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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5240, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008277

ABSTRACT

Novel variants continue to emerge in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. University testing programs may provide timely epidemiologic and genomic surveillance data to inform public health responses. We conducted testing from September 2021 to February 2022 in a university population under vaccination and indoor mask mandates. A total of 3,048 of 24,393 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR; whole genome sequencing identified 209 Delta and 1,730 Omicron genomes of the 1,939 total sequenced. Compared to Delta, Omicron had a shorter median serial interval between genetically identical, symptomatic infections within households (2 versus 6 days, P = 0.021). Omicron also demonstrated a greater peak reproductive number (2.4 versus 1.8), and a 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.57; P < 0.0001) higher mean cycle threshold value. Despite near universal vaccination and stringent mitigation measures, Omicron rapidly displaced the Delta variant to become the predominant viral strain and led to a surge in cases in a university population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Universities
2.
Lancet Regional Health. Americas ; 15:100348-100348, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998577

ABSTRACT

Background The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

3.
J Immunol Methods ; 510: 113328, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977497

ABSTRACT

Monocytes are highly versatile innate immune cells responsible for pathogen clearance, innate immune coordination, and induction of adaptive immunity. Monocytes can directly and indirectly integrate pathogen-destructive instructions and contribute to disease control via pathogen uptake, presentation, or the release of cytokines. Indirect pathogen-specific instructions are conferred via Fc-receptor signaling and triggered by antibody opsonized material. Given the tremendous variation in polyclonal humoral immunity, defining the specific antibody-responses able to arm monocytes most effectively remains incompletely understood. While monocyte cell line-based assays have been used previously, cell lines may not faithfully recapitulate the full biology of monocytes. Thus, here we describe a multifaceted antigen-specific method for probing antibody-dependent primary monocyte phagocytosis (ADMP) and secondary responses. The assay not only reliably captures phagocytic uptake of immune complexes, but also detects unique changes in surface markers and cytokine secretions profiles, poorly detected by monocytic cell lines. The assay captures divergent polyclonal-monocyte recruiting activity across subjects with varying SARS-CoV-2 disease severity and also revealed biological nuances in Fc-mutant monoclonal antibody activity related to differences in Fc-receptor binding. Thus, the ADMP assay is a flexible assay able to provide key insights into the role of humoral immunity in driving monocyte phenotypic transitions and downstream functions across many diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monocytes , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Antigens , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Supplement_3): S304-S314, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Homeless Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4411-e4418, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninfluenza respiratory viruses are responsible for a substantial burden of disease in the United States. Household transmission is thought to contribute significantly to subsequent transmission through the broader community. In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contactless surveillance methods are of particular importance. METHODS: From November 2019 to April 2020, 303 households in the Seattle area were remotely monitored in a prospective longitudinal study for symptoms of respiratory viral illness. Enrolled participants reported weekly symptoms and submitted respiratory samples by mail in the event of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for 14 viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Participants completed all study procedures at home without physical contact with research staff. RESULTS: In total, 1171 unique participants in 303 households were monitored for ARI. Of participating households, 128 (42%) included a child aged <5 years and 202 (67%) included a child aged 5-12 years. Of the 678 swabs collected during the surveillance period, 237 (35%) tested positive for 1 or more noninfluenza respiratory viruses. Rhinovirus, common human coronaviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Four cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 3 households. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the circulation of respiratory viruses within households during the winter months during the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Contactless methods of recruitment, enrollment, and sample collection were utilized throughout this study and demonstrate the feasibility of home-based, remote monitoring for respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(46): eabj0274, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511407

ABSTRACT

Despite recent studies of immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little is known about how the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 differs from other respiratory infections. We compare the immune signature from hospitalized SARS-CoV-2­infected patients to patients hospitalized prepandemic with influenza or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Our in-depth profiling indicates that the immune landscape in SARS-CoV-2 patients is largely similar to flu or RSV patients. Unique to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who had the most critical clinical disease were changes in the regulatory T cell (Treg) compartment. A Treg signature including increased frequency, activation status, and migration markers was correlated COVID-19 severity. These findings are relevant as Tregs are considered for therapy to combat the severe inflammation seen in COVID-19 patients. Likewise, having defined the overlapping immune landscapes in SARS-CoV-2, existing knowledge of flu and RSV infections could be leveraged to identify common treatment strategies.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495513

