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1.
Medicine (United Kingdom) ; 50(2):85-89, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1720658

ABSTRACT

Rheumatology encompasses conditions affecting multiple body systems and requires a wide-lens approach to history-taking. The diagnostic challenge of rheumatological disease is best considered through a thorough multisystem history to elicit past and present symptomatology. The pattern of affected body systems, combined with more specific questioning to illustrate associated features, can then be used to formulate a diagnosis and exclude other differentials. This article provides a systematic approach to the rheumatological history and guidance on seeking out relevant clues to help make the diagnosis.

2.
American Journal of Health Economics ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1470095

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the determinants of social distancing during the shutdown phase of the COVID-19 epidemic. We classify state and local government actions, and we study multiple proxies for social distancing based on data from smart devices. Mobility fell substantially in all states, even ones that did not adopt major distancing mandates. Most of the fall in mobility occurred prior to the most stringent sanctions against movement, such as stay-at-home laws. However, we find evidence suggesting that state and local policies did have an independent effect on mobility even after the large initial reductions occurred. Event studies show that early and information-focused actions such as first case announcements, emergency declarations, and school closures reduced mobility by 1–5 percent after five days. Between March 1 and April 14, average time spent at home grew from 9.1 hours to 13.9 hours. We find, for example, that without state emergency declarations, hours at home would have been 11.3 hours in April, suggesting that 55 percent of the growth is associated with policy and 45 percent is associated with (non-policy) trends. State and local government actions induced changes in mobility on top of a large and private response across all states to the prevailing knowledge of public health risks. © 2021 American Society of Health Economists.

3.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 53, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1408098

ABSTRACT

For much of 2020, the COVID-19 epidemic upended social and economic life globally. In an effort to reduce COVID-19 risks in the U.S., state and local governments issued many recommendations and regulations to induce social distancing, adding to voluntary reductions in interpersonal contact. The responses to the epidemic helped contain spread, but also lead to high unintended societal costs. In the summer months, states took steps to revive the economy and lift social distancing regulations. However, as many epidemiologists expected, the scale of the epidemic has expanded very rapidly in the fall. In the week of October 14, the US generated around 57,000 new COVID-19 cases and 700 deaths each day. By November 15, the country was generating about 151,000 new cases and 1,200 deaths per day. These rapid increases in cases and deaths raise concerns about the capacity of local healthcare systems around the country. State governments are once again facing difficult choices about whether and how to use policies to address the spread of the virus. The incoming Biden-Harris administration faces an important challenge in trying to manage the epidemic as well as a large scale vaccination campaign. Although the epidemic is less than a year old, it has generated a huge volume of research by economists, epidemiologists, and others. This body of work may help inform policy decisions facing society in the coming months.

4.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 71, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1300000

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the determinants of social distancing during the COVID-19 epidemic. We classify state and local government actions, and we study multiple proxies for social distancing based on data from smart devices. Mobility fell substantially in all states, even ones that have not adopted major distancing mandates. There is little evidence, for example, that stay-at-home mandates induced distancing. In contrast, early and information-focused actions have had bigger effects. Event studies show that first case announcements, emergency declarations, and school closures reduced mobility by 1-5% after 5 days and 7-45% after 20 days. Between March 1 and April 11, average time spent at home grew from 9.1 hours to 13.9 hours. We find, for example, that without state emergency declarations, event study estimates imply that hours at home would have been 11.3 hours in April, suggesting that 55% of the growth comes from emergency declarations and 45% comes from secular (non-policy) trends. State and local government actions induced changes in mobility on top of a large response across all states to the prevailing knowledge of public health risks. Early state policies conveyed information about the epidemic, suggesting that even the policy response mainly operates through a voluntary channel.

5.
Harmonia: Journal of Arts Research and Education ; 21(1):91-104, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1291438

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has contributed stress to many people around the world due to fear and anxiety. Other than health issues, it has threatened the overall economy and influenced a drastic change of lifestyle. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the effect of music listening and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on the stress level of novice music teachers in Malaysia by using a mixed-method research design, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on the pre-test questionnaire, a sample of 30 participants was divided equally into high-moderate stress and low-stress groups based on Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). The quantitative results revealed a significant decrease in stress scores among the majority of the novice music teachers from high-moderate stress groups and insignificant differences in low-stress groups. The intervention was found to be effective as a stress-reduction therapy and benefits more on participants with higher stress levels. Ten interviewees were selected from the 30 participants to examine their career-stress-related challenges. The qualitative findings were divided into professional and non-professional challenges, included online teaching and learning, time management, financial issues, physiological issues, and emotional issues. © 2021, Universitas Negeri Semarang. All rights reserved.

6.
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity ; : 269-315, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1226878

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic upended social and economic life in the United States. To reduce transmission, people altered their mobility and interpersonal contact, and state and local governments acted to induce social distancing through across-the-board policies. The epidemic and the subsequent social distancing response led to high unemployment and to efforts to reopen the economy using more-targeted virus mitigation policies. This paper makes five contributions to studying epidemic policy and mobility. First, we review COVID-19 research on mobility, labor markets, consumer behavior, and health. Second, we sketch a simple model of incentives and constraints facing individuals. Third, we propose a typology of government social distancing policies. Fourth, we review new databases measuring cellular mobility and contact. Fifth, we present regression evidence to help disentangle private versus policy-induced changes in mobility. During the shutdown phase, large declines in mobility occurred before states adopted stay-at-home (SAH) mandates and in states that never adopted them, suggesting that much of the decline was a private response to the risk of infection. Similarly, in the reopening phase mobility increased rapidly, mostly preceding official state reopenings, with policies explaining almost none of the increase.

7.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 17: 100651, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many changes in the delivery of health service which not only affect the public as well as healthcare workers, and also among medical and nursing students who are currently undergoing their training. This study aims to determine the commitment and willingness of medical and nursing students in Sarawak in treating patients with COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study using online questionnaire, carried out in a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. All medical and nursing students were invited to participate in this study. Data was entered and analysed using IBM SPSS version 22. RESULT: A total of 304 respondents participated in the study, with 81.6% female and 69.4% medical students. Majority of the respondents were most willing to take a medical history, do a physical examination, throat swabbing, draw blood and perform IV drip insertion. There was a high commitment among respondents to treat COVID-19 patients regardless of personal risks. Majority of the respondents also agreed that medical staff who are involved in treating COVID-19 patients should be receiving a salary increase and compensation should be given to affected healthcare families, and all non-medical staff should be involved in treating COVID-19 patients. About 71% agreed about a law mandating medical staffs to treat patient. CONCLUSION: The willingness and commitment of medical and nursing students to treat COVID-19 patients was high, indicating their potential work force as healthcare providers.

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