Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1158716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231773

ABSTRACT

Objective: Social isolation and loneliness (SI/L) are considered critical public health issues. The primary objective of this scoping review is to document the experience of SI/L among older adults in Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic, given research gaps in this area. We identified the reasons for SI/L, the effects of SI/L, SI/L coping strategies, and research and policy gaps in SI/L experiences among older adults in Africa during COVID-19. Methods: Six databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, APA PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Ageline) were used to identify studies reporting the experiences of SI/L among older adults in Africa during the COVID-19 lockdown. We adopted the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Results: Social isolation and loneliness due to COVID-19 in Africa affected older adults' mental, communal, spiritual, financial, and physical health. The use of technology was vital, as was the role of social networks within the family, community, religious groups, and government. Methodological challenges include the risk of selective survival bias, sampling biases, and limited inductive value due to context. Also, lack of large-scale mixed methods longitudinal studies to capture the experiences of older adults during COVID-19. There were essential policy gaps for African mental health support services, media programs, and community care service integration targeting older adults in the era of the COVID-19 lockdown. Discussion: Like in other countries, COVID-19 lockdown policies and the lockdown restrictions primarily caused the experience of SI/L among older adults in Africa. In African countries, they resulted in a severance of older adults from the cultural structure of care for older adults and their familial support systems. Weak government intervention, personal situations, challenges regarding technology, and detachment from daily activities, disproportionately affected older adults in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Loneliness , Humans , Aged , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Social Isolation/psychology , Africa
2.
Can J Aging ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315843

ABSTRACT

A scoping review was conducted to identify patterns, effects, and interventions to address social isolation and loneliness among community-dwelling older adult populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also integrated (1) data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) and (2) a scan of Canadian grey literature on pandemic interventions. CLSA data showed estimated relative increases in loneliness ranging between 33 and 67 per cent depending on age/gender group. International studies also reported increases in levels of loneliness, as well as strong associations between loneliness and depression during the pandemic. Literature has primarily emphasized the use of technology-based interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness. Application of socio-ecological and resilience frameworks suggests that researchers should focus on exploring the wider array of potential pandemic age-friendly interventions (e.g., outdoor activities, intergenerational programs, and other outreach approaches) and strength-based approaches (e.g., building community and system-level capacity) that may be useful for reducing social isolation and loneliness.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 872, 2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 and related preventative measures undertaken during the pandemic. Given clear evidence of the relationship between loneliness and health outcomes, it is imperative to better understand if, and how, loneliness has changed for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whom it has impacted most. METHOD: We used "pre-pandemic" data collected between 2015-2018 (n = 44,817) and "during pandemic" data collected between Sept 29-Dec 29, 2020 (n = 24,114) from community-living older adults participating in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Loneliness was measured using the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. Weighted generalized estimating equations estimated the prevalence of loneliness pre-pandemic and during the pandemic. Lagged logistic regression models examined individual-level factors associated with loneliness during the pandemic. RESULTS: We found the adjusted prevalence of loneliness increased to 50.5% (95% CI: 48.0%-53.1%) during the pandemic compared to 30.75% (95% CI: 28.72%-32.85%) pre-pandemic. Loneliness increased more for women (22.3% vs. 17.0%), those in urban areas (20.8% vs. 14.6%), and less for those 75 years and older (16.1% vs. 19.8% or more in all other age groups). Loneliness during the pandemic was strongly associated with pre-pandemic loneliness (aOR 4.87; 95% CI 4.49-5.28) and individual level sociodemographic factors [age < 55 vs. 75 + (aOR 1.41; CI 1.23-1.63), women (aOR 1.34; CI 1.25-1.43), and no post-secondary education vs. post-secondary education (aOR 0.73; CI 0.61-0.86)], living conditions [living alone (aOR 1.39; CI 1.27-1.52) and urban living (aOR 1.18; CI 1.07-1.30)], health status [depression (aOR 2.08; CI 1.88-2.30) and having two, or ≥ three chronic conditions (aOR 1.16; CI 1.03-1.31 and aOR 1.34; CI 1.20-1.50)], health behaviours [regular drinker vs. non-drinker (aOR 1.15; CI 1.04-1.28)], and pandemic-related factors [essential worker (aOR 0.77; CI 0.69-0.87), and spending less time alone than usual on weekdays (aOR 1.32; CI 1.19-1.46) and weekends (aOR 1.27; CI 1.14-1.41) compared to spending the same amount of time alone]. CONCLUSIONS: As has been noted for various other outcomes, the pandemic did not impact all subgroups of the population in the same way with respect to loneliness. Our results suggest that public health measures aimed at reducing loneliness during a pandemic should incorporate multifactor interventions fostering positive health behaviours and consider targeting those at high risk for loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , Canada/epidemiology , Aging , Risk Factors
4.
J Aging Health ; : 8982643221129686, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305747

