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Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2142-2142, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751370
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325313


Background: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) was recognized as one of common symptom of COVID-19. OD, defined as the reduced or distorted ability to smell during sniffing (orthonasal olfaction) and may represent one of early symptoms in the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. A large online questionnaire-based survey found that some of post COVID-19 patients showed no improvement at one month after they were discharged from hospital. Therefore, this clinical trial is designed to explore the efficacy of acupuncture for OD in infected COVID-19 patients and to determine whether acupuncture could have benefits than sham acupuncture for OD in post- COVID-19 patients. Methods: : This is a single blind, randomized controlled, cross over trial. We plan to recruit forty post-COVID-19 patients who are presenting with smell loss or smell distortions more than one month. Qualified patients will be randomly allocated into the intervention group (real acupuncture) or the control group (sham acupuncture) in a 1:1 ratio. Each patient will receive 8 sessions of treatment over 4 week (Cycle 1), and 2-week follow-up. After the follow-up, the control group will be conducted with real acupuncture for another 4 weeks (Cycle 2), and the real acupuncture group will be conducted with the 4-week sham acupuncture. The primary outcomes are the scores change on the questionnaire of olfactory functioning and olfaction related quality of life at weeks 6, 8, 12 and 14 from the baseline. Secondary outcome is the change on the Olfactory Test score at the week 6 and 12 from the baseline measured by using the Traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT-TC). Discussion: The results of this trial will help to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for OD in post-COVID-19 Patients. This may provide a new treatment option for patients. Trial registration:, NCT04959747, Registered on July 13, 2021.

Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.

Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism