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1.
Moravian Geographical Reports ; 31(1):14-26, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311619

ABSTRACT

The transport behaviour of Lodz residents with a view to constructing a balanced traffic model to include both private and public transport is examined in this paper. A survey was conducted among 6,000 Lodz citizens using mixed-mode techniques: CAWI and CATI: respondents were asked to complete a travel log for the previous day and the previous Sunday. This served as a basis for further analyses, performed with PTV simulation software, following a four-step model. The main results of the study are presented, including the mobility rate of Lodz residents, the motivations and duration of journeys, and the division of transport tasks into workdays and Sundays, indicating that a higher private carload is typical for home-other and other-home trips on Sundays compared to working days. The number of home to work and work-home trips via private cars is higher for working days compared to Sundays. Furthermore, the simulated traffic load of the public transport system is much higher for working days compared to Sundays. A higher percentage of non-motorised trips and longer trip duration are found to be common for Sundays as well.

2.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research ; 22(4):20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1766061

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the emission of PM2.5 generated by passenger cars is investigated. First, traffic data collected from the inductive loop sensors is analyzed. Second, the traffic flow for the whole network system is estimated using an isometric transformed network and the Euclidean space, and the representative one is selected. Then, an emission model is presented for measuring the level of PM2.5 emissions by the passenger cars, and the integration process is given. Finally, the model is implemented on the central part of the city of Lodz, and the value of emissions before and after the COVID-19 pandemic is measured. Finally, the outputs and the process of the model calibration are depicted. Results show that before the pandemic, PM2.5 pollution was highly concentrated in the center and peripheral parts of the area under consideration, and it would gradually drop outside rush hours and grow at peak hours. After the lockdown, the pollution load throughout the whole area, and across its central parts in particular, decreased dramatically. Outputs also illustrate that restrictions not only lower the car-induced PM2.5 but also have a significant effect on the impact zones, areas affected by the pollutants. Another finding is that although the COVID-19 outbreak clearly poses a serious threat to life and health, it has had an exceptionally positive impact on the natural environment, becoming an unconventional mechanism for its restoration.

5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277155

ABSTRACT

Rationale The ACTIV 4B (OWS/NHLBI supported) clinical trial addresses the use of anti-platelet and anticoagulant agents in symptomatic COVID-19 positive non-hospitalized patients with regards to safety and prevention of macro- and micro-thrombotic events using a composite outcome (symptomatic DVT/PE, arterial thromboembolism, MI, CVA, hospitalization for CV/pulmonary events, mortality). Concerns regarding SARS-CoV- 2 transmission risk to research staff and overburdened institutional environments create challenges for standard event monitoring. In addition, safety or outcome events often occur at other institutions rather than the enrollment site. Therefore, research methodology was adapted to effectively evaluate and categorize safety events using a remote low touch approach. Methods Trial over can be found at NCT04498273. Potential adverse events identified through patient electronic data capture survey or call center assessments are handled remotely by central clinical study staff. If an event is identified as a possible endpoint or SAE by the central study staff the electronic data collection (EDC) system notifies the central medical monitoring team, and the enrolling site coordinator if patient enrolled from an acute care setting, that additional source documents are necessary. The medical coordinator works with the site coordinator, or will reach out independently to treating institutions to obtain necessary source documents. Based on a review of clinical data from the EDC and all available source documents, final arbitration of seriousness, relatedness and expectedness is be made by the study's Medical Monitor, and appropriate study entities (NIH, FDA, IRB, study leadership, pharmaceutical co.) are notified.Results The process as described has been successfully and effectively implemented in >50 patients with anticipation of 7000 patient eventual enrollment. Events have been captured, source documentation has been procured and events have been reported as per established protocol processes. Conclusion We have effectively implemented a medical safety event monitoring methodology in a “low touch” study design to assess events in the complex COVID-19 outpatient space. Elements of our system can be effectively replicated in other COVID and non-COVID clinical trials. .

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