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThis paper examines the longitudinal effects of changes in the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms during the pandemic among older adults (65+). Methods Baseline (2011-2015) and Follow-up 1 (2015-2018) from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit waves of the CLSA COVID-19 study (April-December, 2020) (n = 12,469) were used. Loneliness was measured using the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale and depression using the CES_D- 9. Results Loneliness is associated with depressive symptoms pre-pandemic; and changes in level of loneliness between FUP1 and the COVID Exit survey, adjusting for covariates. No interaction between loneliness and caregiving, and with multimorbidity, on depressive symptoms were observed, and several covariates exhibited associations with depressive symptoms. Discussion Strong support is found for an association between loneliness on depressive symptoms among older adults during the pandemic. Public health approaches addressing loneliness could reduce the burden of depression on older populations.

5.
Canadian Journal on Aging ; 39(3):344-347, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2286848

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global crisis is reshaping Canadian society in unexpected and profound ways. The significantly higher morbidity and mortality risks by age suggest that this is largely a "gero-pandemic,” which has thrust the field of aging onto center stage. This editorial emphasizes that vulnerable older adults are also those most affected by COVID-19 in terms of infection risk, negative health effects, and the potential deleterious outcomes on a range of social, psychological, and economic contexts – from ageism to social isolation. We also contend that the pathogenic analysis of this pandemic needs to be balanced with a salutogenic approach that examines the positive adaptation of people, systems and society, termed COVID-19 resilience. This begs the question: how and why do some older adults and communities adapt and thrive better than others? This examination will lead to the identification and response to research and data gaps, challenges, and innovative opportunities as we plan for a future in which COVID-19 has become another endemic infection in the growing list of emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 865459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963599

ABSTRACT

Drawing on multidisciplinary research focusing on a spectrum ranging from individual experience to structural system-level risk response and resilience, this article develops a rationale for a Unified Model of Resilience and Aging (UMRA). In response to a broad range of adversities associated with aging, it details the ways in which some individuals are able to bounce back better than others, or adapt better than expected, termed resilience. However, resilience and aging theoretical models have developed out of different disciplinary developments, ranging from individual levels to structural level complex systems, including several gerontological theoretical models addressing adaptation to life course and aging processes. The article reviews and synthesizes prior conceptual and theoretical work, and their empirical groundings, in order to develop an integrated resilience model with wide applications to aging-related problems including chronic illness, mental health, widowhood, poverty, caregiving burden, etc. The article focuses specifically on COVID-19 pandemic risk, response and resilience in order to specify applications of the UMRA, and to suggest avenues for future research and testing of theoretical axioms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Aging/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
7.
Clin Gerontol ; : 1-16, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the longitudinal effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults (65+) with multimorbidity on levels of depression, anxiety, and perceived global impact on their lives. METHODS: Baseline (2011-2015) and Follow-up 1 (2015-2018) data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit waves of the CLSA COVID-19 study (April-December, 2020) (n = 18,099). Multimorbidity was measured using: a) an additive scale of chronic conditions; and b) six chronic disease clusters. Linear Mixed Models were employed to test hypotheses. RESULTS: Number of chronic conditions pre-pandemic was associated with pandemic levels of depression (estimate = 0.40, 95% CI: [0.37,0.44]); anxiety (estimate = 0.20, 95% CI: [0.18, 0.23]); and perceived negative impact of the pandemic (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: [1.02, 1.06]). The associations between multimorbidity and anxiety decreased during the period of the COVID-19 surveys (estimate = -0.02, 95% CI: [-0.05, -0.01]); whereas the multimorbidity association with perceived impact increased (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: [1.01, 1.05]). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pre-pandemic multimorbidity conditions are associated with worsening mental health. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Clinicians treating mental health of older adults need to consider the joint effects of multimorbidity conditions and pandemic experiences to tailor counseling and other treatment protocols.

8.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888308

ABSTRACT

Drawing on multidisciplinary research focusing on a spectrum ranging from individual experience to structural system-level risk response and resilience, this article develops a rationale for a Unified Model of Resilience and Aging (UMRA). In response to a broad range of adversities associated with aging, it details the ways in which some individuals are able to bounce back better than others, or adapt better than expected, termed resilience. However, resilience and aging theoretical models have developed out of different disciplinary developments, ranging from individual levels to structural level complex systems, including several gerontological theoretical models addressing adaptation to life course and aging processes. The article reviews and synthesizes prior conceptual and theoretical work, and their empirical groundings, in order to develop an integrated resilience model with wide applications to aging-related problems including chronic illness, mental health, widowhood, poverty, caregiving burden, etc. The article focuses specifically on COVID-19 pandemic risk, response and resilience in order to specify applications of the UMRA, and to suggest avenues for future research and testing of theoretical axioms.

9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 92, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a spectrum of adversities that have affected older adults disproportionately. This paper examines older adults with multimorbidity using longitudinal data to ascertain why some of these vulnerable individuals coped with pandemic-induced risk and stressors better than others - termed multimorbidity resilience. We investigate pre-pandemic levels of functional, social and psychological forms of resilience among this sub-population of at-risk individuals on two outcomes - self-reported comprehensive pandemic impact and personal worry. METHODS: This study was conducted using Follow-up 1 data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit COVID-19 study, conducted between April and December in 2020. A final sub-group of 9211 older adults with two or more chronic health conditions were selected for analyses. Logistic regression and Generalized Linear Mixed Models were employed to test hypotheses between a multimorbidity resilience index and its three sub-indices measured using pre-pandemic Follow-up 1 data and the outcomes, including covariates. RESULTS: The multimorbidity resilience index was inversely associated with pandemic comprehensive impact at both COVID-19 Baseline wave (OR = 0.83, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.80,0.86]), and Exit wave (OR = 0.84, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.81,0.87]); and for personal worry at Exit (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.86,0.93]), in the final models with all covariates. The full index was also associated with comprehensive impact between the COVID waves (estimate = - 0.19, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [- 0.22, - 0.16]). Only the psychological resilience sub-index was inversely associated with comprehensive impact at both Baseline (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]) and Exit waves (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]), in the final model; and between these COVID waves (estimate = - 0.11, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [- 0.13, - 0.10]). The social resilience sub-index exhibited a weak positive association (OR = 1.04, p < 0.05, 95% CI: [1.01,1.07]) with personal worry, and the functional resilience measure was not associated with either outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that psychological resilience is most pronounced in protecting against pandemic comprehensive impact and personal worry. In addition, several covariates were also associated with the outcomes. The findings are discussed in terms of developing or retrofitting innovative approaches to proactive coping among multimorbid older adults during both pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aging , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Multimorbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
10.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(9): 1740-1757, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies on informal caregiving during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have mainly focused on subgroups of caregivers using cross-sectional or convenience samples, limiting the generalizability of findings. Conversely, this longitudinal study examines the effects of the pandemic and caregiving factors on depressive symptoms and anxiety over 9 months among informal caregivers in Canada. METHODS: This study uses data from the Baseline (2011-2015), Follow-up 1 (2015-2018), and COVID-19 Study Baseline survey (April to May 2020) and Exit surveys (September to December 2020) of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). A total of 14,118 CLSA participants who were caregivers at Follow-up 1 and participated in the COVID-19 studies were selected. Linear mixed models were used to examine the effect of sex of caregiver, changes in caregiving (increase in caregiving hours and inability to care), and location of care (same household, another household, and health care institution) on depressive symptoms and anxiety from COVID-19 studies Baseline to Exit surveys (about 6-7 months apart). RESULTS: Informal caregivers reported more frequent depressive symptoms from the COVID-19 Baseline to Exit surveys, but not anxiety. Female caregivers reported greater depressive symptoms and anxiety, and male caregivers exhibited a greater increase in depressive symptoms and anxiety over time. More caregiving hours and inability to provide care were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Also, in-home caregivers reported more depressive symptoms and anxiety than those who cared for someone in health care institution, and more anxiety than those who cared for some in another household. DISCUSSION: The findings shed light on the change in mental health among informal caregivers during the outset of the pandemic. The demonstrated associations between studied variables and mental health among informal caregivers provide empirical evidence for intervention programs aiming to support caregivers, particularly those who are female, and providing intensive care at home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
11.
The Lancet ; 398, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1537148

