Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(1): 154-161, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611483

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 200 million people worldwide, resulting in more than 4 million deaths. Randomized controlled trials are the single best tool to identify effective treatments against this novel pathogen. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of randomized controlled trials of treatments for COVID-19 in the United States launched in the first 9 months of the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants We conducted a cross-sectional study of all completed or actively enrolling randomized, interventional, clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 in the United States registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov as of August 10, 2020. We excluded trials of vaccines and other interventions intended to prevent COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures We used descriptive statistics to characterize the clinical trials and the statistical power for the available studies. For the late-phase trials (i.e., phase 3 and 2/3 studies), we compared the geographic distribution of the clinical trials with the geographic distribution of people diagnosed with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 200 randomized controlled trials of treatments for people with COVID-19. Across all trials, 87 (43.5%) were single-center, 64 (32.0%) were unblinded, and 80 (40.0%) were sponsored by industry. The most common treatments included monoclonal antibodies (N=46 trials), small molecule immunomodulators (N=28), antiviral medications (N=24 trials), and hydroxychloroquine (N=20 trials). Of the 9 trials completed by August 2020, the median sample size was 450 (IQR 67-1113); of the 191 ongoing trials, the median planned sample size was 150 (IQR 60-400). Of the late-phase trials (N=54), the most common primary outcome was a severity scale (N=23, 42.6%), followed by a composite of mortality and ventilation (N=10, 18.5%), and mortality alone (N=6, 11.1%). Among these late-phase trials, all trials of antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, or chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine had a power of less than 25% to detect a 20% relative risk reduction in mortality. Had the individual trials for a given class of treatments instead formed a single trial, the power to detect that same reduction in mortality would have been greater than 98%. There was large variability in access to trials with the highest number of trials per capita in the Northeast and the lowest in the Midwest. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A large number of randomized trials were launched early in the pandemic to evaluate treatments for COVID-19. However, many trials were underpowered for important clinical endpoints and substantial geographic disparities were observed, highlighting the importance of improving national clinical trial infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(6): e0471, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276252

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Prone positioning improves clinical outcomes in moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and has been widely adopted for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. Little is known about the effects of prone positioning among patients with less severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, obesity, or those treated with pulmonary vasodilators. OBJECTIVES: We characterize the change in oxygenation, respiratory system compliance, and dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio in response to prone positioning in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome with a range of severities. A subset analysis of patients treated with inhaled nitric oxide and subsequent prone positioning explored the influence of pulmonary vasodilation on the physiology of prone positioning. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of all consecutively admitted adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019 treated with mechanical ventilation and prone positioning in the ICUs of an academic hospital between March 11, 2020, and May 1, 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Respiratory system mechanics and gas exchange during the first episode of prone positioning. RESULTS: Among 122 patients, median (interquartile range) age was 60 years (51-71 yr), median body mass index was 31.5 kg/m2 (27-35 kg/m2), and 50 patients (41%) were female. The ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 improved with prone positioning in 90% of patients. Prone positioning was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from median 149 [123-170] to 226 [169-268], p < 0.001) but no change in dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio or respiratory system compliance. Supine ratio of Pao2 to Fio2, respiratory system compliance, positive end-expiratory pressure, and body mass index did not correlate with absolute change in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 with prone positioning. However, patients with ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 less than 150 experienced a greater relative improvement in oxygenation with prone positioning than patients with ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 greater than or equal to 150 (median percent change in ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 62 [29-107] vs 30 [10-70], p = 0.002). Among 12 patients, inhaled nitric oxide prior to prone positioning was associated with a significant increase in the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from median 136 [77-168] to 170 [138-213], p = 0.003) and decrease in dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio (0.54 [0.49-0.58] to 0.46 [0.44-0.53], p = 0.001). Subsequent prone positioning in this subgroup further improved the ratio of Pao2 to Fio2 (from 145 [122-183] to 205 [150-232], p = 0.017) but did not change dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Prone positioning improves oxygenation across the acute respiratory distress syndrome severity spectrum, irrespective of supine respiratory system compliance, positive end-expiratory pressure, or body mass index. There was a greater relative benefit among patients with more severe disease. Prone positioning confers an additive benefit in oxygenation among patients treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

3.
Shock ; 56(2): 206-214, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: COVID-19-related coagulopathy is a known complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection and can lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), one of the most feared complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We sought to evaluate the incidence and etiology of ICH in patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO. Patients at two academic medical centers with COVID-19 who required venovenous-ECMO support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated retrospectively. During the study period, 33 patients required ECMO support; 16 (48.5%) were discharged alive, 13 died (39.4%), and 4 (12.1%) had ongoing care. Eleven patients had ICH (33.3%). All ICH events occurred in patients who received intravenous anticoagulation. The ICH group had higher C-reactive protein (P = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (P = 0.02), and IL-6 levels (P = 0.05), lower blood pH before and after ECMO (P < 0.01), and higher activated partial thromboplastin times throughout the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). ICH-free survival was lower in COVID-19 patients than in patients on ECMO for ARDS caused by other viruses (49% vs. 79%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 can be successfully bridged to recovery using ECMO but may suffer higher rates of ICH compared to those with other viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Mitochondrial Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(5): 870-878, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent cohort studies have identified obesity as a risk factor for poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To further explore the relationship between obesity and critical illness in COVID-19, the association of BMI with baseline demographic and intensive care unit (ICU) parameters, laboratory values, and outcomes in a critically ill patient cohort was examined. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the first 277 consecutive patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital ICUs with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were examined. BMI class, initial ICU laboratory values, physiologic characteristics including gas exchange and ventilatory mechanics, and ICU interventions as clinically available were measured. Mortality, length of ICU admission, and duration of mechanical ventilation were also measured. RESULTS: There was no difference found in respiratory system compliance or oxygenation between patients with and without obesity. Patients without obesity had higher initial ferritin and D-dimer levels than patients with obesity. Standard acute respiratory distress syndrome management, including prone ventilation, was equally distributed between BMI groups. There was no difference found in outcomes between BMI groups, including 30- and 60-day mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, obesity was not associated with meaningful differences in respiratory physiology, inflammatory profile, or clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL