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1.
Handbook of Hormones: Comparative Endocrinology for Basic and Clinical Research ; : 505-508, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1803270

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is well known for its dual actions to convert inactive Ang I to active Ang II, and degrades active bradykinin (BK), which plays an important role in controlling blood pressure. Because it is the bottleneck step for the production of pressor Ang II, it was targeted pharmacologically in the 1970s. Successful ACE inhibitors such as captopril were produced to treat hypertension. Studies on domain-specific ACE inhibitors are continuing to produce effective hypertension-controlling drugs with fewer side effects. ACE2 was discovered in 2000 and it converts Ang II into Ang(1-7), thereby reducing the concentration of Ang II as well as increasing that of Ang(1-7), an important enzyme for Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor signaling. ACE2 also acts as the receptor in the lung for the coronavirus, causing the infamous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are playing a key role in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between post-vaccination symptoms and strength of antibody responses is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adverse effects caused by vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine are associated with the magnitude of vaccine-induced antibody levels. DESIGN: Single center, prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Participants worked at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and were seen monthly at the Naval Medical Research Center Clinical Trials Center. PARTICIPANTS: Generally healthy adults that were not severely immunocompromised, had no history of COVID-19, and were seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prior to vaccination. MEASURES: Severity of vaccine-associated symptoms was obtained through participant completed questionnaires. Testing for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and receptor binding domain was conducted using microsphere-based multiplex immunoassays. RESULTS: 206 participants were evaluated (69.4% female, median age 41.5 years old). We found no correlation between vaccine-associated symptom severity scores and vaccine-induced antibody titers one month after vaccination. We also observed that 1) post-vaccination symptoms were inversely correlated with age and weight and more common in women, 2) systemic symptoms were more frequent after the second vaccination, 3) high symptom scores after first vaccination were predictive of high symptom scores after second vaccination, and 4) older age was associated with lower titers. LIMITATIONS: Study only observes antibody responses and consists of healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of post-vaccination symptoms following receipt of the BNT162b2 vaccine does not equate to lack of vaccine-induced antibodies one month after vaccination. This study also suggests that it may be possible to design future mRNA vaccines that confer robust antibody responses with lower frequencies of vaccine-associated symptoms. FUNDING: This study was executed by the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP), a Department of Defense (DoD) program executed by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) through a cooperative agreement by the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. (HJF). This project has been funded by the Defense Health Program, U.S. DoD, under award HU00012120067. Project funding for JHP was in whole or in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under Contract No. HHSN261200800001E. The funding bodies have had no role in the study design or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333754

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, was first described in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and has now spread globally. Ecuador was the second country in South America to confirm cases and Guayaquil was one of the first cities in the world to experience high mortality due to COVID-19. The aim of this study was to describe the lineages circulating throughout the country and to compare the mutations in local variants, to the reference strain. In this work we used the MinION platform (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) to sequence the whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 119 patients from all provinces of Ecuador, using the ARTIC network protocols. Our data from lineage assignment of the one hundred and nineteen whole genomes revealed twenty different lineages. All genomes presented differences in the S gene compared to the Wuhan reference strain, being the D614G amino acid replacement the most common change. The B.1.1.119 lineage was the most frequent and was found in several locations in the Coast and Andean region. Three sequences were assigned to the new B.1.1.7 lineage. Our work is an important contribution to the understanding of the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Ecuador and South America. HIGHLIGHTS: All 119 genomes showed mutations compared to the reference strain, which could be important to understand the virulence, severity and transmissibility of the virus.Until January 17, three sequences were assigned to the new B.1.1.7 lineage.Our findings suggest that there were at least twenty independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 to Ecuador. ARTICLE SUMMARY LINE: We report 119 sequences of SARS-CoV-2 across all Ecuadorian provinces, 20 different lineages were found until January 17 th , including B.1.1.7.