ABSTRACT

Background Restrictions implemented to mitigate the transmission of COVID-19 have affected the ability of many older adults to engage in social and physical activities. We examined the mental health outcomes for older adults whose ability to be socially and physically active was reduced during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of Canadian residents aged 45–85 years, at CLSA baseline (2012–15), follow-up 1 (2018), COVID-19 baseline (April–May, 2020), and COVID-19 exit surveys (September–December, 2020) were used. Participants were asked the degree to which their ability to participate in social and physical activity had been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the risk of a positive screen for depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score >10) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7 score >10) and reduced participants' ability to participate in social and physical activity. Models were adjusted for age group, dwelling type, geographic area, household composition, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and smoking status at COVID-19 baseline;alcohol consumption at COVID-19 exit;and multimorbidity, physical activity, income, social participation, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorders before the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings Of the 24 108 participants who completed the COVID-19 exit survey, 5219 (22·0%) screened positive for depression and 1132 (5·0%) screened positive for anxiety. Depression and anxiety were associated with a decreased ability to participate in social activity (odds ratio [OR] 1·85 [95% CI 1·67–2·04] for depression;1·66 [1·37–2·02] for anxiety) and physical activity (2·46 [2·25–2·69] for depression;1·96 [1·68–2·30] for anxiety). Interpretation Older adults whose ability to participate in social and physical activities was reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic had poorer mental health outcomes than those whose ability remained the same or improved. Individuals who had low pre-COVID-19 levels of social and physical activity had a higher frequency of positive depression and anxiety screens. These findings highlight the importance of fostering social and physical activity resources in advance of, and during, future lockdown measures. Funding The CLSA COVID-19 Questionnaire study was funded by the Juravinski Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, McMaster University Provost Fund, McMaster Institute for Research on Aging, Public Health Agency of Canada, and Government of Nova Scotia. The CLSA is funded by the Government of Canada through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant number LSA94473) and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. PR holds the Raymond and Margaret Labarge Chair in Optimal Aging and Knowledge Application for Optimal Aging, and a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Geroscience. TDC is a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Scholar (grant number SCH-2020-0490).

