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1.
Infection ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959190

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients are postulated to be at elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes of COVID-19. The exact effect of HIV infection on the course of COVID-19 remains to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: The HIV-positive patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified through thirteen specialist HIV clinics routinely following them due to HIV treatment. The data were collected between November 2020 and May 2021 through an on-line electronical case report form (SurveyMonkey®). The collected information included demographics, lifestyle, comorbidities, HIV care history, COVID-19 clinical course and treatment. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with the odds of death or hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-three patients with HIV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were included in the analysis. One hundred and sixty-one (93.1%) subjects had a symptomatic course of the disease. Thirty-nine (23.1%) of them were hospitalized, 23 (13.3%) necessitated oxygen therapy. Three (1.8%) patients required admission to the intensive care unit and 6 (3.5%) patients died. The presence of comorbidities and an HIV viral load of more than 50 copies/mL were linked to the increased odds of hospitalization (OR 3.24 [95% CI 1.27-8.28]) and OR 5.12 [95% CI 1.35-19.6], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: As depicted by our analyses, HIV-positive patients with comorbidities and/or uncontrolled HIV replication who are diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered of high risk of poor COVID-19 outcome and followed up carefully.

2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5027-5033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vibrio vulnificus infections are a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, infections with this bacteria have been reported in Central Europe, especially in the German Baltic coast but also in France and Italy. Climate warming causes the sea temperature to increase every year, which translates to an increased risk of infections from the Vibrio group. Most of these are mild and present as wound infections, but some patients develop life-threatening sepsis from either ingestion of infected mollusks or wound lesions that develop into generalized infections. Illness may be associated with necrotizing fasciitis and may require several weeks of therapy, often based on a surgical operation, demarcation of necrosis or limb amputation. A case such as the one described in this manuscript has not been previously described in Poland and demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary approach to infection with Vibrio vulnificus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old patient was pricked with an unknown object in the side of a lower limb during his stay at the Polish seaside. He developed a life-threatening infection in the form of severe sepsis with multiple organ failure. He required broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and after obtaining results for Vibrio vulnificus targeted therapy, a surgical operation with skin lesion decompression and fasciotomy was performed. Finally, hyperbaric chamber therapy was given. The patient's general condition improved, and local changes and his vital parameters stabilized. CONCLUSION: Vibrio vulnificus infection may be confused with other causes of skin and subcutaneous tissue infection, although it requires a different approach and different targeted antibiotic therapies. This infection may take the form of a life-threatening disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084560

ABSTRACT

Liver injury-expressed as elevated liver enzymes-is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP); and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

4.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 10(4):672, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077160

ABSTRACT

Liver injury—expressed as elevated liver enzymes—is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level;gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP);and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

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