4.
Meng, B.; Ferreira, I. A. T. M.; Abdullahi, A.; Goonawardane, N.; Saito, A.; Kimura, I.; Yamasoba, D.; Gerba, P. P.; Fatihi, S.; Rathore, S.; Zepeda, S. K.; Papa, G.; Kemp, S. A.; Ikeda, T.; Toyoda, M.; Tan, T. S.; Kuramochi, J.; Mitsunaga, S.; Ueno, T.; Shirakawa, K.; Takaori-Kondo, A.; Brevini, T.; Mallery, D. L.; Charles, O. J.; Bowen, J. E.; Joshi, A.; Walls, A. C.; Jackson, L.; Cele, S.; Martin, D.; Smith, K. G. C.; Bradley, J.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Choi, J.; Madissoon, E.; Meyer, K.; Mlcochova, P.; Ceron-Gutierrez, L.; Doffinger, R.; Teichmann, S.; Pizzuto, M.; de Marco, A.; Corti, D.; Sigal, A.; James, L.; Veesler, D.; Hosmillo, M.; Lee, J. H.; Sampaziotis, F.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Matheson, N. J.; Thukral, L.; Sato, K.; Gupta, R. K.; Kawabata, R.; Morizako, N.; Sadamasu, K.; Asakura, H.; Nagashima, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Ito, J.; Kimura, I.; Uriu, K.; Kosugi, Y.; Suganami, M.; Oide, A.; Yokoyama, M.; Chiba, M.; Saito, A.; Butlertanaka, E. P.; Tanaka, Y. L.; Ikeda, T.; Motozono, C.; Nasser, H.; Shimizu, R.; Yuan, Y.; Kitazato, K.; Hasebe, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Wu, J.; Takahashi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Shimizu, K.; Tsushima, K.; Kubo, H.; Kazuma, Y.; Nomura, R.; Horisawa, Y.; Nagata, K.; Kawai, Y.; Yanagida, Y.; Tashiro, Y.; Tokunaga, K.; Ozono, S.; Baker, S.; Dougan, G.; Hess, C.; Kingston, N.; Lehner, P. J.; Lyons, P. A.; Matheson, N. J.; Owehand, W. H.; Saunders, C.; Summers, C.; Thaventhiran, J. E. D.; Toshner, M.; Weekes, M. P.; Maxwell, P.; Shaw, A.; Bucke, A.; Calder, J.; Canna, L.; Domingo, J.; Elmer, A.; Fuller, S.; Harris, J.; Hewitt, S.; Kennet, J.; Jose, S.; Kourampa, J.; Meadows, A.; O’Brien, C.; Price, J.; Publico, C.; Rastall, R.; Ribeiro, C.; Rowlands, J.; Ruffolo, V.; Tordesillas, H.; Bullman, B.; Dunmore, B. J.; Fawke, S.; Gräf, S.; Hodgson, J.; Huang, C.; Hunter, K.; Jones, E.; Legchenko, E.; Matara, C.; Martin, J.; Mescia, F.; O’Donnell, C.; Pointon, L.; Pond, N.; Shih, J.; Sutcliffe, R.; Tilly, T.; Treacy, C.; Tong, Z.; Wood, J.; Wylot, M.; Bergamaschi, L.; Betancourt, A.; Bower, G.; Cossetti, C.; de Sa, A.; Epping, M.; Fawke, S.; Gleadall, N.; Grenfell, R.; Hinch, A.; Huhn, O.; Jackson, S.; Jarvis, I.; Krishna, B.; Lewis, D.; Marsden, J.; Nice, F.; Okecha, G.; Omarjee, O.; Perera, M.; Potts, M.; Richoz, N.; Romashova, V.; Yarkoni, N. S.; Sharma, R.; Stefanucci, L.; Stephens, J.; Strezlecki, M.; Turner, L.; de Bie, E. M. D. D.; Bunclark, K.; Josipovic, M.; Mackay, M.; Mescia, F.; Michael, A.; Rossi, S.; Selvan, M.; Spencer, S.; Yong, C.; Allison, J.; Butcher, H.; Caputo, D.; Clapham-Riley, D.; Dewhurst, E.; Furlong, A.; Graves, B.; Gray, J.; Ivers, T.; Kasanicki, M.; Le Gresley, E.; Linger, R.; Meloy, S.; Muldoon, F.; Ovington, N.; Papadia, S.; Phelan, I.; Stark, H.; Stirrups, K. E.; Townsend, P.; Walker, N.; Webster, J.; Scholtes, I.; Hein, S.; King, R.; Márquez, S.; Prado-Vivar, B.; Becerra-Wong, M.; Caravajal, M.; Trueba, G.; Rojas-Silva, P.; Grunauer, M.; Gutierrez, B.; Guadalupe, J. J.; Fernández-Cadena, J. C.; Andrade-Molina, D.; Baldeon, M.; Pinos, A..
Web of Science; 2021.
Preprint in English | Web of Science | ID: ppcovidwho-331154