12.
Can J Aging ; 41(3): 327-347, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526029

ABSTRACT

This study examines associations between lifestyle behavioural factors and appraisals of "healthy aging" among older adults experiencing multimorbidity. A Social Determinants and Health Behaviour Model (SDHBM) is used to frame the analyses. Using baseline data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we studied 12,272 Canadians 65 years of age or older who reported 2 or more of 27 chronic conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using three multimorbidity clusters: cardiovascular/metabolic, musculoskeletal, and mental health. Using hierarchical logistic regression, it was found that, for multmorbidity and the three illness clusters, healthy aging is consistently associated with not smoking (except for the mental health cluster), an absence of obesity (except for the cardiovascular and metabolic cluster), better sleep, and a better appetite. It is not associated with inactivity. Several socio-demographic, environmental, and illness covariates were also supported. The findings are examined using the SDHBM coupled with a resilience lens in order to elucidate how modifiable health behaviours can act as resources to mitigate multimorbidity adversities. This has implications for healthy aging for persons with multimorbidity, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multimorbidity , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Social Determinants of Health
13.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 217, 2021 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loneliness and social isolation are prevalent public health concerns among community-dwelling older adults. One approach that is becoming an increasingly popular method of reducing levels of loneliness and social isolation among older adults is through technology-driven solutions. This protocol outlines a research trajectory whereby a scoping review will be initiated in order to illustrate and map the existing technological approaches that have been utilized to diminish levels of loneliness and social isolation among community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older. We will address the question: what are the most common and less used technological approaches to reduce loneliness and social isolation among community-dwelling older adults? METHODS: A scoping review of Academic Search Premier, AGEline, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases will take place using our search terms including the following: loneliness, social isolation, older adults, elderly, Aged, Aged 80 and over, program, evaluation, trial, intervention, technology, computer, information and communication technology, internet, and robot. The initial electronic search will be supplemented by reviewing the reference lists and review articles to identify any missing studies. To meet study inclusion criteria, intervention studies had to pertain to community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older, include technological interventions, include loneliness and/or social isolation as outcome variables, and be written in the English language. Two parallel independent assessments of study eligibility will be conducted for the title, abstract, and full-text screens. Any disagreement will be resolved by consensus and a third reviewer consulted to make a decision if consensus is not achieved initially. Finally, the amalgamation of results will be an iterative process whereby reviewers will refine the plan for presenting results after data extraction is completed so that all of the contents of the extraction may be included in the results. DISCUSSION: The information gleaned in this scoping review will be essential to understand the degree to which technological interventions influence social isolation and loneliness among older adults and identify gaps for further research.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Social Isolation , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Independent Living , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Technology
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e21864, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218462

ABSTRACT

One of the most at-risk groups during the COVID-19 crisis is older adults, especially those who live in congregate living settings and seniors' care facilities, are immune-compromised, and/or have other underlying illnesses. Measures undertaken to contain the spread of the virus are far-reaching, and older adults were among the first groups to experience restrictions on face-to-face contact. Although reducing viral transmission is critical, physical distancing is associated with negative psychosocial implications, such as increased rates of depression and anxiety. Promising evidence suggests that participatory digital co-design, defined as the combination of user-centered design and community engagement models, is associated with increased levels of engagement with mobile technologies among individuals with mental health conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted shortcomings of existing technologies and challenges in their uptake and usage; however, strategies such as co-design may be leveraged to address these challenges both in the adaptation of existing technologies and the development of new technologies. By incorporating these strategies, it is hoped that we can offset some of the negative mental health implications for older adults in the context of physical distancing both during and beyond the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Digital Technology , Mental Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Age Factors , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Technology
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 51, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031057

ABSTRACT

The care needs for aging adults are increasing burdens on health systems around the world. Efforts minimizing risk to improve quality of life and aging have proven moderately successful, but acute shocks and chronic stressors to an individual's systemic physical and cognitive functions may accelerate their inevitable degradations. A framework for resilience to the challenges associated with aging is required to complement on-going risk reduction policies, programs and interventions. Studies measuring resilience among the elderly at the individual level have not produced a standard methodology. Moreover, resilience measurements need to incorporate external structural and system-level factors that determine the resources that adults can access while recovering from aging-related adversities. We use the National Academies of Science conceptualization of resilience for natural disasters to frame resilience for aging adults. This enables development of a generalized theory of resilience for different individual and structural contexts and populations, including a specific application to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geriatrics , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL