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3.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652378

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, with social distancing measures in place and a decrease in social activities, emotional states are more likely to be transferred between family members via increased interactions and communication. However, longitudinal evidence, particularly for early adolescents, is lacking. This study investigated family pre-pandemic influences on parental stress and adolescent psychosocial wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from 233 adolescents and their parents before and during the initial phase of the pandemic. Parents reported their own stress level and perception of adolescent adjustment problems, whereas adolescents reported their own psychological distress level. In addition, adolescents also reported their satisfaction with family life in the pre-pandemic survey. Cross-lagged path models indicated reciprocal associations between parental stress and perception of adolescent adjustment problems. Compared to adolescents low in pre-pandemic family life satisfaction, those adolescents with higher levels of family life satisfaction before the pandemic reported lower levels of anxiety and stress only when parental stress showed no increase during the pandemic. Findings provide support for the mutual influences between parental stress and perceived adolescent adjustment problems during the pandemic. Special attention should be paid to those adolescents who undergo significant family life changes during the pandemic.

4.
Child Abuse Negl ; : 105457, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic with risk of poor mental wellbeing and child maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children with SEN and their maltreatment risk. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 417 children with SEN studying at special schools and 25,427 children with typical development (TD) studying at mainstream schools completed an online survey in April 2020 in Hong Kong during school closures due to COVID-19. METHOD: Emotional/behavioural difficulties, quality of life and parental stress of children with SEN were compared with typically developed children using mixed effect model. Linear regression analyses were performed to explore factors associated with child emotional/behavioural difficulties and parental stress during the pandemic. Chi-square test was performed to detect the differences in maltreatment risk before and during COVID-19. RESULTS: Children with SEN had significantly poorer overall quality of life (68.05 vs 80.65, p < 0.01). 23.5% of children had at least one episode of severe physical assault and 1.9% experienced very severe physical assault during COVID-19. Rates of physical assault increased significantly (59.8% vs. 71.2% p < 0.001) while children with mental disorders had increased risk of severe physical assault comparing to those without mental disorders (RR = 1.58, ꭓ2 = 5.19 p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Children with SEN had poorer mental health than typically developed children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Maltreatment risk for children with SEN is higher in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. Surveillance of child maltreatment, continuity of medical and rehabilitation care to support children with SEN are essential during a disease pandemic.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608316

ABSTRACT

Persistence of protective immunity for SARS-CoV-2 is important against reinfection. Knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 immunity in pediatric patients is currently lacking. We opted to assess the SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity in recovered children and adolescents, addressing the pediatrics specific immunity towards COVID-19. Two independent assays were performed to investigate humoral and cellular immunological memory in pediatric convalescent COVID-19 patients. Specifically, RBD IgG, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell responses were identified and quantified in recovered children and adolescents. SARS-CoV-2-specific RBD IgG detected in recovered patients had a half-life of 121.6 days and estimated duration of 7.9 months compared with baseline levels in controls. The specific T cell response was shown to be independent of days after diagnosis. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed robust responses not only to spike (S) peptides (a main target of vaccine platforms) but were also similarly activated when stimulated by membrane (M) and nuclear (N) peptides. Importantly, we found the differences in the adaptive responses were correlated with the age of the recovered patients. The CD4+ T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 S peptide in children aged <12 years correlated with higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels, suggesting the importance of a T cell-dependent humoral response in younger children under 12 years. Both cellular and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infections can be induced in pediatric patients. Our important findings provide fundamental knowledge on the immune memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Adv Ther (Weinh) ; 4(10): 2100179, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567924

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/adtp.202100055.].

7.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469559

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global use of anti-dementia medication is unknown. We aimed to determine the changes of anti-dementia medication use in Europe (EU) and North America (NA) during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using sales data of anti-dementia medications in 2019 and 2020 from 34 EU and NA countries. The monthly uses of anti-dementia medications from January through June in 2020 were compared to the corresponding months in 2019 for each country. RESULTS: In the pre-pandemic period of January to March 2020, 70 out of 102 (3 months x 34 countries) measurements (68.6%) of monthly sales volume showed an increase. In contrast, 76.5% and 85.3% countries showed reduced sales in April and May 2020, respectively. DISCUSSION: These findings indicate changes in use of anti-dementia medications during the pandemic. The delivery of pharmaceutical care for dementia patients may be heavily disrupted in certain countries.

8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2587-2597, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was conducted covering the whole of Scotland's general population. The study population comprised individuals with confirmed (positive test) COVID-19 and at least one thromboembolic event between March 2018 and October 2020. Their incidence rates during the risk interval (5 days before to 56 days after the positive test) and the control interval (the remaining periods) were compared intrapersonally. RESULTS: Across Scotland, 1449 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced a thromboembolic event. The risk of thromboembolism was significantly elevated over the whole risk period but highest in the 7 days following the positive test (incidence rate ratio, 12.01; 95% CI, 9.91 to 14.56) in all included individuals. The association was also present in individuals not originally hospitalized for COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.83 to 5.85). Risk of MI, stroke, PE, and DVT were all significantly higher in the week following a positive test. The risk of PE and DVT was particularly high and remained significantly elevated even 56 days following the test. CONCLUSION: Confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with early elevations in risk with MI, ischemic stroke, and substantially stronger and prolonged elevations with DVT and PE both in hospital and community settings. Clinicians should consider thromboembolism, especially PE, among people with COVID-19 in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Scotland , Thromboembolism/diagnosis
10.
Adv Ther (Weinh) ; : 2100055, 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242700

ABSTRACT

Identifying effective drug treatments for COVID-19 is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Although a number of existing drugs have been proposed as potential COVID-19 treatments, effective data platforms and algorithms to prioritize drug candidates for evaluation and application of knowledge graph for drug repurposing have not been adequately explored. A COVID-19 knowledge graph by integrating 14 public bioinformatic databases containing information on drugs, genes, proteins, viruses, diseases, symptoms and their linkages is developed. An algorithm is developed to extract hidden linkages connecting drugs and COVID-19 from the knowledge graph, to generate and rank proposed drug candidates for repurposing as treatments for COVID-19 by integrating three scores for each drug: motif scores, knowledge graph PageRank scores, and knowledge graph embedding scores. The knowledge graph contains over 48 000 nodes and 13 37 000 edges, including 13 563 molecules in the DrugBank database. From the 5624 molecules identified by the motif-discovery algorithms, ranking results show that 112 drug molecules had the top 2% scores, of which 50 existing drugs with other indications approved by health administrations reported. The proposed drug candidates serve to generate hypotheses for future evaluation in clinical trials and observational studies.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1830-1833, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232178

ABSTRACT

Use of high-dose glucocorticoids for COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) is controversial because of safety concerns. We examined the long-term consequences of glucocorticoid use in severe acute respiratory syndrome (caused by SARS-CoV-1) survivors. Results showed that high-dose glucocorticoids greatly increased the long-term risk of avascular necrosis but not other major diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218824, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210567

ABSTRACT

Importance: Schools were closed intermittently across Hong Kong to control the COVID-19 outbreak, which led to significant physical and psychosocial problems among children and youths. Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and sources of infection among children and youths with COVID-19 during the 3 waves of outbreaks in Hong Kong in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved children and youths aged 18 years or younger with COVID-19 in the 3 waves of outbreaks from January 23 through December 2, 2020. Data were analyzed from December 2020 through January 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, travel and contact histories, lengths of hospital stay, and symptoms were captured through the central electronic database. Individuals who were infected without recent international travel were defined as having domestic infections. Results: Among 397 children and youths confirmed with COVID-19 infections, the mean (SD) age was 9.95 (5.34) years, 220 individuals (55.4%) were male, and 154 individuals (38.8%) were asymptomatic. There were significantly more individuals who were infected without symptoms in the second wave (59 of 118 individuals [50.0%]) and third wave (94 of 265 individuals [35.5%]) than in the first wave (1 of 14 individuals [7.1%]) (P = .001). Significantly fewer individuals who were infected in the second and third waves, compared with the first wave, had fever (first wave: 10 individuals [71.4%]; second wave: 22 individuals [18.5%]; third wave: 98 individuals [37.0%]; P < .001) or cough (first wave: 6 individuals [42.9%]; second wave: 15 individuals [12.7%]; third wave: 52 individuals [19.6%]; P = .02). Among all individuals, 394 individuals (99.2%) had mild illness. One patient developed chilblains (ie, COVID toes), 1 patient developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 1 patient developed post-COVID-19 autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In all 3 waves, 204 patients with COVID-19 (51.4%) had domestic infections. Among these individuals, 186 (91.2%) reported having a contact history with another individual with COVID-19, of which most (183 individuals [90.0%]) were family members. In the third wave, 18 individuals with domestic infections had unknown contact histories. Three schoolmates were confirmed with COVID-19 on the same day and were reported to be close contacts. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that nearly all children and youths with COVID-19 in Hong Kong had mild illness. These findings suggest that household transmission was the main source of infection for children and youths with domestic infections and that the risk of being infected at school was small.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187012

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the implementation of social distancing and home confinement measures may elevate the risk of vitamin D deficiency particularly for infants. This study aimed to quantify changes in vitamin D level among infants and toddlers in Hong Kong after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: We recruited 303 infants and toddlers aged 2-24 months by stratified random sampling from 1 June 2019 to November 30, 2020. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of time on infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level overall and by age groups before and after the outbreak. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed to examine the sustained effect of COVID-19 on their serum 25(OH)D level. Results: The ITS results showed no immediate reduction in serum 25(OH)D level among infants, but a decreasing trend was observed in the subsequent months post-outbreak at a monthly decline rate of -6.32 nmol/L. When analyzed by age group, the magnitude of post-outbreak reduction in 25(OH)D was stronger among younger infants (aged 2-6 months). Conclusion: Guidelines and recommendations should be given to pregnant women and mothers to ensure sufficient vitamin D level in their infants during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diet , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Life Style , Male , Mothers , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
14.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 599408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150722

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to identify key factors affecting Healthcare workers (HCWs) perceived stress and risk of contracting COVID-19 among themselves and their family members during the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted between 19 March and April 5, 2020 in Hong Kong. HCWs from public hospitals and private dentists, and their family members participated. Results: A total of 747 HCWs and 245 family members participated. Higher perceived stress in HCWs was associated with more negative changes in family relationship (p = 0.025). The HCWs' perceived stress, however, was positively associated with family cohesion (p = 0.033) and stress levels of family members (p < 0.001). The level of HCWs' satisfaction toward the hospital policies in response to the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with lower levels of perceived stress and risk of themselves or their family members contracting COVID-19. HCWs' previous frontline experience of SARS was significantly associated with less perceived risk of themselves or their family members contracting COVID-19. Conclusion: Hospital policies addressing HCWs' needs, frontline experience of SARS, and family relationship influenced psychological wellbeing of HCWs during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Risk Assessment , Stress, Psychological/psychology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of COVID-19 patients were reported to have cardiac involvements. Data pertaining to cardiac sequalae is of urgent importance to define subsequent cardiac surveillance. METHODS: We performed a systematic cardiac screening for 97 consecutive COVID-19 survivors including electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, serum troponin and NT-proBNP assay 1-4 weeks after hospital discharge. Treadmill exercise test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) were performed according to initial screening results. RESULTS: The mean age was 46.5 ± 18.6 years; 53.6% were men. All were classified with non-severe disease without overt cardiac manifestations and did not require intensive care. Median hospitalization stay was 17 days and median duration from discharge to screening was 11 days. Cardiac abnormalities were detected in 42.3% including sinus bradycardia (29.9%), newly detected T-wave abnormality (8.2%), elevated troponin level (6.2%), newly detected atrial fibrillation (1.0%), and newly detected left ventricular systolic dysfunction with elevated NT-proBNP level (1.0%). Significant sinus bradycardia with heart rate below 50 bpm was detected in 7.2% COVID-19 survivors, which appeared to be self-limiting and recovered over time. For COVID-19 survivors with persistent elevation of troponin level after discharge or newly detected T wave abnormality, echocardiography and CMR did not reveal any evidence of infarct, myocarditis, or left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Cardiac abnormality is common amongst COVID-survivors with mild disease, which is mostly self-limiting. Nonetheless, cardiac surveillance in form of ECG and/or serum biomarkers may be advisable to detect more severe cardiac involvement including atrial fibrillation and left ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Survivors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 235-241, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric COVID-19 studies exploring the relationships between NPS and saliva viral loads, clinical and immunological profiles are lacking. METHODS: Demographics, immunological profiles, nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), and saliva samples collected on admission, and hospital length of stay (LOS) were assessed in children below 18 years with COVID-19. FINDINGS: 91 patients were included between March and August 20 20. NPS and saliva viral loads were correlated (r = 0.315, p = 0.01). Symptomatic patients had significantly higher NPS and saliva viral loads than asymptomatic patients. Serial NPS and saliva viral load measurements showed that the log10 NPS (r = -0.532, p < 0.001) and saliva (r = -0.417, p < 0.001) viral loads for all patients were inversely correlated with the days from symptom onset with statistical significance. Patients with cough, sputum, and headache had significantly higher saliva, but not NPS, viral loads. Higher saliva, but not NPS, viral loads were associated with total lymphopenia, CD3 and CD4 lymphopenia (all p < 0.05), and were inversely correlated with total lymphocyte (r = -0.43), CD3 (r = -0.55), CD4 (r = -0.60), CD8 (r = -0.41), B (r = -0.482), and NK (r = -0.416) lymphocyte counts (all p < 0.05). INTERPRETATION: Saliva viral loads on admission in children correlated better with clinical and immunological profiles than NPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/virology , Viral Load , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 160: 234-243, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023400

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a surge in need for alternative routes of administration of drugs for end of life and palliative care, particularly in community settings. Transmucosal routes include intranasal, buccal, sublingual and rectal. They are non-invasive routes for systemic drug delivery with the possibility of self-administration, or administration by family caregivers. In addition, their ability to offer rapid onset of action with reduced first-pass metabolism make them suitable for use in palliative and end-of-life care to provide fast relief of symptoms. This is particularly important in COVID-19, as patients can deteriorate rapidly. Despite the advantages, these routes of administration face challenges including a relatively small surface area for effective drug absorption, small volume of fluid for drug dissolution and the presence of a mucus barrier, thereby limiting the number of drugs that are suitable to be delivered through the transmucosal route. In this review, the merits, challenges and limitations of each of these transmucosal routes are discussed. The goals are to provide insights into using transmucosal drug delivery to bring about the best possible symptom management for patients at the end of life, and to inspire scientists to develop new delivery systems to provide effective symptom management for this group of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Palliative Care/methods , Terminal Care/methods , Administration, Mucosal , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics
18.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 31(1): 161-176, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound impact on the health and development of children worldwide. There is limited evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and its related school closures and disease-containment measures on the psychosocial wellbeing of children; little research has been done on the characteristics of vulnerable groups and factors that promote resilience. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional population study of Hong Kong families with children aged 2-12 years. Parents completed an online survey on family demographics, child psychosocial wellbeing, functioning and lifestyle habits, parent-child interactions, and parental stress during school closures due to COVID-19. We used simple and multiple linear regression analyses to explore factors associated with child psychosocial problems and parental stress during the pandemic. RESULTS: The study included 29,202 individual families; of which 12,163 had children aged 2-5 years and 17,029 had children aged 6-12 years. The risk of child psychosocial problems was higher in children with special educational needs, and/or acute or chronic disease, mothers with mental illness, single-parent families, and low-income families. Delayed bedtime and/or inadequate sleep or exercise duration, extended use of electronic devices were associated with significantly higher parental stress and more psychosocial problems among pre-schoolers. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies vulnerable groups of children and highlights the importance of strengthening family coherence, adequate sleep and exercise, and responsible use of electronic devices in promoting psychosocial wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2588-2596, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900320

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As another wave of COVID-19 outbreak has approached in July 2020, a larger scale COVID-19 pediatric Asian cohort summarizing the clinical observations is warranted. Children confirmed with COVID-19 infection from the Republic of Korea, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and Wuhan, China, during their first waves of local outbreaks were included. Their clinical characteristics and the temporal sequences of the first waves of local paediatric outbreaks were compared. Four hundred and twenty three children with COVID-19 were analyzed. Wuhan had the earliest peak, followed by Korea and HKSAR. Compared with Korea and Wuhan, patients in HKSAR were significantly older (mean age: 12.9 vs. 10.8 vs. 6.6 years, p < 0.001, respectively) and had more imported cases (87.5% vs. 16.5% vs. 0%, p < 0.001, respectively). The imported cases were also older (13.4 vs. 7.6 years, p < 0.001). More cases in HKSAR were asymptomatic compared to Korea and Wuhan (45.5% vs. 22.0% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001, respectively), and significantly more patients from Wuhan developed fever (40.6% vs. 29.7% vs. 21.6%, p=0.003, respectively). There were significantly less imported cases than domestic cases developing fever after adjusting for age and region of origin (p = 0.046). 5.4% to 10.8% of patients reported anosmia and ageusia. None developed pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PMIS-TS). In general, adolescents were more likely to be asymptomatic and less likely to develop fever, but required longer hospital stays. In conclusion, majority patients in this pediatric Asian cohort had a mild disease. None developed PIMS-TS. Their clinical characteristics were influenced by travel history and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
20.
J Pediatr ; 224: 30-36, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical and laboratory features of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2003 (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2 Chinese pediatric cohorts, given that the causative pathogens and are biologically similar. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study reviewing pediatric patients with SARS (n = 43) and COVID-19 (n = 244) who were admitted to the Princess Margaret Hospital in Hong Kong and Wuhan Children's Hospital in Wuhan, respectively. Demographics, hospital length of stay, and clinical and laboratory features were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 97.7% of patients with SARS and 85.2% of patients with COVID-19 had epidemiologic associations with known cases. Significantly more patients with SARS developed fever, chills, myalgia, malaise, coryza, sore throat, sputum production, nausea, headache, and dizziness than patients with COVID-19. No patients with SARS were asymptomatic at the time of admission, whereas 29.1% and 20.9% of patients with COVID-19 were asymptomatic on admission and throughout their hospital stay, respectively. More patients with SARS required oxygen supplementation than patients with COVID-19 (18.6 vs 4.7%; P = .004). Only 1.6% of patients with COVID-19 and 2.3% of patients with SARS required mechanical ventilation. Leukopenia (37.2% vs 18.6%; P = .008), lymphopenia (95.4% vs 32.6%; P < .01), and thrombocytopenia (41.9% vs 3.8%; P < .001) were significantly more common in patients with SARS than in patients with COVID-19. The duration between positive and negative nasopharyngeal aspirate and the length in hospital stay were similar in patients with COVID-19, regardless of whether they were asymptomatic or symptomatic, suggesting a similar duration of viral shedding. CONCLUSIONS: Children with COVID-19 were less symptomatic and had more favorable hematologic findings than children with SARS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis
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