ABSTRACT

Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B cell malignancies have profound and prolonged immunodeficiencies and are at risk for serious infections, including respiratory virus infections. Vaccination may be important for infection prevention, but there are limited data on vaccine immunogenicity in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of commercially available 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines in adults immediately prior to or while in durable remission after CD19-, CD20-, or B cell maturation antigen-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls. We tested for antibodies to all four vaccine strains using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Antibody responses were defined as at least fourfold titer increases from baseline. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titer ≥40. Enrolled CAR-T-cell recipients were vaccinated 14-29 days prior to (n=5) or 13-57 months following therapy (n=13), and the majority had hypogammaglobulinemia and cellular immunodeficiencies prevaccination. Eight non-immunocompromised adults served as controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (40%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy and in 4 (31%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 1 (20%) and 6 (46%) individuals had at least twofold increases, respectively. One individual vaccinated prior to CAR-T-cell therapy maintained a response for >3 months following therapy. Across all tested vaccine strains, seroprotection was less frequent in CAR-T-cell recipients than in controls. There was evidence of immunogenicity even among individuals with low immunoglobulin, CD19+ B cell, and CD4+ T-cell counts. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B cell aplasia. However, relatively impaired humoral vaccine immunogenicity indicates the need for additional infection-prevention strategies. Larger studies are needed to refine our understanding of potential correlates of vaccine immunogenicity, and durability of immune responses, in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0129821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476403

ABSTRACT

Wide-scale assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies is critical to understanding population seroprevalence, correlates of protection, and the longevity of vaccine-elicited responses. Most SARS-CoV-2 studies characterize antibody responses in plasma/sera. While reliable and broadly used, these samples pose several logistical restrictions, such as requiring venipuncture for collection and a cold chain for transportation and storage. Dried blood spots (DBS) overcome these barriers as they can be self-collected by fingerstick and mailed and stored at ambient temperature. Here, we evaluate the suitability of DBS for SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays by comparing several antibody responses between paired plasma and DBS from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent and vaccinated individuals. We found that DBS not only reflected plasma antibody binding by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and epitope profiles using phage display, but also yielded SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers that highly correlated with paired plasma. Neutralization measurement was further streamlined by adapting assays to a high-throughput 384-well format. This study supports the adoption of DBS for numerous SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralization assays. IMPORTANCE Plasma and sera isolated from venous blood represent conventional sample types used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses after infection or vaccination. However, collection of these samples is invasive and requires trained personnel and equipment for immediate processing. Once collected, plasma and sera must be stored and shipped at cold temperatures. To define the risk of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the longevity of immune responses to natural infection and vaccination, it will be necessary to measure various antibody features in populations around the world, including in resource-limited areas. A sampling method that is compatible with these settings and is suitable for a variety of SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays is therefore needed to continue to understand and curb the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitope Mapping/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389513

