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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 187, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876150

ABSTRACT

The implementation of electronic data collection during supportive supervision visits (ISS) using the Open Data Kits (ODK) Collection in Niger has provided a factual basis for monitoring the performance of the Polio eradication program (PEP) and the immunization program. With the notification of the first case of COVID-19 on 19 March 2020, there was a rapid need for quality knowledge to monitor the pandemic. For the first time in Niger, we initiated a six-month (May to October 2020) joint ISS-COVID-19 surveillance program to improve and monitor healthcare workers' performance to efficiently investigate COVID-19 cases in eight provinces. Overall, 1,378 ISS visits were performed through 390 health facilities, during which 4,638 health workers were trained and 527,151 medical records were reviewed, of which 28 suspected cases of COVID-19 were found. Field visits for contact tracing in their communities were accomplished and closed monitoring ensured until full recovery. Building on the tradition of PEP, a problem-solving process, feedback and on-the-job training on COVID-19 surveillance is set to enhance notification in the coming weeks and months. This is facilitated by accurate use of ODK Collect for real-time data surveillance successfully implemented. Other topics in the briefing included fundamentals of infection prevention and control for COVID-19 for both health professionals and community leaders. From this experience, the ISS has emerged as a key component of COVID-19 surveillance, especially in regions with a fragile health system. Our observation is a step forward for pragmatic interventional studies.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae , COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electronics , Health Personnel , Humans , Niger/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control
2.
Wulf Hanson, Sarah, Abbafati, Cristiana, Aerts, Joachim, Al-Aly, Ziyad, Ashbaugh, Charlie, Ballouz, Tala, Blyuss, Oleg, Bobkova, Polina, Bonsel, Gouke, Borzakova, Svetlana, Buonsenso, Danilo, Butnaru, Denis, Carter, Austin, Chu, Helen, De Rose, Cristina, Diab, Mohamed Mustafa, Ekbom, Emil, El Tantawi, Maha, Fomin, Victor, Frithiof, Robert, Gamirova, Aysylu, Glybochko, Petr, Haagsma, Juanita, Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy, Hamilton, Erin, Harris, Gabrielle, Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka, Helbok, Raimund, Hellemons, Merel, Hillus, David, Huijts, Susanne, Hultström, Michael, Jassat, Waasila, Kurth, Florian, Larsson, Ing-Marie, Lipcsey, Miklós, Liu, Chelsea, Loflin, Callan, Malinovschi, Andrei, Mao, Wenhui, Mazankova, Lyudmila, McCulloch, Denise, Menges, Dominik, Mohammadifard, Noushin, Munblit, Daniel, Nekliudov, Nikita, Ogbuoji, Osondu, Osmanov, Ismail, Peñalvo, José, Petersen, Maria Skaalum, Puhan, Milo, Rahman, Mujibur, Rass, Verena, Reinig, Nickolas, Ribbers, Gerard, Ricchiuto, Antonia, Rubertsson, Sten, Samitova, Elmira, Sarrafzadegan, Nizal, Shikhaleva, Anastasia, Simpson, Kyle, Sinatti, Dario, Soriano, Joan, Spiridonova, Ekaterina, Steinbeis, Fridolin, Svistunov, Andrey, Valentini, Piero, van de Water, Brittney, van den Berg-Emons, Rita, Wallin, Ewa, Witzenrath, Martin, Wu, Yifan, Xu, Hanzhang, Zoller, Thomas, Adolph, Christopher, Albright, James, Amlag, Joanne, Aravkin, Aleksandr, Bang-Jensen, Bree, Bisignano, Catherine, Castellano, Rachel, Castro, Emma, Chakrabarti, Suman, Collins, James, Dai, Xiaochen, Daoud, Farah, Dapper, Carolyn, Deen, Amanda, Duncan, Bruce, Erickson, Megan, Ewald, Samuel, Ferrari, Alize, Flaxman, Abraham, Fullman, Nancy, Gamkrelidze, Amiran, Giles, John, Guo, Gaorui, Hay, Simon, He, Jiawei, Helak, Monika, Hulland, Erin, Kereselidze, Maia, Krohn, Kris, Lazzar-Atwood, Alice, Lindstrom, Akiaja, Lozano, Rafael, Magistro, Beatrice, Malta, Deborah Carvalho, Månsson, Johan, Mantilla Herrera, Ana, Mokdad, Ali, Monasta, Lorenzo, Nomura, Shuhei, Pasovic, Maja, Pigott, David, Reiner, Robert, Reinke, Grace, Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz, Santomauro, Damian Francesco, Sholokhov, Aleksei, Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth, Walcott, Rebecca, Walker, Ally, Wiysonge, Charles Shey, Zheng, Peng, Bettger, Janet Prvu, Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337680

