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of reported reactions which revealed a statistically significant effect, with estimated shifts in log-transformed titers ranging from 0.32 to 0.37 (all p < 0.01) indicating greater immunogenicity in subjects with one or more reported reactions of varying severity. DISCUSSION: With a significantly lower incidence of post-vaccination reactions among NH residents as reported in this study, the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine appears to be well-tolerated among this vulnerable population. If validated in larger populations, absence of reactogenicity could help guide clinicians in prioritizing vaccine boosters. CONCLUSIONS: Reactogenicity is significantly mild among nursing home residents and overall, subjects who reported post-vaccination reactions developed higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(11): 3044-3050, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among nursing home residents, for whom age and frailty can blunt febrile responses to illness, the temperature used to define fever can influence the clinical recognition of COVID-19 symptoms. To assess the potential for differences in the definition of fever to characterize nursing home residents with COVID-19 infections as symptomatic, pre-symptomatic, or asymptomatic, we conducted a retrospective study on a national cohort of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Community Living Center (CLC) residents tested for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Residents with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests were classified as asymptomatic if they did not experience any symptoms, and as symptomatic or pre-symptomatic if the experienced a fever (>100.4°F) before or following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, respectively. All-cause 30-day mortality was assessed as was the influence of a lower temperature threshold (>99.0°F) on classification of residents with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. RESULTS: From March 2020 through November 2020, VA CLCs tested 11,908 residents for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, with a positivity of rate of 13% (1557). Among residents with positive tests and using >100.4°F, 321 (21%) were symptomatic, 425 (27%) were pre-symptomatic, and 811 (52%) were asymptomatic. All-cause 30-day mortality among residents with symptomatic and pre-symptomatic COVID-19 infections was 24% and 26%, respectively, while those with an asymptomatic infection had mortality rates similar to residents with negative SAR-CoV-2 tests (10% and 5%, respectively). Using >99.0°F would have increased the number of residents categorized as symptomatic at the time of testing from 321 to 773. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause 30-day mortality was similar among VA CLC residents with symptomatic or pre-symptomatic COVID-19 infection, and lower than rates reported in non-VA nursing homes. A lower temperature threshold would increase the number of residents recognized as having symptomatic infection, potentially leading to earlier detection and more rapid implementation of therapeutic interventions and infection prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Pathog Immun ; 5(1): 133-142, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contaminated surfaces are a potential source for spread of respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light is effective against RNA and DNA viruses and could be useful for decontamination of high-touch fomites that are shared by multiple users. METHODS: A modification of the American Society for Testing and Materials standard quantitative carrier disk test method (ASTM E-2197-11) was used to examine the effectiveness of UV-C light for rapid decontamination of plastic airport security bins inoculated at 3 sites with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and bacteriophages MS2, PhiX174, and Phi6, an enveloped RNA virus used as a surrogate for coronaviruses. Reductions of 3 log10 on inoculated plastic bins were considered effective for decontamination. RESULTS: UV-C light administered as 10-, 20-, or 30-second cycles in proximity to a plastic bin reduced contamination on each of the test sites, including vertical and horizontal surfaces. The 30-second cycle met criteria for decontamination of all 3 test sites for all the test organisms except bacteriophage MS2 which was reduced by greater than 2 log10 PFU at each site. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C light is an attractive technology for rapid decontamination of airport security bins. Further work is needed to evaluate the utility of UV-C light in real-world settings and to develop methods to provide automated movement of bins through a UV-C decontamination process.

9.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(8): 951-954, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549206

ABSTRACT

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, efficient methods are needed to decontaminate shared portable devices and large open areas such as waiting rooms. We found that wheelchairs, portable equipment, and waiting room chairs were frequently contaminated with potential pathogens. After minimal manual precleaning of areas with visible soiling, application of a dilute sodium hypochlorite disinfectant using an electrostatic sprayer provided rapid and effective decontamination and eliminated the benign virus bacteriophage MS2 from inoculated surfaces.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cross Infection/virology , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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