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PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277779, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140663


BACKGROUND: The emergence and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a potentially lethal disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing public health issues around the world. In resource-constrained nations, rapid Abbott SARS-CoV-2 antigen test kits are critical for addressing diagnostic gaps in health institutions and community screening. However, there is no evidence or proof of diagnostic performance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of PanbioTM Abbott SARS-CoV-2antigen rapid test kit to the gold standard, RT-PCR, in COVID-19 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. METHOD: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2021 and April 2022, on 120 suspected patients recruited from outpatient, emergency, and intensive care units in one of the tertiary hospitals in Ethiopia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from suspected cases and were tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 kit, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and compared to the reference standard RT-PCR. RESULT: The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 74.2% and 100%, respectively. A total of 62 samples (51.6%) were RT-PCR positive. Of these, 46 were Ag-RDT positive. Sensitivity among symptomatic patients was 79.4% (95% CI 68.3-90). The Abbot RDT and RT-PCR had a Kappa value of agreement of 0.735 (p < 0.001). These values were acceptable when compared to the WHO's suggested thresholds. CONCLUSION: The finding from this study support the use of the Abbot RDT as a diagnostic tool in COVID-19 suspects, mainly in those with higher viral loads.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
Front Public Health ; 10: 808626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776005


Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Investigation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) species circulating in the Ethiopian population would contribute to the efforts made to control TB in the country. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the MTBC species and spoligo patterns in the Oromia region (central) of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit 450 smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases from the Oromia region between September 2017 and August 2018. Mycobacteria were isolated from sputum samples on the Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by spoligotyping. The results of spoligotyping were transferred into a query box in the SITVIT2 database and Run TB-Lineage in the TB Insight website for the identification of spoligo international type (SIT) number and linages of the isolates, respectively. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) 20 was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and fifteen isolates were grouped under 181 different spoligotype patterns. The most dominantly isolated spoligotype pattern was SIT149 and it consisted of 23 isolates. The majority of the isolates were grouped under Euro-American (EA), East-African-Indian (EAI), and Indo-Oceanic (IO) lineages. These lineages consisted of 79.4, 9.8, and 9.8% of the isolates, respectively. One hundred and sixty-five of the isolates were classified under 31 clustered spoligotypes whereas the remaining 150 were singleton types. Furthermore, 91.1% of the total isolates were classified as orphan types. Clustering of spoligotypes was associated (p < 0.001) with EAI lineage. Conclusion: SIT149 and EA lineage were predominantly isolated from the Oromia region substantiating the findings of the similar studies conducted in other regions of Ethiopia. The observation of significant number of singleton and orphan spoligotypes warrants for additional genetic typing of the isolates using method(s) with a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classification , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology