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1.
Am Heart J ; 247: 33-41, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory pathways during acute myocardial infarction contributes to infarct size and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The present prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy and safety of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to reduce infarct size. DESIGN: Controlled-Level EVERolimus in Acute Coronary Syndrome (CLEVER-ACS, clinicaltrials.gov NCT01529554) is a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of a 5-day course of oral everolimus on infarct size, LV remodeling, and inflammation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within 5 days of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), patients are randomly assigned to everolimus (first 3 days: 7.5 mg every day; days 4 and 5: 5.0 mg every day) or placebo, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome is the change from baseline (defined as 12 hours to 5 days after pPCI) to 30-day follow-up in myocardial infarct size as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Secondary endpoints comprise corresponding changes in cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers as well as microvascular obstruction and LV volumes assessed by CMRI. Clinical events, laboratory parameters, and blood cell counts are reported as safety endpoints at 30 days. CONCLUSION: The CLEVER-ACS trial tests the hypothesis whether mTOR inhibition using everolimus at the time of an acute STEMI affects LV infarct size following successful pPCI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Double-Blind Method , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(20): e018288, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255742

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has reached pandemic levels in March 2020 and impacted public health with unpredictable consequences.1, 2 The conduct of clinical research in areas unrelated to COVID-19 has been disrupted and will be further affected. Researchers, trial participants and study personnel have to overcome challenges to sustain proper and safe conduct of clinical trials (i.e. logistical challenges, lower enrollment than expected, difficulties in follow-up and outcome assessment/adjudication, incomplete data collection, research funding prolongation).


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
EuroIntervention ; 16(14): 1177-1186, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136574

ABSTRACT

The rearrangement of healthcare services required to face the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a drastic reduction in elective cardiac invasive procedures. We are already facing a "second wave" of infections and we might be dealing during the next months with a "third wave" and subsequently new waves. Therefore, during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic we have to face the problems of how to perform elective cardiac invasive procedures in non-COVID patients and which patients/procedures should be prioritised. In this context, the interplay between the pandemic stage, the availability of healthcare resources and the priority of specific cardiac disorders is crucial. Clear pathways for "hot" or presumed "hot" patients and "cold" patients are mandatory in each hospital. Depending on the local testing capacity and intensity of transmission in the area, healthcare facilities may test patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection before the interventional procedure, regardless of risk assessment for COVID-19. Pre-hospital testing should always be conducted in the presence of symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 positive patients, full personal protective equipment using FFP 2/N95 masks, eye protection, gowning and gloves is indicated during cardiac interventions for healthcare workers. When patients have tested negative for COVID-19, medical masks may be sufficient. Indeed, individual patients should themselves wear medical masks during cardiac interventions and outpatient visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EuroIntervention ; 16(14): 1177-1186, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016333

ABSTRACT

The rearrangement of healthcare services required to face the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a drastic reduction in elective cardiac invasive procedures. We are already facing a "second wave" of infections and we might be dealing during the next months with a "third wave" and subsequently new waves. Therefore, during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic we have to face the problems of how to perform elective cardiac invasive procedures in non-COVID patients and which patients/procedures should be prioritised. In this context, the interplay between the pandemic stage, the availability of healthcare resources and the priority of specific cardiac disorders is crucial. Clear pathways for "hot" or presumed "hot" patients and "cold" patients are mandatory in each hospital. Depending on the local testing capacity and intensity of transmission in the area, healthcare facilities may test patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection before the interventional procedure, regardless of risk assessment for COVID-19. Pre-hospital testing should always be conducted in the presence of symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 positive patients, full personal protective equipment using FFP 2/N95 masks, eye protection, gowning and gloves is indicated during cardiac interventions for healthcare workers. When patients have tested negative for COVID-19, medical masks may be sufficient. Indeed, individual patients should themselves wear medical masks during cardiac interventions and outpatient visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Elective Surgical Procedures , Pandemics , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1839-1851, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260376

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 770, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755207