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 variant emerged in late 2021 and is characterised by multiple spike mutations across all spike domains. Here we show that Omicron BA.1 has higher affinity for ACE2 compared to Delta, and confers very significant evasion of therapeutic monoclonal and vaccine-elicited polyclonal neutralising antibodies after two doses. mRNA vaccination as a third vaccine dose rescues and broadens neutralisation. Importantly, antiviral drugs remdesevir and molnupiravir retain efficacy against Omicron BA.1. We found that in human nasal epithelial 3D cultures replication was similar for both Omicron and Delta. However, in lower airway organoids, Calu-3 lung cells and gut adenocarcinoma cell lines live Omicron virus demonstrated significantly lower replication in comparison to Delta. We noted that despite presence of mutations predicted to favour spike S1/S2 cleavage, the spike protein is less efficiently cleaved in live Omicron virions compared to Delta virions. We mapped the replication differences between the variants to entry efficiency using spike pseudotyped virus (PV) entry assays. The defect for Omicron PV in specific cell types correlated with higher cellular RNA expression of TMPRSS2, and accordingly knock down of TMPRSS2 impacted Delta entry to a greater extent as compared to Omicron. Furthermore, drug inhibitors targeting specific entry pathways demonstrated that the Omicron spike inefficiently utilises the cellular protease TMPRSS2 that mediates cell entry via plasma membrane fusion. Instead, we demonstrate that Omicron spike has greater dependency on cell entry via the endocytic pathway requiring the activity of endosomal cathepsins to cleave spike. Consistent with suboptimal S1/S2 cleavage and inability to utilise TMPRSS2, syncytium formation by the Omicron spike was dramatically impaired compared to the Delta spike. Overall, Omicron appears to have gained significant evasion from neutralising antibodies whilst maintaining sensitivity to antiviral drugs targeting the polymerase. Omicron has shifted cellular tropism away from TMPRSS2 expressing cells that are enriched in cells found in the lower respiratory and GI tracts, with implications for altered pathogenesis.

5.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 32(1): 5-10, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the rates of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after hospital discharge among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the associated risk factors. METHODS: Adult COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospitals between March 2020 and March 2021 were asked to complete a questionnaire at 4 weeks after discharge. The Chinese version of the 22-item Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) was used to measure symptoms of PTSD. The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of major depressive disorder. The 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) was used to measure symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder. The rates of anxiety, depression, and PTSD among discharged patients were determined, as were associations between psychosocial factors and outcome measures and predictors for moderate-tosevere symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. RESULTS: 96 men and 103 women aged 18 to 81 years returned the completed questionnaire. 12.1% to 20.1% of them reported symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, or depression. Higher symptom severity was associated with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay. Women had more PTSD symptoms than men, particularly when knowing someone under quarantine. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 survivors with higher perceived life threat, lower emotional support, lower disease severity upon admission, and longer hospital stay were associated with higher severity of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Timely intervention should provide to at-risk survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Survivors , Young Adult
6.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S323, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746553

