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1.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752723

ABSTRACT

To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have started population vaccination programs using messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines. With the widespread use of such vaccines, reports are emerging worldwide, of the vaccine's association with the development of myocarditis. Younger men are more likely to develop postvaccine myocarditis, which usually presents as self-limiting chest pain within a week after the second dose. We present a case of myocarditis following vaccination with tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech), which presented late, with ventricular tachycardia (VT) reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In response to the need for a safe, efficacious vaccine that elicits vigorous T cell as well as humoral protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have developed a dual-antigen COVID-19 vaccine comprising both the viral spike (S) protein modified to increase cell-surface expression (S-Fusion) and nucleocapsid (N) protein with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) to enhance MHC class I and II presentation and T-cell responses. The antigens are delivered using a human adenovirus serotype 5 (hAd5) platform with E1, E2b, and E3 regions deleted that has been shown previously in cancer vaccine studies to be safe and effective in the presence of pre-existing hAd5 immunity. The findings reported here are focused on human T-cell responses due to the likelihood that such responses will sustain efficacy against emerging variants, a hypothesis supported by our in silico prediction of T-cell epitope HLA binding for both the first-wave SARS-CoV-2 ‘A’ strain and the B.1.351 strain K417N, E484K, and N501Y spike and T201I N variants. We demonstrate the hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine antigens expressed by previously SARS-CoV-2-infected patient dendritic cells elicit Th1 dominant activation of autologous patient T cells, indicating the vaccine antigens have the potential to elicit immune responses in previously infected patients. For participants in our open-label Phase 1b study of the vaccine ( NCT04591717 ;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04591717 ), the magnitude of Th-1 dominant S- and N-specific T-cell responses after a single prime subcutaneous injection were comparable to T-cell responses from previously infected patients. Furthermore, vaccinated participant T-cell responses to S were similar for A strain S and a series of spike variant peptides, including S variants in the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 strains. The findings that this dual-antigen vaccine elicits SARS-CoV-2-relevant T-cell responses and that such cell-mediated protection is likely to be sustained against emerging variants supports the testing of this vaccine as a universal booster that would enhance and broaden existing immune protection conferred by currently approved S-based vaccines.

3.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(6): 521-529, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537585

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) came under the attention of the international medical community when China first notified the World Health Organization of a pneumonia outbreak of then-unknown etiology in Wuhan in December 2019. Since then, COVID-19 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has appalled the world by spreading at a pandemic speed. Although ophthalmologists do not directly engage in the clinical care of COVID-19 patients, the ophthalmology community has become aware of the close ties between its practice and the pandemic. Not only are ophthalmologists at heightened risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure due to their physical proximity with patients in routine ophthalmic examinations, but SARS-CoV-2 possesses ocular tropism resulting in ocular complications beyond the respiratory tract after viral exposure. Furthermore, patients could potentially suffer from adverse ocular effects in the therapeutic process. This review summarized the latest literature to cover the ophthalmic manifestations, effects of treatments, and vaccinations on the eye to aid the frontline clinicians in providing effective ophthalmic care to COVID-19 patients as the pandemic continues to evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmologists , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22493, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526101

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions worldwide, therefore there is an urgent need to increase our diagnostic capacity to identify infected cases. Although RT-qPCR remains the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, this method requires specialised equipment in a diagnostic laboratory and has a long turn-around time to process the samples. To address this, several groups have recently reported the development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a simple, low cost and rapid method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Herein we present a comparative analysis of three LAMP-based assays that target different regions of the SARS-CoV-2: ORF1ab RdRP, ORF1ab nsp3 and Gene N. We perform a detailed assessment of their sensitivity, kinetics and false positive rates for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics in LAMP or RT-LAMP reactions, using colorimetric or fluorescent detection. Our results independently validate that all three assays can detect SARS-CoV-2 in 30 min, with robust accuracy at detecting as little as 1000 RNA copies and the results can be visualised simply by color changes. Incorporation of RT-LAMP with fluorescent detection further increases the detection sensitivity to as little as 100 RNA copies. We also note the shortcomings of some LAMP-based assays, including variable results with shorter reaction time or lower load of SARS-CoV-2, and false positive results in some experimental conditions and clinical saliva samples. Overall for RT-LAMP detection, the ORF1ab RdRP and ORF1ab nsp3 assays have faster kinetics for detection but varying degrees of false positives detection, whereas the Gene N assay exhibits no false positives in 30 min reaction time, which highlights the importance of optimal primer design to minimise false-positives in RT-LAMP. This study provides validation of the performance of LAMP-based assays as a rapid, highly sensitive detection method for SARS-CoV-2, which have important implications in development of point-of-care diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Saliva/virology
5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 755822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507107

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic have led to the propensity toward telemedicine. This study examined the impact of telemedicine during the pandemic on the long-term outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Methods: This study included 288 patients admitted 1 year before the pandemic (October 2018-December 2018) and during the pandemic (January 2020-March 2020) eras, and survived their index STEMI admission. The follow-up period was 1 year. One-year primary safety endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary safety endpoints were cardiac readmissions for unplanned revascularisation, non-fatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrythmia, unstable angina. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) was defined as the composite outcome of each individual safety endpoint. Results: Despite unfavorable in-hospital outcomes among patients admitted during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic era, both groups had similar 1-year all-cause mortality (11.2 vs. 8.5%, respectively, p = 0.454) but higher cardiac-related (14.1 vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) and heart failure readmissions in the pandemic vs. pre-pandemic groups (7.1 vs. 1.7%, p = 0.037). Follow-up was more frequently conducted via teleconsultations (1.2 vs. 0.2 per patient/year, p = 0.001), with reduction in physical consultations (2.1 vs. 2.6 per patient/year, p = 0.043), during the pandemic vs. pre-pandemic era. Majority achieved guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) during pandemic vs. pre-pandemic era (75.9 vs. 61.6%, p = 0.010). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated achieving medication target doses (HR 0.387, 95% CI 0.164-0.915, p = 0.031) and GDMT (HR 0.271, 95% CI 0.134-0.548, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of lower 1-year MACE after adjustment. Conclusion: The pandemic has led to the wider application of teleconsultation, with increased adherence to GDMT, enhanced medication target dosing. Achieving GDMT was associated with favorable long-term prognosis.

6.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(2-3): 312-313, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484241

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans
7.
Media International Australia ; 181(1):44-56, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1480316

ABSTRACT

Recent scholarship has sought to emphasise boundaries and borders as being complex social institutions that play a vital role in mediating national and global flows. This article examines transactions occurring along the boundary between Hong Kong and Mainland China, which experienced a sudden ?hardening? owing to travel restrictions imposed following the outbreak of COVID-19. When individuals found themselves unable to physically cross the boundary as per usual, they instead turned to mobile media to enact everyday transactions ? both financial and social ? between the two regions. Calling upon the notion of ?digital passages?, we argue that the appropriation of digital money infrastructures for managing such transactions should act as a reminder for scholars to productively engage with the various forms of boundaries and borders emerging within online spaces.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450810

ABSTRACT

We have developed a dual-antigen COVID-19 vaccine incorporating genes for a modified SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-Fusion) and the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) to increase the potential for MHC class II responses. The vaccine antigens are delivered by a human adenovirus serotype 5 platform, hAd5 [E1-, E2b-, E3-], previously demonstrated to be effective in the presence of Ad immunity. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine by subcutaneous prime injection followed by two oral boosts elicited neutralizing anti-S IgG and T helper cell 1-biased T-cell responses to both S and N that protected the upper and lower respiratory tracts from high titer (1 x 106 TCID50) SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, viral replication was inhibited within 24 hours of challenge in both lung and nasal passages, becoming undetectable within 7 days post-challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Nose/virology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Replication/immunology
9.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449278

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Countries are mandating the use of face masks to stem the spread of COVID-19. Face mask use has been associated with discomfort due to its effects on thermoregulation, breathing and oxygenation. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of self-reported cardiovascular symptoms before and during face mask use. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 1001 participants residing in Singapore, who participated in a self-administered questionnaire between 25th April 2020 to 4th May 2020. Symptom severity before and during mask use and health-seeking behaviour information were collected. The study outcome was the self-reported worsening of cardiovascular symptoms, and its association with the type of mask worn, duration of mask worn per day, and intensity of physical activities during mask use. RESULTS: The commonest symptom reported during mask use was dyspnoea. Independent predictors for self-reported cardiovascular symptoms during mask use were moderate-high physical activity during mask use (OR 1.634, 95% CI 1.176-2.270, p=0.003), duration of mask use ≥3 hours (OR 1.672, 95% CI 1.189-2.352, p=0.003) and the type of mask used, after adjusting for age, sex, healthcare-based worker status and presence of comorbidities. N95 mask was associated with worse symptoms when compared to surgical mask. Participants with ≥3 worsening symptoms, or worsening dyspnoea, palpitations, fatigue and dizziness were more likely to seek medical help. CONCLUSION: Face mask use is proven to be an effective way in curbing COVID-19 transmission. However, participants in this study had concerns regarding its use and these concerns should be urgently addressed to enable mask-use policies to be enacted.

10.
HLA ; 97(2): 127-132, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918760

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Since its first report in December 2019, COVID-19 has evolved into a global pandemic causing massive healthcare and socioeconomic challenges. HLA system is critical in mediating anti-viral immunity and recent studies have suggested preferential involvement of HLA-B in COVID-19 susceptibility. Here, by investigating the HLA-B genotypes in 190 unrelated Chinese patients with confirmed COVID-19, we identified a significant positive association between the B22 serotype and SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.002, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.032). Notably, the B22 serotype has been consistently linked to susceptibility to other viral infections. These data not only shed new insights into SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and vaccine development but also guide better infection prevention/control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA-B Antigens/classification , Histocompatibility Testing , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Immunogenetic Phenomena , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
Heart Lung ; 49(6): 681-685, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was proposed to account for a proportion of cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19. However, reports of coronavirus-induced myocarditis were scarce. The aim of this review was to summarise the published cases of myocarditis and describe their presentations, diagnostic processes, clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CENTRAL and OpenGrey on was performed on 3 June 2020. Studies of myocarditis in patients with COVID-19 were included, and those only reporting cardiac injury or heart failure were excluded. Cases were "confirmed" myocarditis if diagnosed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) or histopathology. Those without were grouped as "possible" myocarditis. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies on 51 patients were included; 12 cases were confirmed myocarditis while 39 had possible myocarditis. The median age was 55 and 69% were male. The most common presenting symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, cough and chest pain. Electrocardiogram changes included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave changes and ventricular tachycardia. Most patients had elevated cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers. Left ventricular dysfunction and hypokinesis was common. CMR established the diagnosis in 10 patients, with features of cardiac oedema and cardiac injury. Five patients had histopathological examination. Some cases required mechanical ventilation and extracoporeal membrane oxygenation, and 30% of patients recovered but 27% died. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 myocarditis was associated with ECG, cardiac biomarker and echocardiographic changes, and the manifestation could be severe leading to mortality. Endomyocardial biopsy was not available in most cases but CMR was valuable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Myocarditis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(4): 281-284, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692814

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 a "Pandemic" on March 11, 2020. As of June 1, 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 has infected >6.2 million people and caused >372,000 deaths, including many health care personnel. It is highly infectious and ophthalmologists are at a higher risk of the infection due to a number of reasons including the proximity between doctors and patients during ocular examinations, microaerosols generated by the noncontact tonometer, tears as a potential source of infection, and some COVID-19 cases present with conjunctivitis. This article describes the ocular manifestations of COVID-19 and the APAO guidelines in mitigating the risks of contracting and/or spreading COVID-19 in ophthalmic practices.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 10-23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690361

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting millions of patients worldwide. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the family Coronaviridae, with 80% genomic similarities to SARS-CoV. Lymphopenia was commonly seen in infected patients and has a correlation to disease severity. Thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially those with critical illness and non-survivors. This pandemic has caused disruption in communities and hospital services, as well as straining blood product supply, affecting chemotherapy treatment and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation schedule. In this article, we review the haematological manifestations of the disease and its implication on the management of patients with haematological disorders.


Subject(s)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Lymphopenia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/virology
14.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 52(2): 87, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647101
16.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 9(2): 67-77, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-147897

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2, was first reported in December 2019. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and as of April 17, 2020, 210 countries are affected with >2,000,000 infected and 140,000 deaths. The estimated case fatality rate is around 6.7%. We need to step up our infection control measures immediately or else it may be too late to contain or control the spread of COVID-19. In case of local outbreaks, the risk of infection to healthcare workers and patients is high. Ophthalmic practice carries some unique risks and therefore high vigilance and special precautions are needed. We share our protocols and experiences in the prevention of infection in the current COVID-19 outbreak and the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Hong Kong. We also endeavor to answer the key frequently asked questions in areas of the coronaviruses, COVID-19, disease transmission, personal protection, mask selection, and special measures in ophthalmic practices. COVID-19 is highly infectious and could be life-threatening. Using our protocol and measures, we have achieved zero infection in our ophthalmic practices in Hong Kong and China. Preventing spread of COVID-19 is possible and achievable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Masks , Ophthalmology/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Hand Hygiene , Hong Kong , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
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