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1.
Viruses ; 14(4):746, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776356

ABSTRACT

The novel, highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a pandemic of acute respiratory illness worldwide and remains a huge threat to the healthcare system's capacity to respond to COVID-19. Elderly and immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for a severe course of COVID-19. These high-risk groups have been identified as developing diminished humoral and cellular immune responses. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 RNA remains detectable in nasopharyngeal swabs of these patients for a prolonged period of time. These factors complicate the clinical management of these vulnerable patient groups. To date, there are no well-defined guidelines for an appropriate duration of isolation for elderly and immunocompromised patients, especially in hospitals or nursing homes. The aim of the present study was to characterize at-risk patient cohorts capable of producing a replication-competent virus over an extended period after symptomatic COVID-19, and to investigate the humoral and cellular immune responses and infectivity to provide a better basis for future clinical management. In our cohort, the rate of positive viral cultures and the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests correlated with higher viral loads. Elderly patients and patients with diabetes mellitus had adequate cellular and humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while immunocompromised patients had reduced humoral and cellular immune responses. Our patient cohort was hospitalized for longer compared with previously published cohorts. Longer hospitalization was associated with a high number of nosocomial infections, representing a potential hazard for additional complications to patients. Most importantly, regardless of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection, no virus was culturable beyond a cycle threshold (ct) value of 33 in the majority of samples. Our data clearly indicate that elderly and diabetic patients develop a robust immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and may be safely de-isolated at a ct value of more than 35.

2.
Transplantation Proceedings ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1740226

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses might have a pivotal role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Those SARS-CoV-2-crossreactive T cells were recently described in immunocompetent individuals. Still, data on cross-reactive humoral and cellular immunity in kidney transplant recipients is currently lacking. Methods: The preexisting, crossreactive antibody, B, and T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed adults with kidney transplantation (Tx, n=14) and without (non-Tx, n=12) sampled before the pandemic were compared with 22 convalescent COVID-19 patients (Cp) applying ELISA and flow cytometry. Results: In both unexposed groups SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were not detectable. Memory B cells binding spike (S) protein SARS-CoV-2 were detected in unexposed individuals (64% Tx, 50% non-Tx) and higher frequencies after infection (80% Cp). The numbers of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells were comparable between Tx and non-Tx. Of note, SARS-CoV-2-reactive follicular T helper (Tfh) cells were present in 61% of the unexposed cohort in both, Tx and non-Tx. Conclusions: Cross-reactive memory B and T cells against SARS-CoV-2 exist also in transplanted adults suggesting a primed adaptive immunity. The impact on disease course may depend on the concomitant immunosuppressive drugs.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732265

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed binding and neutralizing antibody titers up to 6 months after standard vaccination with BNT162b2 (two doses of 30 µg each) in SARS-CoV-2 naïve patients (n = 59) on hemodialysis. Humoral vaccine responses were measured before and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after the first vaccination. A chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 IgG against the spike glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity was tested against the wild-type virus. A multivariable binary regression model was used to identify risk factors for the absence of humoral immune responses at 6 months. At week 6, vaccine-specific seroconversion was detected in 96.6% of all patients with median anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgGs of 918 BAU/mL. At weeks 12 and 24, seroconversion rates decreased to 91.5% and 79.7%, and corresponding median binding antibody titers declined to 298 BAU/mL and 89 BAU/mL, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies showed a decay from 79.6% at week 6 to 32.8% at week 24. The risk factor with the strongest association for vanishing immune responses was low serum albumin (p = 0.018). Regarding vaccine-specific humoral responses 6 months after the standard BNT162b2 vaccination schedule, SARS-CoV-2 naïve patients receiving hemodialysis must be considered at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and being infectious.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322706

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, represents a serious worldwide health concern. A deeper understanding of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 will be required to refine vaccine development and efficacy as well as to evaluate long-term immunity in convalescent patients. With this in mind, we investigated the formation of SARS-CoV-2 specific BMEMORY cells from patient blood samples. Methods: A standard flow cytometry-based protocol for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific B cells was applied using fluorochrome-coupled SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) full-length protein. Cohorts of 26 central European convalescent mild/moderate COVID-19 patients and 14 healthy donors were assessed for the levels of SARS-CoV-2 S- specific BMEMORY cells. Results: Overall B cell composition was not affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection in convalescent patients. Our analysis of SARS-CoV-2 specific BMEMORY cells in samples collected at different time points revealed that S-protein specific B cells remain in peripheral blood at least up to 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusions: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific BMEMORY cells may improve our understanding of the long-term adaptive immunity in response to SARS-CoV-2, allowing for an improved public health response and vaccine development during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further validation of the study in larger and more diverse populations and a more extended observation period will be required.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311943

ABSTRACT

The magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the dynamic changes of immune parameters in patients with the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their correlation with the disease severity remain unclear. The clinical and laboratory results from 154 confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in patients were estimated using the Ct values of specific RT-PCR tests. The lymphocyte subsets and cytokines profiles in the peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and specific immunoassays. 154 confirmed COVID-19 patients were clinically examined up to 4 weeks after admission. The initial SARS-CoV-2 RNA Ct values at admission varied but were comparable in the patient groups classified according to the age, gender, underlying diseases, and disease severity. Three days after admission significant higher Ct values were found in severe cases. Significantly reduced counts of T cells and T cell subsets were found in patients with old age and underlying diseases at admission and were characteristic for the development of severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 developed preferentially in patients with underlying compromised immunity and was not associated with initial virus levels. Higher SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in severe cases were apparently a result of impaired immune control associated with dysregulation of inflammation.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 816220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686484

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) can trigger severe endemic waves and vaccine breakthrough infections (VBI). We analyzed the cellular and humoral immune response in 8 patients infected with the alpha variant, resulting in moderate to fatal COVID-19 disease manifestation, after double mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In contrast to the uninfected vaccinated control cohort, the diseased individuals had no detectable high-avidity spike (S)-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells against the alpha variant and wild type (WT) at disease onset, whereas a robust CD4+ T-cell response against the N- and M-proteins was generated. Furthermore, a delayed alpha S-reactive high-avidity CD4+ T-cell response was mounted during disease progression. Compared to the vaccinated control donors, these patients also had lower neutralizing antibody titers against the alpha variant at disease onset. The delayed development of alpha S-specific cellular and humoral immunity upon VBI indicates reduced immunogenicity against the S-protein of the alpha VOC, while there was a higher and earlier N- and M-reactive T-cell response. Our findings do not undermine the current vaccination strategies but underline a potential need for the inclusion of VBI patients in alternative vaccination strategies and additional antigenic targets in next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 747816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556003

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota contributes to maintaining human health and regulating immune responses. Severe COVID-19 illness is associated with a dysregulated pro-inflammatory immune response. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on altering the gut microbiome and the relevance of the gut microbiome on COVID-19 severity needs to be clarified. In this prospective study, we analyzed the gut microbiome of 212 patients of a tertiary care hospital (117 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 95 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V3-V4 region. Inflammatory markers and immune cells were quantified from blood. The gut microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was characterized by a lower bacterial richness and distinct differences in the gut microbiome composition, including an enrichment of the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Actinobacteria compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. The relative abundance of several genera including Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Collinsella was lower in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients while the abundance of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae was increased. Higher pro-inflammatory blood markers and a lower CD8+ T cell number characterized patients with severe COVID-19 illness. The gut microbiome of patients with severe/critical COVID-19 exhibited a lower abundance of butyrate-producing genera Faecalibacterium and Roseburia and a reduction in the connectivity of a distinct network of anti-inflammatory genera that was observed in patients with mild COVID-19 illness and in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome associated with a pro-inflammatory signature may contribute to the hyperinflammatory immune response characterizing severe COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Notf Rett Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV­2 pandemic and the different manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are a major challenge for health systems worldwide. Medical personnel have a special role in containing the pandemic. The aim of the study was to investigate the SARS-CoV­2 IgG antibody prevalence in extraclinical personnel depending on their operational area in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: On May 28 and 29, 2020, serum samples were taken from 732 of 1183 employees (61.9%) of the professional fire brigade and aid organizations in the city area and tested for SARS-CoV­2 IgG antibodies. The employees were divided into four categories according to their type of participation. category 1: decentralized PCR sampling teams, category 2: rescue service, category 3: fire protection, category 4: situation center. Some employees participated in more than one operational area. RESULTS: SARS-CoV­2 IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 732 serum samples. This corresponds to a prevalence of 1.1%. A previous COVID-19 infection was known in 3 employees. In order to make a separate assessment of the other employees possible and to diagnose unknown infections, a corrected collective of 729 employees with 6 SARS-CoV­2 antibody detection was considered separately. The prevalence in the corrected collective is 0.82%. After subdividing the collective into areas of activity, the prevalence was low (1: 0.77%, 2: 0.9%, 3: 1.00%, 4: 1.58%). CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV­2 in the study collective is low at 1.1% and 0.82%, respectively. There is an increased seroprevalence in operational areas with a lower risk of virus exposure in comparison to operational areas with a higher risk.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463725

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the greatest medical challenge. Although crucial to the future management of the pandemic, the factors affecting the persistence of long-term SARS-CoV-2 immunity are not well understood. Therefore, we determined the extent of important correlates of SARS-CoV-2 specific protection in 200 unvaccinated convalescents after COVID-19. To investigate the effective memory response against the virus, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell and humoral immunity (including virus-neutralizing antibodies) was determined over a period of one to eleven months. SARS-CoV-2 specific immune responses were present in 90% of individual patients. Notably, immunosuppressed patients did not have long-term SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity. In our cohort, the severity of the initial illness influenced SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immune responses and patients' humoral immune responses to Spike (S) protein over the long-term, whereas the patients' age influenced Membrane (M) protein-specific T cell responses. Thus, our study not only demonstrated the long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 specific immunity, it also determined COVID-19 severity and patient age as significant factors affecting long-term immunity.

11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438743

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The availability of effective and well-tolerated antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients is still very limited. Traditional herbal medicines elicit antiviral activity against various viruses and might therefore represent a promising option for the complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients. The application of turmeric root in herbal medicine has a very long history. Its bioactive ingredient curcumin shows a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral activity of aqueous turmeric root extract, the dissolved content of a curcumin-containing nutritional supplement capsule, and pure curcumin against SARS-CoV-2. Turmeric root extract, dissolved turmeric capsule content, and pure curcumin effectively neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at subtoxic concentrations in Vero E6 and human Calu-3 cells. Furthermore, curcumin treatment significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in cell culture supernatants. Our data uncover curcumin as a promising compound for complementary COVID-19 treatment. Curcumin concentrations contained in turmeric root or capsules used as nutritional supplements completely neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Our data argue in favor of appropriate and carefully monitored clinical studies that vigorously test the effectiveness of complementary treatment of COVID-19 patients with curcumin-containing products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcuma/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
14.
J Nephrol ; 34(4): 1025-1037, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent data demonstrate potentially protective pre-existing T cells reactive against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in samples of healthy blood donors, collected before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Whether pre-existing immunity is also detectable in immunosuppressed patients is currently not known. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were included in this case-control study. We compared the frequency of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in the samples of 20 renal transplant (RTx) patients to 20 age/gender matched non-immunosuppressed/immune competent healthy individuals collected before the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Seventeen coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were used as positive controls. T cell reactivity against Spike-, Nucleocapsid-, and Membrane- SARS-CoV-2 proteins were analyzed by multi-parameter flow cytometry. Antibodies were analyzed by neutralization assay. RESULTS: Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells were detected in the majority of unexposed patients and healthy individuals. In RTx patients, 13/20 showed CD4+ T cells reactive against at least one SARS-CoV-2 protein. CD8+ T cells reactive against at least one SARS-CoV-2 protein were demonstrated in 12/20 of RTx patients. The frequency and Th1 cytokine expression pattern of pre-formed SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells did not differ between RTx and non-immunosuppressed healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the magnitude and functionality of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cell in transplant patients is non-inferior compared to the immune competent cohort. Although several pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by the detected T cells, further studies are required to prove their antiviral protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 238(5): 569-578, 2021 May.
Article in English, German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238039

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide and has caused severe health and economic issues on a global scale. By the end of February 2021, more than 100 million SARS-CoV-2 cases had been reported worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that can be divided into three phases: An early phase with fever and cough (phase I), a pulmonary vascular disease (phase II) and a hyperinflammatory syndrome (phase III). Since viral replication plays a particularly important role in the early stage of the disease and the patient's immune system in the later course of infection, different therapeutic options arise depending on the stage of the disease. The antiviral nucleoside analogue remdesivir is the only antiviral compound with conditional approval in the European Union. Treatment with remdesivir should be initiated early (within the first seven days of symptom onset) in patients receiving supplemental oxygen without invasive ventilation. In turn, the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid dexamethasone should be administered later in the course of disease in patients receiving oxygen therapy. Since autopsies indicate an increased frequency of thromboembolic events due to COVID-19, additional treatment with anticoagulants is recommended. Since the development of novel antivirals may take years, the application of convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from a SARS-CoV-2 infection for the treatment of COVID-19 is reasonable. However, large-scale studies indicated low efficacy of convalescent plasma. Furthermore, vaccination of the population is essential to control the pandemic. Currently, the mRNA vaccine Tozinameran from BioNTech and Pfizer, the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna as well as the vector vaccine AZD1222 from AstraZeneca are licensed in the European Union. All three vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy in large clinical trials. In addition to these licensed vaccines, many others are being tested in clinical trials. In the present article, an overview of therapeutic options for COVID-19 as well as vaccines for protection against SARS-CoV-2 is provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Vaccination
17.
Transplantation ; 105(10): 2156-2164, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability of transplant (Tx) patients to generate a protective antiviral response under immunosuppression is pivotal in COVID-19 infection. However, analysis of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is currently lacking. METHODS: Here, we analyzed T cell immunity directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike-, membrane-, and nucleocapsid-protein by flow cytometry and spike-specific neutralizing antibodies in 10 Tx in comparison to 26 nonimmunosuppressed (non-Tx) COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Tx patients (7 renal, 1 lung, and 2 combined pancreas-kidney Txs) were recruited in this study during the acute phase of COVID-19 with a median time after SARS-CoV-2-positivity of 3 and 4 d for non-Tx and Tx patients, respectively. Despite immunosuppression, we detected antiviral CD4+ T cell-response in 90% of Tx patients. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells produced multiple proinflammatory cytokines, indicating their potential protective capacity. Neutralizing antibody titers did not differ between groups. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cells targeting membrane- and spike-protein were lower in Tx patients, albeit without statistical significance. However, frequencies of anti-nucleocapsid-protein-reactive, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, were similar between patient cohorts. Tx patients showed features of a prematurely aged adaptive immune system, but equal frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-reactive memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a polyfunctional T cell immunity directed against SARS-CoV-2 proteins as well as neutralizing antibodies can be generated in Tx patients despite immunosuppression. In comparison to nonimmunosuppressed patients, no differences in humoral and cellular antiviral-immunity were found. Our data presenting the ability to generate SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity in immunosuppressed patients have implications for the handling of SARS-CoV-2-infected Tx patients and raise hopes for effective vaccination in this cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Organ Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202185

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide challenge for the medical sector. Healthcare workers (HCW) are a cohort vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection due to frequent and close contact with COVID-19 patients. However, they are also well trained and equipped with protective gear. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody status was assessed at three different time points in 450 HCW of the University Hospital Essen in Germany. HCW were stratified according to contact frequencies with COVID-19 patients in (I) a high-risk group with daily contacts with known COVID-19 patients (n = 338), (II) an intermediate-risk group with daily contacts with non-COVID-19 patients (n = 78), and (III) a low-risk group without patient contacts (n = 34). The overall seroprevalence increased from 2.2% in March-May to 4.0% in June-July to 5.1% in October-December. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection rate was not significantly different between the high-risk group (1.8%; 3.8%; 5.5%), the intermediate-risk group (5.1%; 6.3%; 6.1%), and the low-risk group (0%, 0%, 0%). The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence remained low in HCW in western Germany one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany, and hygiene standards seemed to be effective in preventing patient-to-staff virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Follow-Up Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201724

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a major impact on transplant recipients, with mortality rates up to 20%. Therefore, the effect of established messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have to be evaluated for solid organ transplant patients (SOT) since they are known to have poor responses after vaccination. We investigated the SARS-CoV-2 immune response via SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection in 23 renal transplant recipients after two doses of the mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2 following the standard protocol. The antibody response was evaluated once with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG CLIA 15.8 +/- 3.0 days after the second dose. As a control, SARS-CoV-2 IgG was determined in 23 healthcare workers (HCW) and compared to the patient cohort. Only 5 of 23 (22%) renal transplant recipients were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies after the second dose of vaccine. In contrast, all 23 (100%) HCWs were tested positive for antibodies after the second dose. Thus, the humoral response of renal transplant recipients after two doses of the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech, Kronach, Germany) is impaired and significantly lower compared to healthy controls (22% vs. 100%; p = 0.0001). Individual vaccination strategies might be beneficial in these vulnerable patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Transplantation Immunology/immunology , Vaccination
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