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1.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-338338

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an effective way of tracking the appearance and spread of SARS-COV-2 lineages through communities. Beginning in early 2021, we implemented a targeted approach to amplify and sequence the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-COV-2 to characterize viral lineages present in sewersheds. Over the course of 2021, we reproducibly detected multiple SARS-COV-2 RBD lineages that have never been observed in patient samples in 9 sewersheds located in 3 states in the USA. These cryptic lineages contained between 4 to 24 amino acid substitutions in the RBD and were observed intermittently in the sewersheds in which they were found for as long as 14 months. Many of the amino acid substitutions in these lineages occurred at residues also mutated in the Omicron variant of concern (VOC), often with the same substitution. One of the sewersheds contained a lineage that appeared to be derived from the Alpha VOC, but the majority of the lineages appeared to be derived from pre-VOC SARS-COV-2 lineages. Specifically, several of the cryptic lineages from New York City appeared to be derived from a common ancestor that most likely diverged in early 2020. While the source of these cryptic lineages has not been resolved, it seems increasingly likely that they were derived from immunocompromised patients or animal reservoirs. Our findings demonstrate that SARS-COV-2 genetic diversity is greater than what is commonly observed through routine SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. Wastewater sampling may more fully capture SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity than patient sampling and could reveal new VOCs before they emerge in the wider human population. Author Summary: During the COVID-19 pandemic, wastewater-based epidemiology has become an effective public health tool. Because many infected individuals shed SARS-CoV-2 in feces, wastewater has been monitored to reveal infection trends in the sewersheds from which the samples were derived. Here we report novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages in wastewater samples obtained from 3 different states in the USA. These lineages appeared in specific sewersheds intermittently over periods of up to 14 months, but generally have not been detected beyond the sewersheds in which they were initially found. Many of these lineages may have diverged in early 2020. Although these lineages share considerable overlap with each other, they have never been observed in patients anywhere in the world. While the wastewater lineages have similarities with lineages observed in long-term infections of immunocompromised patients, animal reservoirs cannot be ruled out as a potential source.

2.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334675

ABSTRACT

The Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) has been suggested as a useful mammalian model for a variety of diseases and infections, including infection with respiratory viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. The MesAur1.0 genome assembly was generated in 2013 using whole-genome shotgun sequencing with short-read sequence data. Current more advanced sequencing technologies and assembly methods now permit the generation of near-complete genome assemblies with higher quality and greater continuity. Findings Here, we report an improved assembly of the M. auratus genome (BCM_Maur_2.0) using Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read sequencing to produce a chromosome-scale assembly. The total length of the new assembly is 2.46 Gbp, similar to the 2.50 Gbp length of a previous assembly of this genome, MesAur1.0. BCM_Maur_2.0 exhibits significantly improved continuity with a scaffold N50 that is 6.7 times greater than MesAur1.0. Furthermore, 21,616 protein coding genes and 10,459 noncoding genes are annotated in BCM_Maur_2.0 compared to 20,495 protein coding genes and 4,168 noncoding genes in MesAur1.0. This new assembly also improves the unresolved regions as measured by nucleotide ambiguities, where approximately 17.11% of bases in MesAur1.0 were unresolved compared to BCM_Maur_2.0 in which the number of unresolved bases is reduced to 3.00%. Conclusions Access to a more complete reference genome with improved accuracy and continuity will facilitate more detailed, comprehensive, and meaningful research results for a wide variety of future studies using Syrian hamsters as models.

3.
Decision Sciences ; : 13, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1462768

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 crisis and geopolitical ruptures of recent years have highlighted the importance of operations and supply chain management (OSCM) to firms and society. How do OSCM executives make decisions under uncertainty, and how do they balance the competing needs of various stakeholders? The behavioral agency model (BAM), which has been widely used in the management literature, focuses on the executive as the unit of analysis, like the behavioral science research in which it is embedded;by contrast, much of the supply chain risk management research has examined risk at the level of the firm. We review BAM literature and its core constructs, refine its original predictions, identify OSCM executive decision contexts that could take advantage of BAM, and highlight research opportunities using BAM. We aim to provide a platform for further risk research applying BAM in the domain of OSCM executive decision-making.

4.
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law ; 13(2):1-2, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1154793
5.
Samj South African Medical Journal ; 110(11):1077-1080, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-979208

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic requires urgent decisions regarding treatment policy in the face of rapidly evolving evidence. In response, the South African Essential Medicines List Committee established a subcommittee to systematically review and appraise emerging evidence, within very short timelines, in order to inform the National Department of Health COVID-19 treatment guidelines. To date, the subcommittee has reviewed 14 potential treatments, and made recommendations based on local context, feasibility, resource requirements and equity. Here we describe the rapid review and evidence-to-decision process, using remdesivir and dexamethasone as examples. Our experience is that conducting rapid reviews is a practical and efficient way to address medicine policy questions under pandemic conditions.

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