Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333583


While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease;antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333508


BACKGROUND: Serological tests are crucial tools for assessments of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, infection and potential immunity. Their appropriate use and interpretation require accurate assay performance data. METHOD: We conducted an evaluation of 10 lateral flow assays (LFAs) and two ELISAs to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The specimen set comprised 128 plasma or serum samples from 79 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals;108 pre-COVID-19 negative controls;and 52 recent samples from individuals who underwent respiratory viral testing but were not diagnosed with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Samples were blinded and LFA results were interpreted by two independent readers, using a standardized intensity scoring system. RESULTS: Among specimens from SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive individuals, the percent seropositive increased with time interval, peaking at 81.8-100.0% in samples taken >20 days after symptom onset. Test specificity ranged from 84.3-100.0% in pre-COVID-19 specimens. Specificity was higher when weak LFA bands were considered negative, but this decreased sensitivity. IgM detection was more variable than IgG, and detection was highest when IgM and IgG results were combined. Agreement between ELISAs and LFAs ranged from 75.7-94.8%. No consistent cross-reactivity was observed. CONCLUSION: Our evaluation showed heterogeneous assay performance. Reader training is key to reliable LFA performance, and can be tailored for survey goals. Informed use of serology will require evaluations covering the full spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infections, from asymptomatic and mild infection to severe disease, and later convalescence. Well-designed studies to elucidate the mechanisms and serological correlates of protective immunity will be crucial to guide rational clinical and public health policies.

PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331840


Phage Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (PhIP-Seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-Seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al. 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki Disease (KD), Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as PDYN in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in 2 patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-Seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-Seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.

PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329314


Vaccine-elicited adaptive immunity is an essential prerequisite for effective prevention and control of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19). Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) involves a diverse array of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) that target antibody and cell-mediated immunity, yet a comprehensive understanding of how MS DMTs impact SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses is lacking. We completed a detailed analysis of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-elicited spike antigen-specific IgG and T cell responses in a cohort of healthy controls and MS participants in six different treatment categories. Two specific DMT types, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), resulted in significantly reduced spike-specific IgG responses. Longer duration of anti-CD20 mAb treatment prior to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were associated with absent antibody responses. Except for reduced CD4+ T cell responses in S1P-treated patients, spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity remained robust across all MS treatment types. These findings have important implications for clinical practice guidelines and vaccination recommendations in MS patients and other immunosuppressed populations.