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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 83-96.e4, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating cross-reactivity. However, a case-control study indicates that baseline hCCCoV antibody levels are not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rather, higher magnitudes of pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies correlate with more SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following infection, an indicator of greater disease severity. Additionally, immunization with hCCCoV spike proteins before SARS-CoV-2 immunization impedes the generation of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Together, these data suggest that pre-existing hCCCoV antibodies hinder SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based immunity following infection and provide insight on how pre-existing coronavirus immunity impacts SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical considering emerging variants.

2.
Cell ; 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588149

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines induce robust anti-spike (S) antibody and CD4+ T cell responses. It is not yet clear whether vaccine-induced follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH) cell responses contribute to this outstanding immunogenicity. Using fine-needle aspiration of draining axillary lymph nodes from individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we evaluated the T cell receptor sequences and phenotype of lymph node TFH. Mining of the responding TFH T cell receptor repertoire revealed a strikingly immunodominant HLA-DPB1∗04-restricted response to S167-180 in individuals with this allele, which is among the most common HLA alleles in humans. Paired blood and lymph node specimens show that while circulating S-specific TFH cells peak one week after the second immunization, S-specific TFH persist at nearly constant frequencies for at least six months. Collectively, our results underscore the key role that robust TFH cell responses play in establishing long-term immunity by this efficacious human vaccine.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination there is significant variability between individuals in protective antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2, and within individuals against different virus variants. However, host demographic or clinical characteristics that predict variability in cross-reactive antibody levels are not well-described. These data could inform clinicians, researchers, and policy makers on the populations most likely to require vaccine booster shots. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved prospective observational cohort study of staff at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, we identified participants with plasma samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection, after mRNA vaccination, and after vaccination following infection, and quantitated IgG levels by ELISA to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) from five important SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan Hu-1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.617.2). We used regression models to identify factors that contributed to cross-reactive IgG against one or multiple viral variants. RESULTS: Following infection, a minority of the cohort generated cross-reactive antibodies, IgG antibodies that bound all tested variants. Those that did had increased disease severity, poor metabolic health, and were of a particular ancestry. Vaccination increased the levels of cross-reactive IgG levels in all populations including immunocompromised, elderly and persons with poor metabolic health. Younger people with a healthy weight mounted the highest responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important new information on individual antibody responses to infection/vaccination that could inform clinicians on the populations that may require follow-on immunization.

5.
Cell host & microbe ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564429

ABSTRACT

A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoV) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lin et al. analyze hCCCoV antibodies in the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection, finding pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies may hinder SARS-CoV-2 effective immunity following infection.

6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S320-S320, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564190

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infection with widely varying clinical severity. Severe COVID-19 was initially proposed to be secondary to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). However, studies since showed that patients with severe COVID-19 rarely display CSS cytokine phenotypes, and may have more limited inflammatory responses instead. Methods Prospective cohorts, aged 0-90 years of age who tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled from inpatient hospitals and outpatient testing centers in Memphis, TN from May 2020-January 2021. Longitudinal blood samples were obtained including acute, sub-acute and convalescent timepoints. Severity scores of asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 were assigned at time of convalescent assessment. Plasma was analyzed with a quantitative human magnetic 38-plex cytokine assay. Results : 169 participants were enrolled, including 8 asymptomatic, 117 mild, 22 moderate and 17 severe cases, and 5 children with post-COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). All moderate and severe patients were hospitalized and received treatment (39%). Clear distinctions were seen between asymptomatic-mild cases and moderate-severe cases at acute timepoints and during disease progression for GCSF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-1Ra, IP-10, MIP-1a, MIP-1β, and TGFα. There was a significant difference between participants who did and did not require hospitalization for acute timepoint levels of IL-10, IL-15, MIP-1 β and TGFα (p< 0.01). Only 4 participants with active COVID-19 were found to meet criteria for CSS (2%), only 3 of which were severe. MIS-C participants showed nearly universally elevated cytokine levels compared to those with active COVID-19. Temporal and severity associations of IL-10 and IP-10 Figure 1. Temporal and severity associations of IL-10 and IP-10 Examples of differentiating cytokine profiles by severity and time. Among SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive participants, IL-10 and IP-10 displayed increased levels in their acute plasma samples as clinical severity increased [A,C]. IL-10 and IP-10 also showed distinct time-dependent responses (ln(Cytokine level (pg/mL)) that differentiated the more severe from the less severe groups [B,D]. Conclusion Moderate and severe acute COVID-19 has a distinct cytokine profile from asymptomatic and mild cases, as detected from acute, subacute and convalescent plasma. Disclosures Joshua Wolf, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, Karius Inc. (Research Grant or Support) Joshua Wolf, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, Nothing to disclose Paul Thomas, PhD, Cytoagents (Consultant)Immunoscape (Consultant)

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0105921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495012

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic resulting in millions of cases and deaths. Diagnostic tools and serological assays are critical for controlling the outbreak, especially assays designed to quantitate neutralizing antibody levels, considered the best correlate of protection. As vaccines become increasingly available, it is important to identify reliable methods for measuring neutralizing antibody responses that correlate with authentic virus neutralization but can be performed outside biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories. While many neutralizing assays using pseudotyped virus have been developed, there have been few studies comparing the different assays to each other as surrogates for authentic virus neutralization. Here, we characterized three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and three pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neutralization assays and assessed their concordance with authentic virus neutralization. The most accurate assays for predicting authentic virus neutralization were luciferase- and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralizations, followed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralization, and then the ELISAs. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Prior infection or vaccination can be detected by the presence of antibodies in the blood. Antibodies in the blood are also considered to be protective against future infections from the same virus. The "gold standard" assay for detecting protective antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, this assay can only be performed under highly restrictive biocontainment conditions. We therefore characterized six antibody-detecting assays for their correlation with authentic virus neutralization. The significance of our research is in outlining the advantages and disadvantages of the different assays and identifying the optimal surrogate assay for authentic virus neutralization. This will allow for more accurate assessments of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 following infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus/immunology
8.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):e73-e73, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1461281
9.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17848, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449257

ABSTRACT

Background The study objectives were to transition in-person colorectal cancer multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) to a telehealth MDC (tele-MDC) format and to assess early outcomes.  Methods A colorectal tele-MDC was devised, in which patients used remote-access technology while supervised by a clinician. The team consisted of surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists. Outcomes were assessed with patient and provider surveys, using a 5-point Likert scale (higher = more favorable). Results A total of 18 patients participated in the tele-MDC. Surveyed patients (n=18) and physicians (n=19) were satisfied with the quality of care (mean Likert = 4.93, 4.53, respectively), and low standard deviations (range 0-1.03) across all questions reflected homogeneity in satisfaction with the metrics surveyed. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates that a functional colorectal cancer tele-MDC is a feasible alternative to in-person MDC during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with the potential for a high degree of patient and physician satisfaction.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab420, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437840

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines administered after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody is unknown, and "antibody interference" might hinder immune responses leading to vaccine failure. In an institutional review board-approved prospective study, we found that an individual who received mRNA COVID-19 vaccination <40 days after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody therapy for symptomatic COVID-19 had similar postvaccine antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) for 4 important SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as other participants who were also vaccinated following COVID-19. Vaccination against COVID-19 shortly after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody can boost and expand antibody protection, questioning the need to delay vaccination in this setting. Trial registration : The St. Jude Tracking of Viral and Host Factors Associated with COVID-19 study; NCT04362995; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04362995.

11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(5): 629-634, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) for 2 novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, bamlanivimab and REGN-COV2 (casirivimab plus imdevimab), for the treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents and adults in specified high-risk groups. This has challenged clinicians to determine the best approach to use of these products. METHODS: A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacy, pediatric intensive care medicine, and pediatric hematology from 29 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild and there is no high-quality evidence supporting any high-risk groups. There is no evidence for safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, limited evidence of modest benefit in adults, and evidence for potential harm associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence available as of December 20, 2020, the panel suggests against routine administration of monoclonal antibody therapy (bamlanivimab, or casirivimab and imdevimab), for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, including those designated by the FDA as at high risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Clinicians and health systems choosing to use these agents on an individualized basis should consider risk factors supported by pediatric-specific evidence and ensure the implementation of a system for safe and timely administration that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Trends in Transplantation ; 14(2):1-4, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1207946

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has motivated unprecedented changes to telemedicine including kidney transplant patient care. Telemedicine with this population is not well described. We assessed the comfort and experience of post-kidney transplant patients with telemedicine versus an in-person visit using a 16-question survey between March and June 2020. Patients completed the survey via email or telephone. Participants graded their experience using a 5-point assessment (1=most positive;5=least desirable). 197 out of 381 telemedicine patients responded. Survey questions were consolidated into 7 groups. Living (1.38) vs deceased donor (1.56, P=0.018) recipients, less than 6 months post-transplant (1.33) vs 1.52 for 6-12 months, 1.56 for >12 months, P=0.033);non-African Americans (AA) (1.36) vs AA (1.60, P=0.002) responded more favorably to ease of scheduling and entering the portal. Non-AA (1.26) vs AA (1.40, P=0.034) rated patient/provider interaction higher. Patients age 50 or less (1.33), 65 and over (1.49) found better quality of the Internet connection with a provider than 51-64 (1.73, P=0.005). Patients < 50 (1.35) and women (1.39) found telemedicine simpler to use than 51-64 (1.66) and over 65 (1.58, P=0.045) and men (1.62, P=0.035), respectively. Patients who lived greater versus less than 50 miles from our center: telemedicine is the same as in person visit (1.99 vs 2.38, P=0.009);an acceptable alternative (1.43 vs 1.74, P=0.009);enjoyed their experience and comfort substituting telemedicine for an in-person provider in the future (2.10 vs 1.76, P=0.03). Post-kidney transplant patients responded favorably to telemedicine. Some patient demographics influenced survey responses. These results suggest telemedicine can substitute for an in-person visit. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Trends in Transplantation is the property of Publicidad Permanyer SLU and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(1): 34-48, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data describing agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
14.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 701-715, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in nearly all children, a small proportion of pediatric patients develop severe or critical illness. Guidance is therefore needed regarding use of agents with potential activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pediatrics. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 18 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of pediatric COVID-19, supportive care alone is suggested for the overwhelming majority of cases. The panel suggests a decision-making framework for antiviral therapy that weighs risks and benefits based on disease severity as indicated by respiratory support needs, with consideration on a case-by-case basis of potential pediatric risk factors for disease progression. If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available. Antivirals should preferably be used as part of a clinical trial if available. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For those rare cases of severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding antivirals, informed by available data. As evidence continues to evolve rapidly, the need for updates to the guidance is anticipated.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 11-16, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-92935

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, it is known that the severe course of the disease occurs mostly among the elderly, whereas it is rare among children and young adults. Comorbidities, in particular, diabetes and hypertension, clearly associated with age, besides obesity and smoke, are strongly associated with the need for intensive treatment and a dismal outcome. A weaker immunity of the elderly has been proposed as a possible explanation of this uneven age distribution. Thus, there is concern that children treated for cancer may allso be at risk for an unfavourable course of infection. Along the same line, anecdotal information from Wuhan, China, mentioned a severe course of COVID-19 in a child treated for leukaemia. AIM AND METHODS: We made a flash survey on COVID-19 incidence and severity among children on anticancer treatment. Respondents were asked by email to fill in a short Web-based survey. RESULTS: We received reports from 25 countries, where approximately 10,000 patients at risk are followed up. At the time of the survey, more than 200 of these children were tested, nine of whom were positive for COVID-19. Eight of the nine cases had asymptomatic to mild disease, and one was just diagnosed with COVID-19. We also discuss preventive measures that are in place or should be taken and treatment options in immunocompromised children with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Thus, even children receiving anticancer chemotherapy may have a mild or asymptomatic course of COVID-19. While we should not underestimate the risk of developing a more severe course of COVID-19 than that observed here, the intensity of preventive measures should not cause delays or obstructions in oncological treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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