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells using its Spike protein, which is also the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, assays to measure how antibodies and sera affect Spike-mediated viral infection are important for studying immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2 is a biosafety-level-3 virus, one way to simplify such assays is to pseudotype biosafety-level-2 viral particles with Spike. Such pseudotyping has now been described for single-cycle lentiviral, retroviral, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles, but the reagents and protocols are not widely available. Here, we detailed how to effectively pseudotype lentiviral particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and infect 293T cells engineered to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2. We also made all the key experimental reagents available in the BEI Resources repository of ATCC and the NIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated how these pseudotyped lentiviral particles could be used to measure the neutralizing activity of human sera or plasma against SARS-CoV-2 in convenient luciferase-based assays, thereby providing a valuable complement to ELISA-based methods that measure antibody binding rather than neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Containment of Biohazards , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology
10.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 143-152, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The urgent need for massively scaled clinical testing for SARS-CoV-2, along with global shortages of critical reagents and supplies, has necessitated development of streamlined laboratory testing protocols. Conventional nucleic acid testing for SARS-CoV-2 involves collection of a clinical specimen with a nasopharyngeal swab in transport medium, nucleic acid extraction, and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). As testing has scaled across the world, the global supply chain has buckled, rendering testing reagents and materials scarce. To address shortages, we developed SwabExpress, an end-to-end protocol developed to employ mass produced anterior nares swabs and bypass the requirement for transport media and nucleic acid extraction. METHODS: We evaluated anterior nares swabs, transported dry and eluted in low-TE buffer as a direct-to-RT-qPCR alternative to extraction-dependent viral transport media. We validated our protocol of using heat treatment for viral inactivation and added a proteinase K digestion step to reduce amplification interference. We tested this protocol across archived and prospectively collected swab specimens to fine-tune test performance. RESULTS: After optimization, SwabExpress has a low limit of detection at 2-4 molecules/µL, 100% sensitivity, and 99.4% specificity when compared side by side with a traditional RT-qPCR protocol employing extraction. On real-world specimens, SwabExpress outperforms an automated extraction system while simultaneously reducing cost and hands-on time. CONCLUSION: SwabExpress is a simplified workflow that facilitates scaled testing for COVID-19 without sacrificing test performance. It may serve as a template for the simplification of PCR-based clinical laboratory tests, particularly in times of critical shortages during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
11.
J Clin Virol ; 142: 104916, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While a growing body of literature describes antibody dynamics in serum, little is known about breast milk antibody titers in the months following SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the dynamics of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in two women who were breastfeeding when infected. We assessed paired breast milk and serum samples for six months post-infection for antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. RESULTS: Starting at 10 days after symptom onset, IgA antibody levels were persistent over a 6-month time period in human milk. For both mothers, no detectable IgA was found in the samples collected pre-symptom onset. RBD-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in tandem serum collected from the two donors demonstrated stable IgG levels over the six-month time period post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: We found that breastfeeding mothers produced a durable IgA response for up to six months following COVID-19 infection, suggesting an important role for breast milk in protection of infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cell Rep ; 35(8): 109164, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227990

ABSTRACT

A major goal of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efforts is to elicit antibody responses that confer protection. Mapping the epitope targets of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is critical for vaccine design, diagnostics, and development of therapeutics. Here, we develop a pan-coronavirus phage display library to map antibody binding sites at high resolution within the complete viral proteomes of all known human-infecting coronaviruses in patients with mild or moderate/severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We find that the majority of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are targeted to the spike protein, nucleocapsid, and ORF1ab and include sites of mutation in current variants of concern. Some epitopes are identified in the majority of samples, while others are rare, and we find variation in the number of epitopes targeted between individuals. We find low levels of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity in individuals with no exposure to the virus and significant cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses (CoVs) in convalescent sera from patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/virology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Polyproteins/immunology , Serology , Young Adult
13.
Cell ; 184(11): 2927-2938.e11, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213071

ABSTRACT

Defining long-term protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is one of the most pressing questions of our time and will require a detailed understanding of potential ways this virus can evolve to escape immune protection. Immune protection will most likely be mediated by antibodies that bind to the viral entry protein, spike (S). Here, we used Phage-DMS, an approach that comprehensively interrogates the effect of all possible mutations on binding to a protein of interest, to define the profile of antibody escape to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein using coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma. Antibody binding was common in two regions, the fusion peptide and the linker region upstream of the heptad repeat region 2. However, escape mutations were variable within these immunodominant regions. There was also individual variation in less commonly targeted epitopes. This study provides a granular view of potential antibody escape pathways and suggests there will be individual variation in antibody-mediated virus evolution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Algorithms , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Gene Library , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1097059