ABSTRACT

Background. The Prospective Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Seroconversion (PASS) study is following over 200 healthcare workers who have received the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. A major aim of the study is to determine whether baseline antibody titers against the seasonal human coronaviruses are associated with altered levels of vaccine-induced antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. Methods. Serial serum samples obtained pre-vaccination and 1 month after the second dose were tested for IgG antibodies against the full pre-fusion spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the full pre-fusion spike proteins of OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63. Antibodies were measured using highly sensitive and specific multiplex assays based on Luminex-xMAP technology. Results. Preliminary analyses of the first 103 subjects in whom we have 1 month post-vaccination serum demonstrate development of high IgG geometric mean titers (GMT) to both the full spike protein (GMT: 13,685, 12,014-15,589, 95% CI) and the RBD (GMT: 19,448, 17,264-21,908, 95% CI) of SARS-CoV-2 after the 2nd vaccine dose. Preliminary analysis demonstrates no association between baseline antibody titers against spike protein of OC43 and antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Pearson's r-value= 0.13, P-value= 0.21) or RBD (Pearson's r-value= 0.09, P-value= 0.36) one month after vaccination. Future analyses will evaluate whether there is an association with baseline seasonal coronavirus antibody titers and either SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers or anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein titers at 6 months after vaccination. Conclusion. These preliminary results suggest that baseline antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses neither boost nor impede SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced antibody responses. Longitudinal sampling will enable assessment of vaccine durability and determination of whether baseline seasonal coronavirus antibody levels are associated with altered duration of detectable COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses.

7.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330468

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive data on transmission mitigation behaviors and both SARS-CoV-2 infection and serostatus are needed from large, community-based cohorts to identify COVID-19 risk factors and the impact of public health measures. From July 2020-March 2021, approximately 5,500 adults from the East Bay Area, California were followed over three data collection rounds to investigate the association between geographic and demographic characteristics and transmission mitigation behavior with SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. We estimated the populated-adjusted prevalence of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination, and self-reported COVID-19 test positivity. Population-adjusted SARSCoV-2 seroprevalence was low, increasing from 1.03% (95% CI: 0.50-1.96) in Round 1 (July-September 2020), to 1.37% (95% CI: 0.75-2.39) in Round 2 (October-December 2020), to 2.18% (95% CI: 1.48-3.17) in Round 3 (February-March 2021). Population-adjusted seroprevalence of COVID-19 vaccination was 21.64% (95% CI: 19.20-24.34) in Round 3, with Whites having 4.35% (95% CI: 0.35-8.32) higher COVID-19 vaccine seroprevalence than non-Whites. No evidence for an association between transmission mitigation behavior and seroprevalence was observed. Despite >99% of participants reporting wearing masks, non-Whites, lower-income, and lower-educated individuals had the highest SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and lowest vaccination seroprevalence. Results demonstrate that more effective policies are needed to address these disparities and inequities.

8.
Delaware Journal of Public Health ; 7(5), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1732647

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe sociodemographic disparities in caregiver beliefs about the COVID-19 vaccine for their children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, linking caregiver-reported data to geocoded sociodemographic data from child EHRs. Caregivers of children receiving care in a Delaware pediatric healthcare system were invited to complete a survey about COVID-19 vaccine beliefs from March 19 to April 16, 2021. Results: 1499 caregivers participated (18% Black, 11% Hispanic, 32% public insurance, 12% rural). 54% of caregivers intended to vaccinate their children, while 34% were unsure and 12% would not. Caregivers of younger children (aOR 3.70, CI 2.36-5.79), Black children (aOR 2.11, CI 1.50-2.96), and from disadvantaged communities (aOR 1.59, CI 1.05-2.42) were more likely to be unsure and not vaccinate their children. Caregivers from rural communities were more likely not to vaccinate their children (aOR 2.51, CI 1.56-4.05). Fewer caregivers of younger children, Black children, and from disadvantaged communities believed in the safety or efficacy of the vaccines (p < 0.001), while fewer caregivers of younger children and from rural communities believed in their children’s susceptibility to COVID-19 or risk of getting severe disease from COVID-19 (p < 0.05). While the majority (72%) of caregivers were influenced by health experts, fewer from communities of color and disadvantaged communities were (p<0.001). Conclusions: Caregivers of younger children and from communities of color, rural communities, and disadvantaged communities in Delaware expressed more COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Policy implications: This study explores beliefs of different communities in Delaware, which are important to tailoring public health messaging and strategies to increase vaccine uptake in these communities. © 2021 Delaware Academy of Medicine / Delaware Public Health Association.

9.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695141

ABSTRACT

A significant amount of research suggests the common reasons students leave an engineering major include lack of faculty mentoring, lack of a sense of belonging, financial hardships, and course difficulties in the prerequisite STEM courses [1]. Project-based learning (PBL) potentially addresses several of these reasons and increases the chances of a student completing an engineering major. Engineering students are more likely to persist when they feel a sense of belonging and community engagement, when they have early interactions with faculty mentors, and when they experience a series of successes [2]. The research question involves whether student research projects with small, faculty-mentored groups promotes student retention. Students participating in Contra Costa College's Center for Science Excellence (CSE) STEM mentoring program are encouraged to apply for external internships and internal research projects. As of the last cycle before the interruption of internship opportunities associated with COVID-19, 79% of participating students intended to apply for summer internships. Students are also able to work on internal research projects mentored by CSE faculty mentors. Over the past three years, engineering students that have participated in research projects have remained in our program and transferred at a high rate. Of thirty student research participants, fourteen have transferred into engineering majors (47%), two have transferred into other STEM majors (7%), eleven continue to take transfer preparatory courses at Contra Costa College (37%), and the educational status of three students is unknown (10%). For the college as a whole, the transfer rate is 32%, the graduation rate is 24%, and the retention rate after one year is 67%. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

10.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326788

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with epithelial and endothelial barrier dysfunction within the lung as well as in distal organs. While it is appreciated that an exaggerated inflammatory response is associated with barrier dysfunction, the triggers of this pathology are unclear. Here, we report that cell-intrinsic interactions between the Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and epithelial/endothelial cells are sufficient to trigger barrier dysfunction in vitro and vascular leak in vivo, independently of viral replication and the ACE2 receptor. We identify an S-triggered transcriptional response associated with extracellular matrix reorganization and TGF-β signaling. Using genetic knockouts and specific inhibitors, we demonstrate that glycosaminoglycans, integrins, and the TGF-β signaling axis are required for S-mediated barrier dysfunction. Our findings suggest that S interactions with barrier cells are a contributing factor to COVID-19 disease severity and offer mechanistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 triggered vascular leak, providing a starting point for development of therapies targeting COVID-19 pathogenesis.

11.
Environ Geochem Health ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639000

ABSTRACT

When the SEGH international board released a short editorial paper back in 2019, we described an aim to increase the membership offering, whilst improving the diversity of input regionally, by scientific discipline and to ensure greater and more regular contact across the regions from 2020 onwards. Wider aspirations described in 2019 (Watts et al. 2019) are discussed within this short communication at the end of 2021 to evaluate progress made. In particular, how the SEGH community adapted to the unprecedented circumstances that have challenged each and every one of us throughout the COVID-19 pandemic since early 2020 and are likely to influence our activities for the foreseeable future.

12.
British Journal of Surgery ; 108:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535428
13.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):341A-342A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508738

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID19 pandemic has affected persons dietary habits and life style, with effects on body weight. We have assessed the effect of the pandemic on the liver health by quantifying the changes in liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods: This is a multi-center US study that included 3 tertiary clinical centers. Patients with chronic liver disease (51 NAFLD, 8 with resolved hepatitis C, 3 chronic hepatitis B, 5 primary biliary cholangitis and 36 combination of chronic liver disease), without evidence of an acute process (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol abuse or new decompensation of cirrhosis), were enrolled. Patients were assessed between January and March 2020 and January and March 2021. Assessment included laboratory tests and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on vibration transient elastography (VCTE). Results: 103 patients were assessed twice during the two periods. Baseline mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 37 ± 36 (SD) U/L;aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 ± 18 U/L;total bilirubin 0.6 ± 0.31 mg/dL;albumin, 4.2 ± 0.72 g/dL;CAP score 293 ± 70 dB/m;and LSM on VCTE 8.1 ±6.2 kPa. Weight gain occurred in 54% of the population, whereas 39% lost weight, and 7% had no weight change. LSM increased by >20% in 30% of subjects;decreased by 20% in 27%;and remained within the 20% range in 43%. LSM increase by 20% was associated with significant weight gain and ALT increase (+2.3 ± 6.5 kg, and +17 ± 49.U/L (p<0.05)), in comparison to subjects who had their LSM changes within 20% range (+1.1 (3.7) kg, and -5.3 ±22.0 U/L) or had >20% decrease in LSM (-0.3 ±5.8 kg, and -6.0 ±21 U/L). CAP score median change was -2.9 ±85 dB/m in those who had LSM increase by >20%, whereas the score changed by 0.0 ± 44 dB/m in those who had LSM changes within 20% or 1.0 ± 58 dB/m in those >20% decrease. Conclusion: During the COVID 19 pandemic in this U.S. population, more than half of subjects with chronic liver disease gained weight, but others had no change or decreased weight. Adverse liver changes (LSM>20% and increased ALT) occurred in one-third of the population.

14.
International journal of obstetric anesthesia ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1505420

ABSTRACT

Background We present the care of 17 consecutive pregnant patients who required mechanical ventilation for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at a quaternary referral center in the United States. We retrospectively describe the management of these patients, maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as the feasibility of prone positioning and delivery. Methods Between March 2020 and June 2021, all pregnant and postpartum patients who were mechanically ventilated for COVID-19 pneumonia were identified. Details of their management including prone positioning, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and complications were noted. Results Seventeen pregnant patients required mechanical ventilation for COVID-19. Thirteen patients received prone positioning, with a total of 49 prone sessions. One patient required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. All patients in this series survived until at least discharge. Nine patients delivered while mechanically ventilated, and all neonates survived, subsequently testing negative for SARS-CoV-2. There was one spontaneous abortion. Four emergent cesarean deliveries were prompted by refractory maternal hypoxemia or non-reassuring fetal heart rate after maternal intubation. Conclusions Overall, maternal and neonatal survival were favorable even in the setting of severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Prone positioning was well tolerated though the impact of prone positioning or fetal delivery on maternal oxygenation and ventilation are unclear.

15.
Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med ; 27(4)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502738

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted mainly by aerosol in particles <10 µm that can remain suspended for hours before being inhaled. Because particulate filtering facepiece respirators ('respirators'; e.g. N95 masks) are more effective than surgical masks against bio-aerosols, many international organisations now recommend that health workers (HWs) wear a respirator when caring for individuals who may have COVID-19. In South Africa (SA), however, surgical masks are still recommended for the routine care of individuals with possible or confirmed COVID-19, with respirators reserved for so-called aerosol-generating procedures. In contrast, SA guidelines do recommend respirators for routine care of individuals with possible or confirmed tuberculosis (TB), which is also transmitted via aerosol. In health facilities in SA, distinguishing between TB and COVID-19 is challenging without examination and investigation, both of which may expose HWs to potentially infectious individuals. Symptom-based triage has limited utility in defining risk. Indeed, significant proportions of individuals with COVID-19 and/or pulmonary TB may not have symptoms and/or test negative. The prevalence of undiagnosed respiratory disease is therefore likely significant in many general clinical areas (e.g. waiting areas). Moreover, a proportion of HWs are HIV-positive and are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 and death. RECOMMENDATIONS: Sustained improvements in infection prevention and control (IPC) require reorganisation of systems to prioritise HW and patient safety. While this will take time, it is unacceptable to leave HWs exposed until such changes are made. We propose that the SA health system adopts a target of 'zero harm', aiming to eliminate transmission of respiratory pathogens to all individuals in every healthcare setting. Accordingly, we recommend: the use of respirators by all staff (clinical and non-clinical) during activities that involve contact or sharing air in indoor spaces with individuals who: (i) have not yet been clinically evaluated; or (ii) are thought or known to have TB and/or COVID-19 or other potentially harmful respiratory infections;the use of respirators that meet national and international manufacturing standards;evaluation of all respirators, at the least, by qualitative fit testing; andthe use of respirators as part of a 'package of care' in line with international IPC recommendations. We recognise that this will be challenging, not least due to global and national shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE). SA national policy around respiratory protective equipment enables a robust framework for manufacture and quality control and has been supported by local manufacturers and the Department of Trade, Industry and Competition. Respirator manufacturers should explore adaptations to improve comfort and reduce barriers to communication. Structural changes are needed urgently to improve the safety of health facilities: persistent advocacy and research around potential systems change remain essential.

17.
Pract Lab Med ; 27: e00257, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466837

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 and Snibe SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG spike chemiluminescent immunoassays and compared them to existing Roche/Abbott nucleocapsid and Abbott IgM spike assays. METHODS: We enrolled 184 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive samples and 215 controls (172 pre-pandemic, and 43 cross-reactivity) to evaluate the Roche spike antibody (anti-SARS-CoV-2-S) assay. For the Snibe evaluation, we included 119 RT-PCR positive samples and 249 controls (200 pre-pandemice, 49 cross-reactivity). 98 cases had been tested on three spike assays (Roche total antibody, Snibe IgG and Abbott IgM). RESULTS: The Roche anti-SARS-CoV-2-S assay had a CV of 0.5% (0.82U/mL) and 2.3% (8.72U/mL) and was linear from 1.16 to 240U/mL. The Snibe assay was linear from 6.43 to 77.7AU/mL, CV of 5.5% (0.43AU/mL) and 8.8% (0.18AU/mL). The Snibe spike assay was significantly more sensitive than the Abbott IgG assay at 0-6 days POS (35.2% vs 3.6%, mean difference 29.6%, 95% CI 17.5 to 41.8, p < 0.0001). Optimized LORs significantly improved the sensitivity of the Roche spike (48.1%-56.7%) and both nucleocapsid assays (Roche 43.3%-65.5%, Abbott 3.6%-18.5%) in early disease. CONCLUSION: Although both spike assays showed higher sensitivity than their nucleocapsid counterparts, lower, optimized LORs provided the most significant improvements to sensitivity.

18.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(6):669-677, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409416

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We evaluated the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlated this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities.

19.
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences ; 30, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1397822

ABSTRACT

AimsBrief measurements of the subjective experience of stress with good predictive capability are important in a range of community mental health and research settings. The potential for large-scale implementation of such a measure for screening may facilitate early risk detection and intervention opportunities. Few such measures however have been developed and validated in epidemiological and longitudinal community samples. We designed a new single-item measure of the subjective level of stress (SLS-1) and tested its validity and ability to predict long-term mental health outcomes of up to 12 months through two separate studies.MethodsWe first examined the content and face validity of the SLS-1 with a panel consisting of mental health experts and laypersons. Two studies were conducted to examine its validity and predictive utility. In study 1, we tested the convergent and divergent validity as well as incremental validity of the SLS-1 in a large epidemiological sample of young people in Hong Kong (n = 1445). In study 2, in a consecutively recruited longitudinal community sample of young people (n = 258), we first performed the same procedures as in study 1 to ensure replicability of the findings. We then examined in this longitudinal sample the utility of the SLS-1 in predicting long-term depressive, anxiety and stress outcomes assessed at 3 months and 6 months (n = 182) and at 12 months (n = 84).ResultsThe SLS-1 demonstrated good content and face validity. Findings from the two studies showed that SLS-1 was moderately to strongly correlated with a range of mental health outcomes, including depressive, anxiety, stress and distress symptoms. We also demonstrated its ability to explain the variance explained in symptoms beyond other known personal and psychological factors. Using the longitudinal sample in study 2, we further showed the significant predictive capability of the SLS-1 for long-term symptom outcomes for up to 12 months even when accounting for demographic characteristics.ConclusionsThe findings altogether support the validity and predictive utility of the SLS-1 as a brief measure of stress with strong indications of both concurrent and long-term mental health outcomes. Given the value of brief measures of mental health risks at a population level, the SLS-1 may have potential for use as an early screening tool to inform early preventative intervention work.

20.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; 50(8):649-651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391098
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