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The OVID study will demonstrate whether prophylactic-dose enoxaparin improves survival and reduces hospitalizations in symptomatic ambulatory patients aged 50 or older diagnosed with COVID-19, a novel viral disease characterized by severe systemic, pulmonary, and vessel inflammation and coagulation activation. TRIAL DESIGN: The OVID study is conducted as a multicentre open-label superiority randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion Criteria 1. Signed patient informed consent after being fully informed about the study's background. 2. Patients aged 50 years or older with a positive test for SARS-CoV2 in the past 5 days and eligible for ambulatory treatment. 3. Presence of respiratory symptoms (i.e. cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath) or body temperature >37.5° C. 4. Ability of the patient to travel to the study centre by private transportation, performed either by an accompanying person from the same household or by the patient themselves 5. Ability to comply with standard hygiene requirements at the time of in-hospital visit, including a face mask and hand disinfectant. 6. Ability to walk from car to study centre or reach it by wheelchair transport with the help of an accompanying person from the same household also complying with standard hygiene requirements. 7. Ability to self-administer prefilled enoxaparin injections after instructions received at the study centre or availability of a person living with the patient to administer enoxaparin. Exclusion Criteria 1. Any acute or chronic condition posing an indication for anticoagulant treatment, e.g. atrial fibrillation, prior venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute confirmed symptomatic VTE, acute coronary syndrome. 2. Anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis deemed necessary in view of the patient's history, comorbidity or predisposing strong risk factors for thrombosis: a. Any of the following events occurring in the prior 30 days: fracture of lower limb, hospitalization for heart failure, hip/knee replacement, major trauma, spinal cord injury, stroke, b. previous VTE, c. histologically confirmed malignancy, which was diagnosed or treated (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) in the past 6 months, or recurrent, or metastatic, or inoperable. 3. Any clinically relevant bleeding (defined as bleeding requiring hospitalization, transfusion, surgical intervention, invasive procedures, occurring in a critical anatomical site, or causing disability) within 30 days prior to randomization or sign of acute bleeding. 4. Intracerebral bleeding at any time in the past or signs/symptoms consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage. 5. Haemoglobin <8 g/dL and platelet count <50 x 109 cells/L confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 6. Subjects with any known coagulopathy or bleeding diathesis, including known significant liver disease associated with coagulopathy. 7. Severe renal insufficiency (baseline creatinine clearance <30 mL/min calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula) confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 8. Contraindications to enoxaparin therapy, including prior heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and known hypersensitivity. 9. Current use of dual antiplatelet therapy. 10. Participation in other interventional studies over the past 30 days. 11. Non-compliance or inability to adhere to treatment or lack of a family environment or support system for home treatment. 12. Cognitive impairment and/or inability to understand information provided in the study information. Patient enrolment will take place at seven Swiss centres, including five university hospitals and two large cantonal hospitals. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the intervention group will receive subcutaneous enoxaparin at the recommended dose of 4,000 IU anti-Xa activity (40 mg/0.4 ml) once daily for 14 days. Patients randomized to the comparator group will receive no anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: a composite of any hospitalization or all-cause death occurring within 30 days of randomization. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: (i) a composite of cardiovascular events, including deep vein thrombosis (including catheter-associated), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction/myocarditis, arterial ischemia including mesenteric and extremities, acute splanchnic vein thrombosis, or ischemic stroke within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (ii) each component of the primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (iii) net clinical benefit (accounting for the primary efficacy outcome, composite cardiovascular events, and major bleeding), within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (iv) primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (v) disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH criteria, in-hospital diagnosis) within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment. RANDOMISATION: Patients will undergo block stratified randomization (by age: 50-70 vs. >70 years; and by study centre) with a randomization ratio of 1:1 with block sizes varying between 4 and 8. Randomization will be performed after the signature of the informed consent for participation and the verification of the eligibility criteria using the electronic data capture software (REDCAP, Vanderbilt University, v9.1.24). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label study, no blinding procedures will be used. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size calculation is based on the parameters α = 0.05 (2-sided), power: 1-ß = 0.8, event rate in experimental group, pexp = 0.09 and event rate in control group, pcon = 0.15. The resulting total sample size is 920. To account for potential dropouts, the total sample size was fixed to 1000 with 500 patients in the intervention group and 500 in the control group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.0, 14 April 2020. Protocol version 3.0, 18 May 2020 Recruiting start date: June 2020. Last Patient Last Visit: March 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04400799 First Posted: May 26, 2020 Last Update Posted: July 16, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
EuroIntervention ; 16(3): 233-246, 2020 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648041

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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