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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1265-1270, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056549

ABSTRACT

Increases in severe respiratory illness and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) among children and adolescents resulting from enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections occurred biennially in the United States during 2014, 2016, and 2018, primarily in late summer and fall. Although EV-D68 annual trends are not fully understood, EV-D68 levels were lower than expected in 2020, potentially because of implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures (e.g., wearing face masks, enhanced hand hygiene, and physical distancing) (1). In August 2022, clinicians in several geographic areas notified CDC of an increase in hospitalizations of pediatric patients with severe respiratory illness and positive rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) test results.* Surveillance data were analyzed from multiple national data sources to characterize reported trends in acute respiratory illness (ARI), asthma/reactive airway disease (RAD) exacerbations, and the percentage of positive RV/EV and EV-D68 test results during 2022 compared with previous years. These data demonstrated an increase in emergency department (ED) visits by children and adolescents with ARI and asthma/RAD in late summer 2022. The percentage of positive RV/EV test results in national laboratory-based surveillance and the percentage of positive EV-D68 test results in pediatric sentinel surveillance also increased during this time. Previous increases in EV-D68 respiratory illness have led to substantial resource demands in some hospitals and have also coincided with increases in cases of AFM (2), a rare but serious neurologic disease affecting the spinal cord. Therefore, clinicians should consider AFM in patients with acute flaccid limb weakness, especially after respiratory illness or fever, and ensure prompt hospitalization and referral to specialty care for such cases. Clinicians should also test for poliovirus infection in patients suspected of having AFM because of the clinical similarity to acute flaccid paralysis caused by poliovirus. Ongoing surveillance for EV-D68 is critical to ensuring preparedness for possible future increases in ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Enterovirus D, Human , Enterovirus Infections , Myelitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Myelitis/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , United States/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(10): 1970-1976, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009833

ABSTRACT

The 4 common types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs)-2 alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and 2 beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43)-generally cause mild upper respiratory illness. Seasonal patterns and annual variation in predominant types of HCoVs are known, but parameters of expected seasonality have not been defined. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014-November 2021 in the United States by using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System data. In the 6 HCoV seasons before 2020-21, season onsets occurred October 21-November 12, peaks January 6-February 13, and offsets April 18-June 27; most (>93%) HCoV detection was within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020-21 HCoV season onset was 11 weeks later than in prior seasons, probably associated with COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better definitions of HCoV seasonality can be used for clinical preparedness and for determining expected patterns of emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Dis ; 226(6): 967-974, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since rotavirus vaccines became available in the United States in 2006, there have been reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations, changes in seasonality, and the emergence of a biennial trend of rotavirus activity. Reductions in other pathogens have been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation measures. We assessed ongoing rotavirus disease trends during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We report a 3-week moving average of the number of rotavirus tests, positive tests, and the percent positivity from laboratories reporting to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) from July 2000 through June 2021. To complement NREVSS data, we analyzed Google internet search interest in "rotavirus" from July 2004 to June 2021. RESULTS: Declines in rotavirus activity following vaccine introduction and the biennial trend are evident through the 2018-2019 surveillance year. In 2019-2021, rotavirus test positivity was below the historic ranges during the months of typically high rotavirus activity, and precipitous declines were noted in March 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In the 15 years since rotavirus vaccine was introduced, the number of laboratory-detected rotavirus infections has been consistently lower than during the prevaccine era. During the COVID-19 pandemic, rotavirus activity was suppressed. There may be many rotavirus-susceptible children during the 2021-2022 rotavirus season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus Vaccines , Rotavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Internet , Laboratories , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331029

ABSTRACT

The four common human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including two alpha (HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E) and two beta (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43) types, generally cause mild, upper respiratory illness. HCoVs are known to have seasonal patterns and variation in predominant types each year, but defined measures of seasonality are needed. We defined seasonality of HCoVs during July 2014 to November 2021 in the United States using a retrospective method applied to National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) data. In the six HCoV seasons prior to 2020-2021, onsets ranged from October to November, peaks from January to February, and offsets from April to June;most (>93%) HCoV detections occurred within the defined seasonal onsets and offsets. The 2020-2021 HCoV season onset was delayed by 11 weeks compared to prior seasons, likely due to COVID-19 mitigation efforts. Better defining HCoV seasonality can inform clinical preparedness and the expected patterns of emerging HCoVs.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 313-318, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702098

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) in the United States remain a frontline resource for pediatric health care emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patterns of health-seeking behavior have changed during the pandemic (1,2). CDC examined changes in U.S. ED visit trends to assess the continued impact of the pandemic on visits among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years (pediatric ED visits). Compared with 2019, pediatric ED visits declined by 51% during 2020, 22% during 2021, and 23% during January 2022. Although visits for non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses mostly declined, the proportion of visits for some respiratory conditions increased during January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly number and proportion of ED visits increased for certain types of injuries (e.g., drug poisonings, self-harm, and firearm injuries) and some chronic diseases, with variation by pandemic year and age group. Visits related to behavioral concerns increased across pandemic years, particularly among older children and adolescents. Health care providers and families should remain vigilant for potential indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including health conditions resulting from delayed care, and increasing emotional distress and behavioral health concerns among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/classification , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , United States
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(29): 1013-1019, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320641

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., cessation of global travel, mask use, physical distancing, and staying home) reduced transmission of some viral respiratory pathogens (1). In the United States, influenza activity decreased in March 2020, was historically low through the summer of 2020 (2), and remained low during October 2020-May 2021 (<0.4% of respiratory specimens with positive test results for each week of the season). Circulation of other respiratory pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) types OC43, NL63, 229E, and HKU1, and parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) types 1-4 also decreased in early 2020 and did not increase until spring 2021. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) circulation decreased in March 2020 and remained low through May 2021. Respiratory adenovirus (RAdV) circulated at lower levels throughout 2020 and as of early May 2021. Rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV) circulation decreased in March 2020, remained low until May 2020, and then increased to near prepandemic seasonal levels. Circulation of respiratory viruses could resume at prepandemic levels after COVID-19 mitigation practices become less stringent. Clinicians should be aware of increases in some respiratory virus activity and remain vigilant for off-season increases. In addition to the use of everyday preventive actions, fall influenza vaccination campaigns are an important component of prevention as COVID-19 mitigation measures are relaxed and schools and workplaces resume in-person activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Humans , United States/epidemiology
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