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multiparameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n = 20) or not hospitalized (n = 40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4+ T cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects who were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2, which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/physiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Envelope , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): 802-807, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although multiple respiratory viruses circulate in humans, few studies have compared the incidence of different viruses across the life course. We estimated the incidence of outpatient illness due to 12 different viruses during November 2018 through April 2019 in a fully enumerated population. METHODS: We conducted active surveillance for ambulatory care visits for acute respiratory illness (ARI) among members of Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA). Enrolled patients provided respiratory swab specimens which were tested for 12 respiratory viruses using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We estimated the cumulative incidence of infection due to each virus overall and by age group. RESULTS: The KPWA population under surveillance included 202 562 individuals, of whom 2767 (1.4%) were enrolled in the study. Influenza A(H3N2) was the most commonly detected virus, with an overall incidence of 21 medically attended illnesses per 1000 population; the next most common viruses were influenza A(H1N1) (18 per 1000), coronaviruses (13 per 1000), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 13 per 1000), and rhinovirus (9 per 1000). RSV was the most common cause of medically attended ARI among children aged 1-4 years; coronaviruses were the most common among adults aged ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with other studies focused on single viruses, we found that influenza and RSV were major causes of acute respiratory illness in persons of all ages. In comparison, coronaviruses and rhinovirus were also important pathogens. Prior to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses were the second-most common cause of medically attended ARI during the 2018/19 influenza season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Child , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
17.
J Infect Dis ; 223(2): 197-205, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060937

ABSTRACT

Most individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop neutralizing antibodies that target the viral spike protein. In this study, we quantified how levels of these antibodies change in the months after SARS-CoV-2 infection by examining longitudinal samples collected approximately 30-152 days after symptom onset from a prospective cohort of 32 recovered individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate-severe disease. Neutralizing antibody titers declined an average of about 4-fold from 1 to 4 months after symptom onset. This decline in neutralizing antibody titers was accompanied by a decline in total antibodies capable of binding the viral spike protein or its receptor-binding domain. Importantly, our data are consistent with the expected early immune response to viral infection, where an initial peak in antibody levels is followed by a decline to a lower plateau. Additional studies of long-lived B cells and antibody titers over longer time frames are necessary to determine the durability of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955709

ABSTRACT

Comorbid medical illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with more severe COVID-19, hospitalization, and death. However, the role of the immune system in mediating these clinical outcomes has not been determined. We used multi-parameter flow cytometry and systems serology to comprehensively profile the functions of T cells and antibodies targeting spike, nucleocapsid, and envelope proteins in a convalescent cohort of COVID-19 subjects who were either hospitalized (n=20) or not hospitalized (n=40). To avoid confounding, subjects were matched by age, sex, ethnicity, and date of symptom onset. Surprisingly, we found that the magnitude and functional breadth of virus-specific CD4 T cell and antibody responses were consistently higher among hospitalized subjects, particularly those with medical comorbidities. However, an integrated analysis identified more coordination between polyfunctional CD4 T-cells and antibodies targeting the S1 domain of spike among subjects that were not hospitalized. These data reveal a functionally diverse and coordinated response between T cells and antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 which is reduced in the presence of comorbid illnesses that are known risk factors for severe COVID-19. Our data suggest that isolated measurements of the magnitudes of spike-specific immune responses are likely insufficient to anticipate vaccine efficacy in high-risk populations.

19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835251

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has gravely impacted societies around the world. Outbreaks in different parts of the globe are shaped by repeated introductions of new lineages and subsequent local transmission of those lineages. Here, we sequenced 3940 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from Washington State to characterize how the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Washington State (USA) was shaped by differences in timing of mitigation strategies across counties, as well as by repeated introductions of viral lineages into the state. Additionally, we show that the increase in frequency of a potentially more transmissible viral variant (614G) over time can potentially be explained by regional mobility differences and multiple introductions of 614G, but not the other variant (614D) into the state. At an individual level, we see evidence of higher viral loads in patients infected with the 614G variant. However, using clinical records data, we do not find any evidence that the 614G variant impacts clinical severity or patient outcomes. Overall, this suggests that at least to date, the behavior of individuals has been more important in shaping the course of the pandemic than changes in the virus.

20.
Science ; 370(6516): 571-575, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760213

ABSTRACT

After its emergence in Wuhan, China, in late November or early December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus rapidly spread globally. Genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 allows the reconstruction of its transmission history, although this is contingent on sampling. We analyzed 453 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected between 20 February and 15 March 2020 from infected patients in Washington state in the United States. We find that most SARS-CoV-2 infections sampled during this time derive from a single introduction in late January or early February 2020, which subsequently spread locally before active community surveillance was implemented.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
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