ABSTRACT

Importance While much of the attention on the COVID-19 pandemic was directed at the daily counts of cases and those with serious disease overwhelming health services, increasingly, reports have appeared of people who experience debilitating symptoms after the initial infection. This is popularly known as long COVID. Objective To estimate by country and territory of the number of patients affected by long COVID in 2020 and 2021, the severity of their symptoms and expected pattern of recovery Design We jointly analyzed ten ongoing cohort studies in ten countries for the occurrence of three major symptom clusters of long COVID among representative COVID cases. The defining symptoms of the three clusters (fatigue, cognitive problems, and shortness of breath) are explicitly mentioned in the WHO clinical case definition. For incidence of long COVID, we adopted the minimum duration after infection of three months from the WHO case definition. We pooled data from the contributing studies, two large medical record databases in the United States, and findings from 44 published studies using a Bayesian meta-regression tool. We separately estimated occurrence and pattern of recovery in patients with milder acute infections and those hospitalized. We estimated the incidence and prevalence of long COVID globally and by country in 2020 and 2021 as well as the severity-weighted prevalence using disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease study. Results Analyses are based on detailed information for 1906 community infections and 10526 hospitalized patients from the ten collaborating cohorts, three of which included children. We added published data on 37262 community infections and 9540 hospitalized patients as well as ICD-coded medical record data concerning 1.3 million infections. Globally, in 2020 and 2021, 144.7 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 54.8–312.9) people suffered from any of the three symptom clusters of long COVID. This corresponds to 3.69% (1.38–7.96) of all infections. The fatigue, respiratory, and cognitive clusters occurred in 51.0% (16.9–92.4), 60.4% (18.9–89.1), and 35.4% (9.4–75.1) of long COVID cases, respectively. Those with milder acute COVID-19 cases had a quicker estimated recovery (median duration 3.99 months [IQR 3.84–4.20]) than those admitted for the acute infection (median duration 8.84 months [IQR 8.10–9.78]). At twelve months, 15.1% (10.3–21.1) continued to experience long COVID symptoms. Conclusions and relevance The occurrence of debilitating ongoing symptoms of COVID-19 is common. Knowing how many people are affected, and for how long, is important to plan for rehabilitative services and support to return to social activities, places of learning, and the workplace when symptoms start to wane. Key Points Question What are the extent and nature of the most common long COVID symptoms by country in 2020 and 2021? Findings Globally, 144.7 million people experienced one or more of three symptom clusters (fatigue;cognitive problems;and ongoing respiratory problems) of long COVID three months after infection, in 2020 and 2021. Most cases arose from milder infections. At 12 months after infection, 15.1% of these cases had not yet recovered. Meaning The substantial number of people with long COVID are in need of rehabilitative care and support to transition back into the workplace or education when symptoms start to wane.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056896, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822072

