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1.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(5): 100649, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860142

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic cough management necessitates a clear integrated care pathway approach. Primary care physicians initially encounter the majority of chronic cough patients, yet their role in proper management can prove challenging due to limited access to advanced diagnostic testing. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologists and chest physicians, allergists, and gastroenterologists, among others, is central to the optimal diagnosis and treatment of conditions which underly or worsen cough. These include infectious and inflammatory, upper and lower airway pathologies, or gastro-esophageal reflux. Despite the wide armamentarium of ancillary testing conducted in cough multidisciplinary care, such management can improve cough but seldom resolves it completely. This can be due partly to the limited data on the role of tests (eg, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide), as well as classical pharmacotherapy conducted in multidisciplinary specialties for chronic cough. Other important factors include presence of multiple concomitant cough trigger mechanisms and the central neuronal complexity of chronic cough. Subsequent management conducted by cough specialists aims at control of cough refractory to prior interventions and includes cough-specific behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy with neuromodulators, among others. Preliminary data on the role of neuromodulators in a proof-of-concept manner are encouraging but lack strong evidence on efficacy and safety. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization (WAO)/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the recent literature on management of chronic cough in primary, multidisciplinary, and cough-specialty care. Knowledge gaps in diagnostic testing, classical and neuromodulator pharmacotherapy, in addition to behavioral therapy of chronic cough were also analyzed. Outcomes: This third part of the WAO/ARIA consensus on chronic cough suggests a management algorithm of chronic cough in an integrated care pathway approach. Insights into the inherent limitations of multidisciplinary cough diagnostic testing, efficacy and safety of currently available antitussive pharmacotherapy, or the recently recognized behavioral therapy, can significantly improve the standards of care in patients with chronic cough.

2.
Front Allergy ; 2: 690837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779929

ABSTRACT

Background: Mass coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination to achieve herd immunity is an effective means to mitigate the current COVID-19 pandemic. Reports of COVID-19 vaccine-associated allergic reactions and lack of clear local guidance are contributing factors leading to a low vaccine acceptance rate in the community. A task force of experts from the Hong Kong Institute of Allergy (HKIA) has been formed to address current needs. Objective: To formulate a set of consensus statements (CS) on COVID-19 vaccine allergy safety (VAS) in Hong Kong. Methods: A nominated task force of experts managing patients with drug and vaccine allergies in Hong Kong formulated the CS by the Delphi method. An agreement was a priori defined as ≥80% consensus. Results: A total of 11 statements met the criteria for consensus with good overall agreement among task force members, including seven statements on pre-vaccination recommendations and four statements on vaccination and post-vaccination guidance. Individuals with a history of suspected allergic reaction to prior COVID-19 vaccination should not receive further COVID-19 vaccination, and other groups at risk of COVID-19 vaccine-associated allergic reactions have been identified. The importance of pre-vaccination and post-vaccination assessment by frontline healthcare workers and evaluation by allergists are highlighted. Conclusion: The CS provides pragmatic and timely guidance for local frontline healthcare providers on decisions regarding COVID-19 VAS.

4.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(1): e8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667550

ABSTRACT

Due to global concerns over coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-associated allergic reactions; the Hong Kong Institute of Allergy (HKIA) formulated an initial set of consensus statements (CS) on COVID-19 Vaccine Allergy Safety (VAS) in early 2021. Following accumulation of both local and international experience on and COVID-19 VAS, the HKIA task force reformed to update the Hong Kong consensus on COVID-19 VAS. A nominated task force of experts managing patients with drug and vaccine allergies in Hong Kong formulated the updated CS by unanimous decision. A total of 9 new statements were established. Individuals with history of food allergies and anaphylaxis unrelated to the components of COVID-19 vaccines do not require allergist review prior to vaccination. Individuals with history suspicious of an excipient allergy may now be vaccinated with a non-PEG containing vaccine without prior allergist assessment. Individuals with suspected mild allergic reactions following prior COVID-19 vaccination can proceed with the next dose. Only individuals who present with immediate-type allergic reaction with systemic symptoms or more severe nonimmediate type reactions should defer their next dose until allergist review. The remaining statements regarding adequate safety during vaccination and advocation for legislative changes regarding excipient disclosure in Hong Kong remained unchanged from the prior CS. The updated CS are updated in accordance with local and international experience thus far and serve as guidance for local frontline healthcare providers to further promote safe COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Hong Kong.

6.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. OBJECTIVES: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. OUTCOMES: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

7.
Pediatric Pulmonology ; 56(S2):S6, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1279389
8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 617-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the first epicentre of COVID-19 in the world, accounting for 80% of cases in China during the first wave. We aimed to assess household transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection in Wuhan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included the households of all laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases and laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections identified by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Dec 2, 2019, and April 18, 2020. We defined households as groups of family members and close relatives who did not necessarily live at the same address and considered households that shared common contacts as epidemiologically linked. We used a statistical transmission model to estimate household secondary attack rates and to quantify risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection, accounting for individual-level exposure history. We assessed how intervention policies affected the household reproductive number, defined as the mean number of household contacts a case can infect. FINDINGS: 27 101 households with 29 578 primary cases and 57 581 household contacts were identified. The secondary attack rate estimated with the transmission model was 15·6% (95% CI 15·2-16·0), assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days and a maximum infectious period of 22 days. Individuals aged 60 years or older were at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 than all other age groups. Infants aged 0-1 years were significantly more likely to be infected than children aged 2-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·40-3·44) and children aged 6-12 years (1·53, 1·01-2·34). Given the same exposure time, children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age were more likely to infect others than were adults aged 60 years or older (1·58, 1·28-1·95). Asymptomatic individuals were much less likely to infect others than were symptomatic cases (0·21, 0·14-0·31). Symptomatic cases were more likely to infect others before symptom onset than after (1·42, 1·30-1·55). After mass isolation of cases, quarantine of household contacts, and restriction of movement policies were implemented, household reproductive numbers declined by 52% among primary cases (from 0·25 [95% CI 0·24-0·26] to 0·12 [0·10-0·13]) and by 63% among secondary cases (from 0·17 [0·16-0·18] to 0·063 [0·057-0·070]). INTERPRETATION: Within households, children and adolescents were less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but were more infectious than older individuals. Presymptomatic cases were more infectious and individuals with asymptomatic infection less infectious than symptomatic cases. These findings have implications for devising interventions for blocking household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as timely vaccination of eligible children once resources become available. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 75-80, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623530

ABSTRACT

The widely diverse impacts of SAR-CoV-2 infection resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be held in more stark relief when contrasting the devastating impact upon China, Italy, Great Britain, America and Brazil with the considerably milder course in the geographically isolated countries of Australia and New Zealand and the densely populated Vietnam. Children in the Asia-Pacific region, as with children all over the world to date, have fared better than older adults. Other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia and India have struggled to deal with the pandemic because of a lack of health infrastructure, inability to provide sufficient testing and isolation and widespread poverty. This article will provide a snapshot of the impact of COVID-19 upon countries in the Asia-Pacific region in the six months since the first case of the novel zoonotic coronavirus infection appeared in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Policy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cooperative Behavior , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
11.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(5): 100126, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380025

ABSTRACT

Managing patients with severe asthma during the coronavirus pandemic and COVID-19 is a challenge. Authorities and physicians are still learning how COVID-19 affects people with underlying diseases, and severe asthma is not an exception. Unless relevant data emerge that change our understanding of the relative safety of medications indicated in patients with asthma during this pandemic, clinicians must follow the recommendations of current evidence-based guidelines for preventing loss of control and exacerbations. Also, with the absence of data that would indicate any potential harm, current advice is to continue the administration of biological therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with asthma for whom such therapies are clearly indicated and have been effective. For patients with severe asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, the decision to maintain or postpone biological therapy until the patient recovers should be a case-by-case based decision supported by a multidisciplinary team. A registry of cases of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma, including those treated with biologics, will help to address a clinical challenge in which we have more questions than answers.

12.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(5): 100125, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic has changed many medical practices in order to provide additional protection to both our patients and healthcare providers. In many cases this includes seeing patients through electronic means such as telehealth or telephone rather than seeing them in person. Asthma exacerbations cannot always be treated in this way. PROBLEM: Current emergency unit asthma guidelines recommend bronchodilators be administered by metered dose inhaler (MDI) and spacer for mild-moderate asthma and include it as a choice even in severe asthma, but many emergency units continue to prefer nebulised therapy for patients who urgently require beta-agonists. The utilization of nebulised therapy potentially increases the risk of aerosolization of the coronavirus. Since nosocomial transmission of respiratory pathogens is a major threat in the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, use of nebulised therapy is of even greater concern due to the potential increased risk of infection spread to nearby patients and healthcare workers. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: We propose a risk stratification plan that aims to avoid nebulised therapy, when possible, by providing an algorithm to help better delineate those who require nebulised therapy. Protocols that include strategies to allow flexibility in using MDIs rather than nebulisers in all but the most severe patients should help mitigate this risk of aerosolised infection transmission to patients and health care providers. Furthermore, expedient treatment of patients with high dose MDI therapy augmented with more rapid initiation of systemic therapy may help ensure patients are less likely to deteriorate to the stage where nebulisers are required.

13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1598-1600, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155146

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is endangering human health worldwide; scarcity of published pediatric cases and current literature and the absence of evidence-based guidelines necessitate international sharing of experience and personal communication. On 31 March 2020 the International Committee of the American Thoracic Society Pediatrics Assembly recorded an online podcast, during which pediatric pulmonologists worldwide shared their experience on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children. The aim was to share personal experience in organizing pediatric care in different health care settings globally, protecting health care workers, and isolation practices. This manuscript summarizes the common themes of the podcast which centered around three main topics: more benign clinical disease and progression in pediatric cases compared to adults, a strong need for strategies to protect health care workers, and social or economic disparities as a barrier to successful pandemic control.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pediatrics/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Webcasts as Topic , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Progression , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Humans , Internationality , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Medicine , Quarantine , Respiration Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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