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1.
Allergy ; 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical management of shrimp allergy is hampered by the lack of accurate tests. Molecular diagnosis has been shown to more accurately reflect clinical reactivity but the full spectrum of shrimp allergens and their clinical relevance are yet to be established. We therefore sought to comprehend the allergen repertoire of shrimp, investigate and compare the sensitization pattern and diagnostic value of the allergens in allergic subjects of two distinct populations. METHODS: Sera were collected from 85 subjects with challenge-proven or doctor-diagnosed shrimp allergy in Hong Kong and Thailand. The IgE-binding proteins of Penaeus monodon were probed by western blotting and identified by mass spectrometry. Recombinant shrimp allergens were synthesized and analyzed for IgE sensitization by ELISA. RESULTS: Ten IgE-binding proteins were identified and a comprehensive panel of 11 recombinant shrimp allergens was generated. The major shrimp allergens among Hong Kong subjects were troponin C (Pen m 6) and glycogen phosphorylase (Pen m 14, 47.1%), tropomyosin (Pen m 1, 41.2%) and sarcoplasmic-calcium binding protein (Pen m 4, 35.3%), while those among Thai subjects were Pen m 1 (68.8%), Pen m 6 (50.0%) and fatty acid-binding protein (Pen m 13, 37.5%). Component-based tests yielded significantly higher area under curve values (0.77-0.96) than shrimp extract-IgE test (0.70-0.75). Yet the best component test differed between populations; Pen m 1-IgE test added diagnostic value only in the Thai cohort, whereas sensitizations to other components were better predictors of shrimp allergy in Hong Kong patients. CONCLUSION: Pen m 14 was identified as a novel shrimp allergen predictive of challenge outcome. Molecular diagnosis better predicts shrimp allergy than conventional tests, but the relevant component is population dependent.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0012922, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546575

ABSTRACT

Despite distinct nasopharyngeal microbiome (NPM) profiles between asthmatics and healthy subjects, little is known about the NPM dynamics and its relation to childhood asthma exacerbation (AE). We investigated NPM changes by longitudinally collecting 135 flocked nasopharyngeal swabs (FNPSs) from 33 school-age asthmatic children at six time points (2 to 4-week intervals) from September to December 2017 in Hong Kong. Subjects were categorized into AE and stable asthma (AS) groups according to whether they experienced any exacerbation during follow-up. One-off FNPSs from nine nonasthmatic children were included as controls. Microbiota profiles were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All 144 NPMs were classified into six microbiome profile groups (MPGs), each dominated by Moraxella, Corynebacterium 1, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, or Anoxybacillus. The microbial diversity and compositions of NPM in exacerbation samples were different from both baseline samples and those from healthy controls. Moraxella and Dolosigranulum-dominated NPM exhibited high temporal stability revealed by MPG transition analysis. NPM diversity decreased whereas microbial composition remained similar over time. The relative abundances of Moraxella increased while Corynebacterium 1, Anoxybacillus, and Pseudomonas decreased longitudinally. However, these temporal patterns did not differ between AE and AS groups, suggesting that short-term dynamic patterns were not sufficient to predict AE occurrence. Asthmatic NPM underwent Moraxella expansion during AE and presented a high microbiome resilience (recovery potential) after AE resolution. Microbial pathways involved in methane, ketone bodies, and vitamin B3 metabolisms were enhanced during AE and primarily contributed by Moraxella. IMPORTANCE Evidence on the dynamic changes of NPM in asthmatic patients remains limited. Here, we present that asthmatic NPMs deviating from a healthy status still showed resilience after disturbance. Our data imply from a longitudinal perspective that Moraxella increase is closely related to AE occurrence. The finding of functional dysbiosis (imbalance) during AE offers a plausible explanation for the known association between nasopharyngeal Moraxella expansion and increased AE risk. This work serves as a basis for future long-term prospective studies leveraging multiomics approaches to elucidate the temporal association between NPM and pediatric AE.

3.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(4): 100646, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35539896

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of cow's milk allergy (CMA) is approximately 2-4.5% in infants and less than 0.5% in adults. Most children outgrow cow's milk allergy in early childhood, particularly that to the baked milk products. Immunotherapy with unheated cow's milk has been used as a treatment option for those who have not yet outgrown CMA, but the benefits must be balanced with the adverse effects. Objective: These evidence-based guidelines from the World Allergy Organization (WAO) intend to support patients, clinicians, and others in decisions about the use of oral and epicutaneous immunotherapy for the treatment of IgE-mediated CMA. Methods: WAO formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel balanced to include the views of all stakeholders and to minimize potential biases from competing interests. The McMaster University GRADE Centre supported the guideline-development process, including updating or performing systematic evidence reviews. The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and patients. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used, including GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks, which were subject to public comment. Results: After a careful review of the summarized evidence and thorough discussions the WAO guideline panel suggests: a) using oral immunotherapy with unheated cow's milk in those individuals with confirmed IgE-mediated CMA who value the ability to consume controlled quantities of milk more than avoiding the large adverse effects of therapy, b) not using oral immunotherapy with unheated cow's milk in those who value avoiding large adverse effects of therapy more than the ability to consume controlled quantities of milk, c) using omalizumab in those starting oral immunotherapy with unheated cow's milk, d) not using oral immunotherapy with baked cow's milk in those who do not tolerate both unheated and baked milk, and e) not using epicutaneous immunotherapy outside of a research setting. The recommendations are labeled "conditional" due to the low certainty about the health effects based on the available evidence. Conclusions: Clinicians, patients, and their family members might want to discuss all the potential desirable and undesirable effects of oral immunotherapy for IgE-mediated CMA and integrate them with the patients' values and preferences before deciding on a treatment option. More robust research is needed to determine with greater certainty which interventions are likely to be the most beneficial with the least harms, and to develop safer, low-cost, and equitable treatments.

4.
Allergy ; 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and the prevalence has been increasing over the past few decades. One of the most consistent epidemiological findings is that children living in a farming or rural environment are protected from development of asthma and allergies, but the protective factors in rural China are not clear. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed in a total of 17,587 children aged 5-8 years, 3,435 from Hong Kong (urban) and 14,152 from Conghua (rural county in southern China). Asthma and allergic symptoms as well as environmental exposures were ascertained by using a standardized and validated questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of current wheeze was significantly lower in rural Conghua than that of urban Hong Kong (1.7% vs. 7.7%, P < 0.001). A lower rate of asthma ever was also reported in rural children compared with their urban counterparts (2.5% vs. 5.3%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, exposure to agricultural farming (adjusted odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.97) and poultry (0.75, 0.59-0.96) were the most important factors associated with the asthma-protective effect in the rural area. Further propensity score adjusted analysis indicated that such protection conferred by living in the rural environment was mainly attributable to poultry exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the prevalence of asthma and atopic disorders was significantly lower in rural children when compared with their urban peers. Exposure to poultry and agricultural farming are the most important factors associated with asthma protection in the rural area.

5.
Biosaf Health ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528630

ABSTRACT

Since Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified during late 2019, the sustained spread of this pathogen within the human population has caused worldwide disruption with staggering infection rates and death tolls. Due to the accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2, the virus has evolved into many variants, five of which have been listed as variants of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Multiple animal models of SARS-CoV-2 have been developed to evaluate vaccines and drugs and to assess the pathogenicity, transmissibility and antiviral measures of these VOCs. Here, we review the cutting-edge research based on mouse, hamster, ferret and non-human primate models for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on the Omicron variant, and highlight the importance of updating vaccines in a timely manner in order to mitigate the negative effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the human population.

6.
Front Allergy ; 2: 690837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387010

ABSTRACT

Background: Mass coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination to achieve herd immunity is an effective means to mitigate the current COVID-19 pandemic. Reports of COVID-19 vaccine-associated allergic reactions and lack of clear local guidance are contributing factors leading to a low vaccine acceptance rate in the community. A task force of experts from the Hong Kong Institute of Allergy (HKIA) has been formed to address current needs. Objective: To formulate a set of consensus statements (CS) on COVID-19 vaccine allergy safety (VAS) in Hong Kong. Methods: A nominated task force of experts managing patients with drug and vaccine allergies in Hong Kong formulated the CS by the Delphi method. An agreement was a priori defined as ≥80% consensus. Results: A total of 11 statements met the criteria for consensus with good overall agreement among task force members, including seven statements on pre-vaccination recommendations and four statements on vaccination and post-vaccination guidance. Individuals with a history of suspected allergic reaction to prior COVID-19 vaccination should not receive further COVID-19 vaccination, and other groups at risk of COVID-19 vaccine-associated allergic reactions have been identified. The importance of pre-vaccination and post-vaccination assessment by frontline healthcare workers and evaluation by allergists are highlighted. Conclusion: The CS provides pragmatic and timely guidance for local frontline healthcare providers on decisions regarding COVID-19 VAS.

7.
Front Allergy ; 2: 676903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387013

ABSTRACT

Asian countries have unique ways of food processing and dietary habits that may explain the observed differences in the prevalence, natural history, epidemiology and sensitization pattern of food allergic diseases when compared to western countries. Per capita consumption of seafood, including fish and shellfish, is well above the global average for many Asian countries because of their coastal geographical location and rich seafood supply. The wide availability and high abundance of seafood in Asian countries have shaped a diverse way of processing and eating this major food group. Such unique features have significant impact on the sensitization profile and allergenicity of Asians to fish and shellfish. For example, fish and shellfish are eaten raw in some countries that may promote sensitization to heat-labile allergens not otherwise seen in other regions. Fermented fish sauce is commonly used as a condiment in some countries which may promote fish sensitization. Shrimp head and shrimp roe are regarded as delicacies in some countries, but their allergen profiles are yet to be characterized. Freshwater fish and shellfish are a common food source in many Asian countries but the allergenicity of many such species remains unknown. In this review, we discuss factors that may contribute to differences in molecular profile and sensitization pattern for fish and shellfish that are observed in Asian populations and revisit the current status of seafood allergy in this part of the world. Acknowledging the similarities and differences of seafood allergy patterns between Asian and western populations can help us refine a better strategy for diagnosing and managing seafood allergy.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1058-1071, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311493

ABSTRACT

Safe, efficacious, and deployable vaccines are urgently needed to control COVID-19 in the large-scale vaccination campaigns. We report here the preclinical studies of an approved protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19, ZF2001, which contains tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein with alum-based adjuvant. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). ZF2001 induced high levels of RBD-binding and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in both mice and non-human primates, and elicited balanced TH1/TH2 cellular responses in NHPs. Two doses of ZF2001 protected Ad-hACE2-transduced mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as detected by reduced viral RNA and relieved lung injuries. In NHPs, vaccination of either 25 µg or 50 µg ZF2001 prevented infection with SARS-CoV-2 in lung, trachea, and bronchi, with milder lung lesions. No evidence of disease enhancement was observed in both animal models. ZF2001 has been approved for emergency use in China, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, and Columbia. The high safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy in both mice and NHPs found in this preclinical study was consistent with the results in human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier Proteins , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 792556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250904

ABSTRACT

Microbiome mediates early life immune deviation in asthma development. Recurrent wheeze (RW) in pre-school years is a risk factor for asthma diagnosis in school-age children. Dysbiosis exists in asthmatic airways, while its origin in pre-school years and relationship to RW is not clearly defined. This study investigated metagenomics of nasopharyngeal microbiome in pre-school children with RW. We applied whole-genome shotgun sequencing and human rhinovirus (HRV) detection on nasopharyngeal samples collected from three groups of pre-school children: (i) RW group: 16 children at-risk for asthma who were hospitalized for RW, (ii) inpatient control (IC): 18 subjects admitted for upper respiratory infection, and (iii) community control (CC): 36 children without respiratory syndromes. Sequence reads were analyzed by MetaPhlAn2 and HUMAnN2 algorithm for taxonomic and functional identification. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis was used to identify discriminative features. We identified that Moraxella catarrhalis and Dolosigranulum pigrum were predominant species in nasopharynx. RW had lower alpha diversity (Shannon diversity index) than CC (0.48 vs. 1.07; P adj = 0.039), characterized by predominant Proteobacteria. LEfSe analysis revealed D. pigrum was the only discriminative species across groups (LDA = 5.57, P = 0.002), with its relative abundance in RW, IC, and CC being 9.6, 14.2, and 37.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). LEfSe identified five (ribo)nucleotides biosynthesis pathways to be group discriminating. Adjusting for HRV status, pre-school children with RW have lower nasopharyngeal biodiversity, which is associated with Proteobacteria predominance and lower abundance of D. pigrum. Along with discriminative pathways found in RW and CC, these microbial biomarkers help to understand RW pathogenesis.

10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(2): e13726, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A proportion of asthmatic children outgrow their disease by adulthood, but there are limited data on predictors for asthma persistence. This prospective study characterized the trajectory of spirometric indices and identified predictors for the persistence of childhood asthma. METHODS: Chinese asthmatic children aged 6-15 years from pediatric allergy clinic underwent annual visits for ≥5 years and until their adulthood. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry and anti-asthma medications were recorded at baseline and then at least annually. Asthma resolution was defined when patients were free from asthma symptoms and use of anti-asthma drugs for ≥2 years. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors for asthma persistence. Generalized estimating equation was used to analyze longitudinal changes in lung function parameters in relation to asthma persistence. RESULTS: 181 asthmatic children aged [mean (SD)] 10.0 (2.7) years were followed for [mean (SD)] 12.5 (2.8) years. One third of them outgrew asthma during follow-up. Female was 3.36 times more likely to have persistent asthma. Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment ever and frequent asthma exacerbation (AE) predicted asthma persistence with respective odds ratios of 3.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-7.09) and 3.05 (95% CI 1.39-6.68). Persistent asthma was inversely associated with baseline forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1 %) with an odds ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-1.00). Throughout follow-up, patients with persistent asthma had generally lower forced expiratory indices than those with asthma resolution. Children with persistent asthma experienced poorer lung function growth. CONCLUSIONS: Female, ICS ever, and frequent AE predicted persistent asthma. Patients with persistent asthma had lower forced expiratory indices and poorer lung function growth into adulthood.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung , Prospective Studies
11.
Asia Pac Allergy ; 12(1): e8, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174059

ABSTRACT

Due to global concerns over coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-associated allergic reactions; the Hong Kong Institute of Allergy (HKIA) formulated an initial set of consensus statements (CS) on COVID-19 Vaccine Allergy Safety (VAS) in early 2021. Following accumulation of both local and international experience on and COVID-19 VAS, the HKIA task force reformed to update the Hong Kong consensus on COVID-19 VAS. A nominated task force of experts managing patients with drug and vaccine allergies in Hong Kong formulated the updated CS by unanimous decision. A total of 9 new statements were established. Individuals with history of food allergies and anaphylaxis unrelated to the components of COVID-19 vaccines do not require allergist review prior to vaccination. Individuals with history suspicious of an excipient allergy may now be vaccinated with a non-PEG containing vaccine without prior allergist assessment. Individuals with suspected mild allergic reactions following prior COVID-19 vaccination can proceed with the next dose. Only individuals who present with immediate-type allergic reaction with systemic symptoms or more severe nonimmediate type reactions should defer their next dose until allergist review. The remaining statements regarding adequate safety during vaccination and advocation for legislative changes regarding excipient disclosure in Hong Kong remained unchanged from the prior CS. The updated CS are updated in accordance with local and international experience thus far and serve as guidance for local frontline healthcare providers to further promote safe COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Hong Kong.

12.
Allergy ; 2022 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is substantial interest in immunotherapy and biologicals in IgE-mediated food allergy. METHODS: We searched six databases for randomized controlled trials about immunotherapy alone or with biologicals (to April 2021) or biological monotherapy (to September 2021) in food allergy confirmed by oral food challenge. We pooled the data using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We included 36 trials about immunotherapy with 2126 mainly child participants. Oral immunotherapy increased tolerance whilst on therapy for peanut (RR 9.9, 95% CI 4.5.-21.4, high certainty); cow's milk (RR 5.7, 1.9-16.7, moderate certainty) and hen's egg allergy (RR 8.9, 4.4-18, moderate certainty). The number needed to treat to increase tolerance to a single dose of 300 mg or 1000 mg peanut protein was 2. Oral immunotherapy did not increase adverse reactions (RR 1.1, 1.0-1.2, low certainty) or severe reactions in peanut allergy (RR 1,6, 0.7-3.5, low certainty), but may increase (mild) adverse reactions in cow's milk (RR 3.9, 2.1-7.5, low certainty) and hen's egg allergy (RR 7.0, 2.4-19.8, moderate certainty). Epicutaneous immunotherapy increased tolerance whilst on therapy for peanut (RR 2.6, 1.8-3.8, moderate certainty). Results were unclear for other allergies and administration routes. There were too few trials of biologicals alone (3) or with immunotherapy (1) to draw conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Oral immunotherapy improves tolerance whilst on therapy and is probably safe in peanut, cow's milk and hen's egg allergy. More research is needed about quality of life, cost and biologicals.

13.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 14(1): 21-39, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983105

ABSTRACT

Asia-Pacific is a populous region with remarkable variations in socioeconomic development and environmental exposure among countries. The prevalence rates of asthma and allergic rhinitis appear to have recently reached a plateau in Western countries, whereas they are still increasing in many Asian countries. Given the large population in Asia, even a slight increase in the prevalence rate will translate into an overwhelming number of patients. To reduce the magnitude of the increase in allergic diseases in next few decades in Asia, we must understand the potential factors leading to the occurrence of these disorders and the development of potential preventive strategies. The etiology of allergic disorders is likely due to complex interactions among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors for the manifestations of inappropriate immune responses. As urbanization and industrialization inevitably progress in Asia, there is an urgent need to curtail the upcoming waves of the allergy epidemic. Potentially modifiable risk exposure, such as air pollution, should be minimized through timely implementation of effective legislations. Meanwhile, re-introduction of protective factors that were once part of the traditional farming lifestyle might give new insight into primary prevention of allergy.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 351-367, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964428

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern threatens the efficacy of currently approved vaccines and authorized therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). It is hence important to continue searching for SARS-CoV-2 broadly neutralizing MAbs and defining their epitopes. Here, we isolate 9 neutralizing mouse MAbs raised against the spike protein of a SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain and evaluate their neutralizing potency towards a panel of variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and B.1.617.2. By using a combination of biochemical, virological, and cryo-EM structural analyses, we identify three types of cross-variant neutralizing MAbs, represented by S5D2, S5G2, and S3H3, respectively, and further define their epitopes. S5D2 binds the top lateral edge of the receptor-binding motif within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with a binding footprint centred around the loop477-489, and efficiently neutralizes all variant pseudoviruses, but the potency against B.1.617.2 was observed to decrease significantly. S5G2 targets the highly conserved RBD core region and exhibits comparable neutralization towards the variant panel. S3H3 binds a previously unreported epitope located within the evolutionarily stable SD1 region and is able to near equally neutralize all of the variants tested. Our work thus defines three distinct cross-variant neutralizing sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, providing guidance for design and development of broadly effective vaccines and MAb-based therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. OBJECTIVES: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. OUTCOMES: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

16.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100617, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cough features a complex peripheral and central neuronal network. The function of the chemosensitive and stretch (afferent) cough receptors is well described but partly understood. It is speculated that chronic cough reflects a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex, which becomes hypersensitive. This is mediated by neuromediators, cytokines, inflammatory cells, and a differential expression of neuronal (chemo/stretch) receptors, such as transient receptor potential (TRP) and purinergic P2X ion channels; yet the overall interaction of these mediators in neurogenic inflammation of cough pathways remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on neuroanatomy and pathophysiology of chronic cough. The role of TRP ion channels in pathogenic mechanisms of the hypersensitive cough reflex was also examined. OUTCOMES: Chemoreceptors are better studied in cough neuronal pathways compared to stretch receptors, likely due to their anatomical overabundance in the respiratory tract, but also their distinctive functional properties. Central pathways are important in suppressive mechanisms and behavioral/affective aspects of chronic cough. Current evidence strongly suggests neurogenic inflammation induces a hypersensitive cough reflex marked by increased expression of neuromediators, mast cells, and eosinophils, among others. TRP ion channels, mainly TRP V1/A1, are important in the pathogenesis of chronic cough due to their role in mediating chemosensitivity to various endogenous and exogenous triggers, as well as a crosstalk between neurogenic and inflammatory pathways in cough-associated airways diseases.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930824

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has resulted in tremendous loss worldwide. Although viral spike (S) protein binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been established, the functional consequences of the initial receptor binding and the stepwise fusion process are not clear. By utilizing a cell-cell fusion system, in complement with a pseudoviral infection model, we found that the spike engagement of ACE2 primed the generation of S2' fragments in target cells, a key proteolytic event coupled with spike-mediated membrane fusion. Mutagenesis of an S2' cleavage site at the arginine (R) 815, but not an S2 cleavage site at arginine 685, was sufficient to prevent subsequent syncytia formation and infection in a variety of cell lines and primary cells isolated from human ACE2 knock-in mice. The requirement for S2' cleavage at the R815 site was also broadly shared by other SARS-CoV-2 spike variants, such as the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants of concern. Thus, our study highlights an essential role for host receptor engagement and the key residue of spike for proteolytic activation, and uncovers a targetable mechanism for host cell infection by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , Proteolysis , Virus Internalization
18.
Am Surg ; : 31348211058620, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is under-recognized in cancer patients and can lead to poor treatment outcomes. We aim to develop an outpatient-focused score based on the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) to help identify colorectal cancer (CRC) profiles at high risk for malnutrition. METHODS: 506 CRC patients during initial outpatient oncology consultation at our tertiary referral outpatient oncology clinic completed the MST. Objective and subjective data were collected through chart review. Data gathered are as follows: demographics, anthropometrics, laboratory values, patient-reported symptoms, MST score, cancer history, performance status, socioeconomic status, and Charlson Comorbidity. Predictors of malnutrition were identified by logistic regression. Receiver operating curve (ROC), area under the curve (AUC), and our model's predictability were determined. RESULTS: Significant predictors of malnutrition are as follows: younger age (20-39 vs >40 years) (P = .007), normal-to-low body mass index at presentation (P = .019), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group classification 2-3 (P = .012), metastatic disease (P = .046), albumin <3.0 g/dL (P = .033), fatigue (P < .001), and change in stool/bowel habits (P = .002). In our derived malnutrition score, risk of malnutrition increased from 11% for score 0, to 100% for scores 9-10. Receiver operating curve showed AUC .745 (95% CI, .697-.793). DISCUSSION: An outpatient clinic-derived malnutrition score obtained from objective and patient-reported variables may facilitate identification of CRC patients at highest risk for malnutrition. Rapid identification and intervention in high-risk patients may improve treatment recovery, therapy tolerance, and quality of life. Our tool requires external validation before application in clinical practice.

19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 193-208, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914048

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health emergency. Several vaccine candidates have been developed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. One approach is to construct live-recombinant viruses expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) as vaccine candidates. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vector is a mature vaccine platform which was successfully developed as a vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), leading to its licensure by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2019. Based on this work, we developed two live, replication-competent VSV-vectored vaccines against SARS-CoV-2: (1) a VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and (2) a bivalent VSV expressing the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV. This protocol describes the methodologies for the design, cloning, rescue, and preparation of these recombinant VSV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Synthetic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ebolavirus/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(6): 1347-1364, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872649

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of food allergy (FA) is increasing in some areas of the globe, highlighting the need for better strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the last few decades, we have made great strides in understanding the causes and mechanisms underlying FAs, prompting guideline updates. Earlier guidelines recommended avoidance of common food allergens during pregnancy and lactation and delaying the introduction of allergenic foods in children aged between 1 and 3 years. Recent guidelines for allergy prevention recommend consumption of a healthy and diverse diet without eliminating or increasing the consumption of allergenic foods during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Early introduction of allergenic foods is recommended by most guidelines for allergy prevention after a period of exclusive breast-feedng (6 months [World Health Organization] or 4 months [European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology]). New diagnostics for FA have been developed with varied availability of these tests in different countries. Finally, the first oral immunotherapy drug for FA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency in 2020. In this review, we will address the global prevalence of FA, our current understanding of the causes of FA, and the latest guidelines for preventing, diagnosing, and treating FA. We will also discuss similarities and differences between FA guidelines.


Subject(s)
Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Allergens/immunology , Animals , Breast Feeding , Child, Preschool , Diet Therapy , Female , Food , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Food Hypersensitivity/therapy , Humans , Infant , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Prevalence
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