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of intra-action review (IAR) reports of the national response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. We highlight best practices and challenges and offer perspectives for the future. DESIGN: A thematic analysis across 10 preparedness and response domains, namely, governance, leadership, and coordination; planning and monitoring; risk communication and community engagement; surveillance, rapid response, and case investigation; infection prevention and control; case management; screening and monitoring at points of entry; national laboratory system; logistics and supply chain management; and maintaining essential health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: All countries in the WHO African Region were eligible for inclusion in the study. National IAR reports submitted by March 2021 were analysed. RESULTS: We retrieved IAR reports from 18 African countries. The COVID-19 pandemic response in African countries has relied on many existing response systems such as laboratory systems, surveillance systems for previous outbreaks of highly infectious diseases and a logistics management information system. These best practices were backed by strong political will. The key challenges included low public confidence in governments, inadequate adherence to infection prevention and control measures, shortages of personal protective equipment, inadequate laboratory capacity, inadequate contact tracing, poor supply chain and logistics management systems, and lack of training of key personnel at national and subnational levels. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that African countries' response to the COVID-19 pandemic was prompt and may have contributed to the lower cases and deaths in the region compared with countries in other regions. The IARs demonstrate that many technical areas still require immediate improvement to guide decisions in subsequent waves or future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , World Health Organization
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-3, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795425

ABSTRACT

Safe and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines exist, but their success against the disease depends on public willingness to receive them. Vaccine hesitancy is one major obstacle to the achievement of herd immunity. On 25 June 2021, about 2000 supporters of the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) (the third biggest political party in South Africa) marched to the offices of the national regulatory authority (NRA) supporting COVID-19 vaccination and demanding approval of two additional vaccines (Sputnik V and Sinovac) in South Africa. The march was led by EFF leader, Julius Malema. By then, only three COVID-19 vaccines had received emergency use authorization in the country-the Janssen, AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNtech vaccines. It is worth noting that NRAs should only approve a vaccine if they are satisfied that its benefits outweigh any potential risks and not through political pressure. Nevertheless, we believe that this march might have increased COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and uptake among EFF supporters. The endorsement of COVID-19 vaccines by Malema, an influential political figure in South Africa, probably convinced some vaccine hesitant South Africans that COVID-19 vaccination is important. Therefore, we suggest vaccine endorsement by influential individuals in South Africa as one of the strategies to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 769174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742276

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant global health threat since January 2020. Policies to reduce human mobility have been recognized to effectively control the spread of COVID-19; although the relationship between mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious, with no clear pattern for how countries classify each other, and determine the destinations to- and from which to restrict travel. In this rapid review, we identified country classification schemes for high-risk COVID-19 areas and associated policies which mirrored the dynamic situation in 2020, with the aim of identifying any patterns that could indicate the effectiveness of such policies. We searched academic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, medRxiv, Google Scholar, and EMBASE. We also consulted web pages of the relevant government institutions in all countries. This rapid review's searches were conducted between October 2020 and December 2021. Web scraping of policy documents yielded additional 43 country reports on high-risk area classification schemes. In 43 countries from which relevant reports were identified, six issued domestic classification schemes. International classification schemes were issued by the remaining 38 countries, and these mainly used case incidence per 100,000 inhabitants as key indicator. The case incidence cut-off also varied across the countries, ranging from 20 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the past 7 days to more than 100 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the past 28 days. The criteria used for defining high-risk areas varied across countries, including case count, positivity rate, composite risk scores, community transmission and satisfactory laboratory testing. Countries either used case incidence in the past 7, 14 or 28 days. The resulting policies included restrictions on internal movement and international travel. The quarantine policies can be summarized into three categories: (1) 14 days self-isolation, (2) 10 days self-isolation and (3) 14 days compulsory isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Travel
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726054

ABSTRACT

South Africa launched a mass COVID-19 vaccination campaign in May 2021, targeting 40 million adults. Understanding predictors of COVID-19 vaccine intentions was required to achieve this goal. We conducted a population-based survey in June-July 2021 using the WHO Behavioral and Social Drivers (BeSD) of COVID-19 Vaccination tool to determine predictors of vaccine hesitancy, defined as intention to refuse or uncertainty whether to accept COVID-19 vaccination. There were 1193 participants, mean age 39 (standard deviation 15) years, and 53% women, of whom 58% trusted information provided by healthcare workers and 32% were vaccine hesitant. Independent predictors of vaccine hesitancy included concerns about side effects (odds ratio (OR) 11.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-50.80), lack of access to the online vaccine registration platform (OR 4.75; CI 2.15-10.37), distrust of government (OR 3.0; CI 1.33-6.77), belief in conspiracy theories (OR 3.01; CI 1.32-6.77), having no monthly income (OR 1.84; CI 1.12-3.07), and depending on someone else to make vaccination decision (OR 2.47; CI 1.06-5.77). We identified modifiable predictors of vaccine hesitancy at the start of South Africa's COVID-19 vaccination rollout. These factors should be addressed by different stakeholders involved in the national immunization program through tailored communication and other effective strategies that increase vaccine literacy, reach low-income households, and engender confidence in government.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327789

ABSTRACT

Background: South Africa has reported more than half of all COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa. The South African government has launched a large COVID-19 immunization campaign with the goal of reaching more than 40 million individuals. Nonetheless, certain international, largely internet-based surveys have shown a significant proportion of vaccine hesitancy in South Africa. This study aims to determine and co-create with local stakeholders a comprehensive understanding of vaccine hesitancy and opportunities to support the promotion of other COVID-19 health-promoting behaviours at community level. Methods and design A mixed-methods, multiple case-study design;informed by the socio-ecological model of behaviour change. Four socio-economically diverse communities across South Africa will be selected and data collection will take place concurrently through three iterative phases. Phase 1 will provide insights into community experiences of COVID-19 (response) through desktop mapping exercises, observations, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs) designed as expression sessions with local stakeholders. Phase 2 will explore the extent and drivers of community acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. This phase will comprise a quantitative survey based on WHO’s Behavioural and Social Drivers of Vaccination tool as well as further FGDs with community members. Phase 3 will involve cross-case study syntheses and presentation of findings to national role-players. Discussion This study will provide ground up, locally responsive, and timeous evidence on the factors influencing COVID-19 health-seeking behaviours to inform ongoing management and mitigation of COVID-19 in South Africa. It will also provide insights into the applicability of a novel vaccine hesitancy model in Africa.

8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years, South Africa has experienced four 'colliding epidemics' of HIV and tuberculosis, chronic illness and mental health, injury and violence, and maternal, neonatal, and child mortality, which have had substantial effects on health and well-being. Using data from the 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2019), we evaluated national and provincial health trends and progress towards important Sustainable Development Goal targets from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: We analysed GBD 2019 estimates of mortality, non-fatal health loss, summary health measures and risk factor burden, comparing trends over 1990-2007 and 2007-2019. Additionally, we decomposed changes in life expectancy by cause of death and assessed healthcare system performance. RESULTS: Across the nine provinces, inequalities in mortality and life expectancy increased over 1990-2007, largely due to differences in HIV/AIDS, then decreased over 2007-2019. Demographic change and increases in non-communicable diseases nearly doubled the number of years lived with disability between 1990 and 2019. From 1990 to 2019, risk factor burdens generally shifted from communicable and nutritional disease risks to non-communicable disease and injury risks; unsafe sex remained the top risk factor. Despite widespread improvements in healthcare system performance, the greatest gains were generally in economically advantaged provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in HIV/AIDS and related conditions have led to improved health since 2007, though most provinces still lag in key areas. To achieve health targets, provincial governments should enhance health investments and exchange of knowledge, resources and best practices alongside populations that have been left behind, especially following the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 89, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has spread across the African continent, including Niger. Yet very little is known about the phenotype of people who tested positive for COVID-19. In this humanitarian crises region, we aimed at characterizing variation in clinical features among hospitalized patients with COVID-19-like syndrome and to determine predictors associated with COVID-19 mortality among those with confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: The study was a retrospective nationwide cohort of hospitalized patients isolated for COVID-19 infection, using the health data of the National Health Information System from 19 March 2020 (onset of the pandemic) to 17 November 2020. All hospitalized patients with COVID-19-like syndrome at admission were included. A Cox-proportional regression model was built to identify predictors of in-hospital death among patients with confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent (472/729) of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 like syndrome tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 among which, 70 (15%) died. Among the patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, age was significantly associated with increased odds of reporting cough (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03) and fever/chills (aOR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.04). Comorbidity was associated with increased odds of presenting with cough (aOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.03-2.45) and shortness of breath (aOR 2.03; 95% CI 1.27-3.26) at admission. In addition, comorbidity (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 2.04; 95% CI 2.38-6.35), shortness of breath at baseline (aHR 2.04; 95% CI 2.38-6.35) and being 60 years or older (aHR 5.34; 95% CI 3.25-8.75) increased the risk of COVID-19 mortality two to five folds. CONCLUSION: Comorbidity, shortness of breath on admission, and being aged 60 years or older are associated with a higher risk of death among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a humanitarian crisis setting. While robust prospective data are needed to guide evidence, our data might aid intensive care resource allocation in Niger.

10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 313, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547767

ABSTRACT

For 15 years, the Annual African Vaccinology Course (AAVC) hosted by the Vaccines for Africa Initiative, has been at the forefront of vaccinology training in Africa. The AAVC was developed in 2005 in response to the growing demand for vaccinology training in Africa. To date, 958 policy makers, immunization managers, public and private health practitioners, scientists, postgraduate and postdoctoral students have been trained. These participants are from 44 of the 54 African countries. The course content covers diverse topics such as considerations for new vaccine introduction, mathematical modelling, and emerging and re-emerging vaccine preventable diseases. As the landscape of vaccinology continues to evolve, the AAVC aims to expand the reach of vaccinology training using blended learning approaches which will incorporate online and face-to-face formats, while expanding access to this popular course. Ultimately, the AAVC endeavours to develop a big pool of vaccinology expertise in Africa and to strengthen regional ownership for immunization programmes.


Subject(s)
Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccinology/education , Africa , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 119, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547723

ABSTRACT

Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLIMNs) are needed for malaria vector control. However, their distribution is not yet optimal in sub-Saharan regions. According to projections, COVID-19 pandemic will further delay the distribution of LLIMNs. In Niger, a distribution campaign of LLIMNs with a multi-sectoral approach (state-partner-civil society) was organized in compliance with barrier measures for preventing transmission of COVID-19. A door-to-door strategy was chosen to implement this campaign, in order to avoid entry into confined spaces and to engage community. A total of 13,994,681 people received LLIMNs (reflecting a success rate of 101%) in six targeted regions. A collective effort is needed to sustain the fight against malaria in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/supply & distribution , Malaria/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mosquito Control , Mosquito Vectors , Niger
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 88, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497895

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the COVID-19 pandemic has spread across all countries in Africa, with much of the model forecasting disastrous results owing to weak health services and political uncertainty. In Niger, an adaptive solution to the COVID-19 pandemic has been implemented by community-based surveillance system (CBS) to complement passive case-finding in health systems. METHODS: the CBS program was designed to use the current CBS polio network spanning 37 health districts in six regions. Between April and November 2020, 150 community health workers (CHWs) were equipped to improve integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively analysed the health data of the National Health Information System to describe the effect of CBS in COVID-19 surveillance. RESULTS: overall, trained CHWs were able to raise awareness among 2,681,642 persons regarding COVID-19 preventions and controls strategies. They reported 143 (84%) valid alerts resulting in two positive COVID-19 cases missing in the community. In addition, CHWs added to the contact tracing of 37 individuals and informed about the deaths in the community. CONCLUSION: community-based surveillance improved COVID-19 response in Niger. Logistic assistance and ongoing training are the foundations for increasing and sustaining the sensitivity of CBS systems in response to the COVID-19 pandemic to deter hotspots across countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Niger/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 159, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has posed huge challenges for the health system in Africa; however they haven´t been well quantified. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on curative and preventive activities in health care facilities at 17 integrated health centers in Niamey by comparing the first half of 2020 and the first half of 2019. The differences were more pronounced in the second quarter of 2020, with a 34% reduction (95% CI: -47% to -21%) for curative care, 61% (95% CI: -74% to -48%) for pentavalent vaccines 1 and 3 and 36% (95% CI: -49% to -23%) for VAR 1. A nearly zero gain of 1% (95% IC: -2% to 4%) was reported for prenatal care attendance, thus reversing the gains of the first quarter. The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on service deliveries to the most vulnerable groups, such as women and children. New strategies, such as community engagement, are essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Child , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Humans , Niger , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine-related side effects have a determinant role in the public decision regarding vaccination. Therefore, this study has been designed to actively monitor the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines globally. METHODS: A multi-country, three-phase study including a cross-sectional survey to test for the short-term side effects of COVID-19 vaccines among target population groups. In the second phase, we will monitor the booster doses' side effects, while in the third phase, the long-term safety and effectiveness will be investigated. A validated, self-administered questionnaire will be used to collect data from the target population; Results: The study protocol has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, with the identifier NCT04834869. CONCLUSIONS: CoVaST is the first independent study aiming to monitor the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines following booster doses, and the long-term safety and effectiveness of said vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects , Watchful Waiting
16.
Nat Med ; 27(8): 1338-1339, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316718
17.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 921-933, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305400

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines is critical to personal health, protecting vulnerable populations, reopening socio-economic life, and achieving population health and safety through immunity. The primary aim of this review was to investigate the extent and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in South Africa to inform the development of strategies to address it. A secondary aim was to enhance understandings of and responses to vaccine hesitancy more generally in South Africa, with potential positive effect on vaccination uptake during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.Areas covered: We reviewed the findings from surveys conducted in South Africa from February 2020 to March 2021 that investigated acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. Surveys were identified through searching electronic databases of peer-reviewed and gray literature and contacting experts.Expert opinion: The review reveals the inherently social nature of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in South Africa, potentially influenced by age, race, education, politics, geographical location, and employment. Along with the provision of information, COVID-19 vaccine communication strategies need to form part of broader trust-building measures that focus on relationships, transparency, participation, and justice. The pandemic also provides a unique opportunity to positively intervene and reduce vaccine hesitancy trends more generally in South Africa and potentially elsewhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccination Refusal/trends
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e049877, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of novel COVID-19 caught the world off guard in the first quarter of 2020. To stem the tide of this pandemic, there was acceleration of the development, testing and prelicensure approval for emergency use of some COVID-19 vaccine candidates. This led to raised public concern about their safety and efficacy, compounding the challenges of vaccine hesitancy. The onus of managing and administering these vaccines to a sceptical populace when they do become available rests mostly on the shoulders of healthcare workers (HCWs). Therefore, the vaccine confidence levels of HCWs become critical to the success of vaccination endeavours. This proposed study aims to estimate the level of vaccine confidence and the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine among future HCWs and their trainers at a specific university in Cape Town, South Africa, and to identify any vaccination concerns early for targeted intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This proposed study is a cross-sectional survey study. An online questionnaire will be distributed to all current staff and students of the Faculty of Medicine Health Sciences of Stellenbosch University in Cape Town, South Africa. No sampling strategy will be employed. The survey questionnaire will consist of demographic questions (consisting of six items) and vaccine confidence questions (comprising six items in Likert scale format). Log binomial models will be employed to identify factors associated with vaccine confidence and intention. The strength of association will be assessed using the OR and its 95% CI. Statistical significance will be defined at a p value <0.05. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained for the study from Stellenbosch University (Human Research Ethics Committee reference number S19/01/014 (PhD)). The results will be shared with relevant health authorities, presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Students , Vaccination
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 65, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146943

ABSTRACT

The long-term effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not well understood. This rapid review was aimed at synthesizing evidence on the long-term effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among survivors. We considered both randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies eligible for inclusion in this review. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database. The reference lists of all the included studies were also searched. Two authors independently screened the search outputs and reviewed full texts of potentially eligible articles. Data extraction was done by one author and checked by a second author. A meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity among the included studies. Results are presented narratively. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. All these studies were conducted in high-income countries. Study findings demonstrate that COVID-19 survivors can experience persistent symptoms after recovering from their initial illness, especially among previously hospitalized persons. The majority of symptoms reported were fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, and sleep disorders. Mental conditions, such as depression and anxiety disorders, were also reported. In conclusion, this study showed that COVID-19 survivors can experience persistent symptoms after recovering from their initial illness. Therefore, there is a need for a long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients and rehabilitation services for survivors. More research is needed in this area, especially in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Hospitalization , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors
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