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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Studies on informal caregiving during the COVID-19 pandemic have mainly focused on sub-groups of caregivers using cross-sectional or convenience samples, limiting the generalizability of findings. Conversely, this longitudinal study examines the effects of the pandemic and caregiving factors on depressive symptoms and anxiety over nine months among informal caregivers in Canada. METHODS: This study uses data from the Baseline (2011-2015), Follow-up 1 (2015-2018) and COVID-19 Study Baseline survey (April to May 2020) and Exit surveys (September to December 2020) of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. A total of 14,118 CLSA participants who were caregivers at Follow-up 1 and participated in the COVID-19 studies were selected. Linear mixed models was used to examine the effect of sex of caregiver, changes in caregiving (increase in caregiving hours and inability to care), and location of care (same household, another household, and healthcare institution) on depressive symptoms and anxiety from COVID-19 studies Baseline to Exit surveys (about 6-7 months apart). RESULTS: Informal caregivers reported more frequent depressive symptoms from the COVID-19 Baseline to Exit surveys, but not anxiety. Female caregivers reported greater depressive symptoms and anxiety, and male caregivers exhibited a greater increase in depressive symptoms and anxiety over time. More caregiving hours and inability to provide care were significantly positively associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Also, in-home caregivers reported more depressive symptoms and anxiety than those who cared for someone in healthcare institution, and more anxiety than those who cared for some in another household. DISCUSSION: The findings shed light on the change in mental health among informal caregivers during the outset of pandemic. The demonstrated associations between studied variables and mental health among informal caregivers provide empirical evidence for intervention programs aiming to support caregivers, particularly those who are female, and providing intensive care at home.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(6): 987-998, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684510

ABSTRACT

Identifying persons who are least willing to receive a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is critical for increasing uptake via targeted outreach. We conducted a survey of 23,819 Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging participants from September 29 to December 29, 2020, to assess factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination willingness and reasons for willingness or lack thereof. Among adults aged 50-96 years, 84.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.7, 84.6) were very or somewhat willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine; 15.9% (95% CI: 15.4, 16.3) were uncertain or very or somewhat unwilling. Based on logistic regression, those who were younger, female, had lower education and income, were non-White, and lived in a rural area were less willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. After controlling for these factors, recent receipt of influenza vaccine (adjusted odds ratio = 14.3, 95% CI: 12.5, 16.2) or planning to receive influenza vaccine (adjusted odds ratio = 10.5, 95% CI: 9.5, 11.6), as compared with no receipt or planning, was most strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccination willingness. Willingness was also associated with believing one had never been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) and experiencing negative pandemic consequences. Safety concerns were most common among those unwilling. Our comprehensive assessment of COVID-19 vaccination willingness among older adults in Canada, a prioritized group for vaccination due to their risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes, provides a road map for conducting outreach to increase uptake, which is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146168, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620079

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of COVID-19 not requiring hospitalization with functional mobility in community-dwelling adults above and beyond the impact of the pandemic control measures implemented in 2020 remains to be elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association between a COVID-19 diagnosis and change in mobility and physical function of adults in Canada aged 50 years or older during the initial pandemic lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 study. This study was launched on April 15, 2020, and the exit questionnaires were completed between September and December 2020. Prepandemic data from the first CLSA follow-up (2015-2018) were also used. Respondents included middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants residing in Canadian provinces. Data were analyzed from February to May 2021. Exposures: The assessment for self-reported COVID-19 status was adapted from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition available at the time of data collection; cases were classified as confirmed or probable, suspected, or non-COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in mobility since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using global rating of change in mobility scales at the COVID-19 exit questionnaire. Participant-reported new onset of difficulty in 3 physical function tasks was also examined. Results: Among 51 338 participants at baseline, 21 491 participants (41.9%) were 65 years or older and 26 155 participants (51.0%) were women and 25 183 (49.1%) were men. Of 2748 individuals with confirmed or probable or suspected COVID-19, 113 (94.2%) were not hospitalized. Individuals with confirmed or probable COVID-19 had higher odds of worsening mobility in terms of ability to engage in household activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.11-3.22), physical activity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.76), and standing up after sitting in a chair (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.11) compared with adults without COVID-19 during the same pandemic time period. Similar results were found for suspected COVID-19 status (eg, household activity: OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.82-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study among older adults in Canada found that receiving a COVID-19 diagnosis was significantly associated with worse mobility and functioning outcomes even in the absence of hospitalization. These findings suggest that interventions may be needed for individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 who do not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment , Independent Living , Mobility Limitation , Pandemics , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Canada , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Movement , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
4.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 503-511, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how influenza vaccine uptake changed during the 2020/2021 influenza season compared to previous pre-pandemic seasons is a key priority, as is identifying the relationship between prior influenza vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine willingness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large, nationally representative cohort of Canadian residents aged 50 and older to assess influenza vaccination status three times between 2015 and 2020. We investigated: 1) changes in self-reported influenza vaccine uptake, 2) predictors of influenza vaccine uptake in 2020/2021, and 3) the association between influenza vaccination history and self-reported COVID-19 vaccine willingness using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 23,385 participants analyzed for aims 1-2, influenza vaccination increased over time: 14,114 (60.4%) in 2015-2018, 15,692 (67.1%) in 2019/2020, and 19,186 (82.0%; combining those already vaccinated and those planning to get a vaccine) in 2020/2021. After controlling for socio-demographics, history of influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with influenza vaccination in 2020/2021 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 147.9 [95% CI: 120.9-180.9]); this association remained after accounting for multiple health and pandemic-related factors (aOR 140.3 [95% CI: 114.5-171.8]). To a lesser degree, those more concerned about COVID-19 were also more likely to report influenza vaccination in fall 2020, whereas those reporting a very negative impact of the pandemic were less likely to get vaccinated. Among 23,819 participants with information on COVID-19 vaccine willingness during the last quarter of 2020 (aim 3), prior influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 15.1 [95% CI: 13.5-16.8] for those who had received influenza vaccine at all previous timepoints versus none). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the importance of previous vaccination in driving vaccination uptake and willingness. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage for influenza and COVID-19 should target individuals who do not routinely engage with immunization services regardless of demographic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 72: 101493, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491714

ABSTRACT

Research on frailty has expanded in the last decade, but direct evidence supporting its implementation in clinical practice may be limited. This mapping review synthesizes the contexts-of-use and overall clinical applicability of recent pre-COVID frailty research. We sampled 476 articles from articles published on frailty in PubMed and EMBASE in 2017-2018, of which 150 articles were fully appraised for the contexts-of-use, definitions, and interventions. A clinical applicability framework was used to classify articles as practice-changing, practice-informing, or not practice-informing. Of the 476 sampled articles, 31% (n = 150) used frailty in functions that could inform a clinical indication: predictor or mediator (26%, n = 125), selection criterion (3%, n = 15), and effect modifier (2%, n = 10). Articles spanned all health disciplines, and cohort studies comprised 91% (n = 137) of studies and trials 9% (n = 13). Thirty-eight frailty definitions using varied cut-offs and a wide range of interventions were identified. Among all articles, 13% (n = 63) of articles were practice-informing, 2% (n = 11) potentially practice-changing, and 0.2% (n = 1) clearly practice-changing. Lack of well-defined intervention and identifiable effect (96%) or originality (83%) were predominant reasons reducing applicability. Only a minority of recent frailty research provides direct evidence of applicability to practice. Future research on frailty should focus on translating frailty, as a risk factor, into a clinical indication and address definition ambiguity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Frailty/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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