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1.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:921704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029985

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization officially declared SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic, and governments and health institutions enacted various public health measures to decrease its transmission rate. The COVID-19 pandemic made occupational health disparities for small businesses more visible and created an unprecedented financial burden, particularly for those located in communities of color. In part, communities of color experienced disproportionate mortality and morbidity rates from COVID-19 due to their increased exposure. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the public to reflect on risks daily. Risk perception is a critical factor influencing how risk gets communicated and perceived by individuals, groups, and communities. This study explores competing risk perceptions regarding COVID-19, economic impacts, vaccination, and disinfectant exposures of workers at beauty salons and auto shops in Tucson, Arizona, using a perceived risk score measured on a scale of 1-10, with higher scores indicating more perceived risk. The primary differences between respondents at beauty salons and auto shops regarding their perceived risks of COVID-19 vaccination were between the vaccinated and unvaccinated. For every group except the unvaccinated, the perceived risk score of getting the COVID-19 vaccine was low, and the score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was high. Study participants in different demographic groups ranked economic risk the highest compared to the other five categories: getting the COVID-19 vaccine, not getting the COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19, disinfection, and general. A meaningful increase of four points in the perceived risk score of not getting the COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a 227% (95% CI: 27%, 740%) increase in the odds of being vaccinated. Analyzing these data collected during the coronavirus pandemic may provide insight into how to promote the health-protective behavior of high-risk workers and employers in the service sector during times of new novel threats (such as a future pandemic or crisis) and how they process competing risks.

2.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003510

ABSTRACT

Background: Pediatric firearm injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, residents of Chicago were placed under a “stay at home” order during the Spring of 2020. The full impact of these “stay at home” orders is unknown, but previous social and economic stressors have been associated with increased rates of violence. Additionally, studies demonstrate increased firearm purchases during this time period, a known risk factor for homicide and suicide. We sought to describe pediatric firearm associated deaths in Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic and “stay at home” order. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the Cook County Medical Examiner's database from January 2016 through December 2020. We collected information on all firearm associated deaths for persons less than 18 years old and compared deaths from 2020 during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Chicago's “stay at home” order to deaths from the previous 4 years to determine if there were differences that occurred during these time periods. Results: During the 5 year period, there were a total of 221 pediatric firearm deaths, 285 firearm homicides and 29 firearm suicides. 2020 had a similar number of pediatric firearm homicides, 67, compared to prior years, range 47-82. The majority of these firearm homicides occurred in Black (76%) children aged 15-17 (74%). There were more firearm homicides in persons aged 1-14 (14) in 2020 compared to prior years (range 3-10). June and July 2020 saw the highest number of firearm homicides per month, 9 and 11. The months during Chicago's “stay at home” order did not see an increase in firearm homicides compared to prior years, 11 compared to range 0-19. 2020 had a greater number of pediatric firearm suicides, 11, compared to prior years, range 2-7. There were more firearm suicides in Black children in 2020, 5, compared to prior years, range 1-2. The majority of firearm suicides occurred in children aged 15-17 (73%). Additionally, 2020 saw more firearm suicides in children aged 10-14, 3, compared to prior years, range 0-2. The months during Chicago's “stay at home” order did not see an increase in firearm suicides compared to prior years, 0 compared to range 0-3. Conclusion: Firearm injuries are a leading cause of death in children. Changes in the epidemiology of pediatric firearm injuries during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago include a similar number of firearm homicides and an increased number of firearm suicides. Black male adolescents continue to be disproportionately affected by both firearm homicide and firearm suicide. There did not appear to be an increase in firearm homicides or firearm suicides during Chicago's “stay at home” order.

4.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695224

ABSTRACT

Contemporary educational challenges have become amplified through the adoption of online-only modes of instruction due to the Covid-19 pandemic. When planning and delivering online instruction, even more than when delivering face-to-face instruction, engineering educators need to involve students at cognitive and emotional levels that encourage authentic, meaningful, and immersive learning experiences. During traditional online learning, students often feel disconnected from their learning communities. They also report a lack of motivation. Emotional engagement is therefore a necessary complement to cognitive engagement, while further helping to facilitate intrinsic motivation and feelings of delight, surprise, understanding, empathy, and trust. This study analyzes the use of scaffolded mini-projects (complex design projects divided into smaller segments) combined with comprehensive electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) in a sophomore-level Design for Manufacturability course. By emphasizing progressively more complex learning experiences and pairing these with electronic portfolios, students may become more attuned to cognitive learning processes such as effective planning and communication of complex ideas. We also hypothesize that they may develop awareness of, and competency in, skills with an emotional component including self-directed learning, autonomous exploration, and creative inspiration. For the purposes of this investigation, mini-projects may be independent from one another or connected as a series. Lessons from previous mini-projects are built into subsequent projects, and each offers loosely-defined analytical questions and open-ended design questions that require independent research. The unfolding of scaffolded mini-projects offers an orderly mechanism for students to grow and demonstrate important engineering competencies, especially when offered in tandem with teaching-learning-assessments via ePortfolios. ePortfolios have been shown to be effective in documenting learning competencies, enabling meta-analysis and personal reflection, and improving skills in the use of social media to communicate ideas. In effect, mini-projects combined with ePortfolios may help to facilitate deeper understanding of course content, make the curriculum more relevant for students, and build connections between classroom and professional learning competencies. This study offers a comparative analysis evaluating the efficacy of using mini-projects and ePortfolios in a face-to-face learning environment (Fall 2019) and in an online-only learning environment (Fall 2020). Participants in the face-to-face Fall 2019 (n = 104) course completed a questionnaire that evaluated specific engagement constructs. The completed questionnaires were evaluated using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Data from the Fall 2020 (n = 64) course were evaluated using the same assessment methodology. It is hoped that findings from this work may contribute to the development of self-directed learning strategies that enhance students' cognitive and emotional engagement in their learning during online-only and face-to-face instruction. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

5.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 27(2 SUPPL):581, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1495958

ABSTRACT

Introduction: B-cell depleting (anti-CD20) disease modifying therapies (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS) may increase the risk for COVID-19 and worsen clinical outcomes. How these patients respond to mRNA vaccines is not known since immunosuppressed patients were not included in clinical trials. Objective/Aim: To explore the humoral response in MS patients on B-cell depleting therapies to mRNA vaccination against COVID-19. Methods: Immunoglobulin G antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) were measured in MS patients and compared to control participants 3-4 weeks after initial and 3-6 weeks after the second mRNA vaccination. Clinical responses to the vaccination were also collected and compared. Results: After the 2nd vaccine dose, 10/10 controls developed antibodies to RBD, but only 2/10 MS patients on anti-CD20 DMTs (OR 0.014, 95% CI 0.0005 - 0.3328). After the 1st vaccine dose, 6/7 controls had seroconverted while 0/6 seroconverted in the anti- CD20 treated MS patients. Two patients who had COVID-19 on rituximab did not developed antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein but seroconverted to RBD after the 1st vaccination dose. Antibody titers were significantly reduced in the MS patients (p<0.001). No differences in clinical response to the vaccine were observed. T-cell responses are being evaluated and will be presented. Conclusions: Patients with MS on anti-CD20 DMT are less likely to develop antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 RBD and had lower titers after mRNA vaccination. This highlights the importance of better understanding vaccine responsiveness with larger studies and developing better strategies for effective vaccination in MS patients on B-cell depleting therapies.

7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407052
9.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277348

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Communities of color are bearing a disproportionate burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) morbidity and mortality. Social determinants of health have resulted in higher prevalence and severity of COVID-19 among minority groups. Published work on COVID-19 disparities has focused on higher transmission, hospitalization, and mortality risk among people of color, but studies on disparities in the post-acute care setting are scarce. Our aim was to identify socioeconomic disparities in health resource utilization after hospital discharge. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. We identified adult patients who were hospitalized at CUIMC or the Allen Hospital from March 1st through April 30th 2020, had a positive RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), developed severe hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, and were successfully discharged from the hospital without need for ventilator support. Patients who received a tracheostomy and were weaned off the ventilator prior to discharge were included. Exclusion criteria included transfer from or to another institution, prior tracheostomy, in-hospital death, and discharge with a ventilator. RESULTS: We identified 195 patients meeting inclusion criteria. The median age was 59 (IQR 47-67), and 135 (66.5%) were men. There were 25 (12.8%) patients who were uninsured and 116 (59.5%) patients who had public insurance. There were 121 (62%) Hispanic, 34 (17%) Black, and 18 (9%) White patients. Uninsured patients within our cohort were more likely to be Hispanic and Spanish-speaking (p=0.027;p<0.001, respectively). Uninsured patients were also more likely to be discharged to home (p<0.001) than to a rehabilitation facility. 8.8% of patients were readmitted to CUIMC within 30 days and 41.5% saw a medical provider at CUIMC within 30 days of discharge. Insurance status did not predict 30-day re-hospitalization or completion of outpatient follow-up, although our study was underpowered to answer these questions. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that race/ethnicity and primary language are associated with insurance status with Hispanic and Spanish-speaking patients being more likely to be uninsured. Uninsured patients were more likely to be discharged home after hospitalization, rather than to facility for further care and rehabilitation. We did not demonstrate any short-term differences in 30-day re-hospitalization rates or follow-up visits but we suspect socioeconomic disparities represent a significant barrier to adequate follow-up care in the long term. We plan to investigate this further with longitudinal follow-up and survey data.

10.
Ophthalmologe ; 118(Suppl 1): 89-95, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We introduced a video consultation (VC) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in an ophthalmology practice with eight doctors to ensure continuous ophthalmological care, infection prophylaxis and to compensate a decreased number of patient presentations. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the most common reasons for patient presentations in the VC, the proportion of re-presentations in the practice despite VC, practical challenges associated with the introduction of VC and patient satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with a recent acute visual deterioration and severe eye pain were excluded from the VC. The VC were carried out by a trained specialist in ophthalmology. A questionnaire with eight questions was completed after the VC appointment in order to evaluate the proportion of completed VC and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: We included 29 (13 male, Ø 52.6 years, 16 female, Ø 64.7 years) patients in this analysis. The VC could be performed with 68.97% of the participants who rated their overall experience with an average grade of 1.6 (1 very good to 6 insufficient) and all of them indicated that they would recommend the VC. Of presentations in VC 70% were related to the symptoms of the anterior eye segment. In 70% of the cases no re-presentations took place in the unit. CONCLUSION: Our study represents a significant practical application of VC for the management of non-urgent ocular conditions with maximum infection prophylaxis. The introduction of VC was severely limited by technological or user-related issues by the establishment of video connections. Patient satisfaction with VC was high to very high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Telemedicine , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 659-667, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We introduced a video consultation (VC) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in an ophthalmology practice with eight doctors to ensure continuous ophthalmological care, infection prophylaxis and to compensate a decreased number of patient presentations. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the most common reasons for patient presentations in the VC, the proportion of re-presentations in the practice despite VC, practical challenges associated with the introduction of VC and patient satisfaction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with a recent acute visual deterioration and severe eye pain were excluded from the VC. The VC were carried out by a trained specialist in ophthalmology. A questionnaire with eight questions was completed after the VC appointment in order to evaluate the proportion of completed VC and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: We included 29 (13 male, Ø 52.6 years, 16 female, Ø 64.7 years) patients in this analysis. The VC could be performed with 68.97% of the participants who rated their overall experience with an average grade of 1.6 (1 very good to 6 insufficient) and all of them indicated that they would recommend the VC. Of presentations in VC 70% were related to the symptoms of the anterior eye segment. In 70% of the cases no re-presentations took place in the unit. CONCLUSION: Our study represents a significant practical application of VC for the management of non-urgent ocular conditions with maximum infection prophylaxis. The introduction of VC was severely limited by technological or user-related issues by the establishment of video connections. Patient satisfaction with VC was high to very high.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
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