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1.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4052-4059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse. Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Scenarios were "unsustainable" if either of admissions was larger than the maximum of its occupancy. Results: At VC of 65%, scenarios of full SDMs relaxation (mean daily social encounters prior to COVID-19 pandemic = 14.1 contacts) for outbreaks triggered by ancestral strain, Alpha and Beta were sustainable. Restricting levels of SDMs was required such that the optimal population mobility had to be reduced to 0.9, 0.65 and 0.37 for Gamma, Delta and Omicron associated outbreaks respectively. VC improvement from 65% to 75% and 95% allowed complete SDMs relaxation in Gamma-, and Delta-driven epidemic respectively. However, this was not supported for Omicron-triggered epidemic. Discussion: To seek a path to normality, speedy vaccine and booster distribution to the majority across all age groups is the first step. Gradual or complete SDMs lift could be considered if the hybrid immunity could be achieved due to high vaccination coverage and natural infection rate among vaccinated or the COVID-19 case fatality rate could be reduced similar to that for seasonal influenza to secure hospital system sustainability.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939048

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is an effective way in providing protection against COVID-19 infection and severe outcomes. However, vaccine resistance and hesitancy are a great concern among vulnerable populations including older adults who live alone or only with an older partner. This study examined their vaccination status and reasons and associated factors of vaccine resistance and hesitancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among older adults living alone or only with an older partner in communities in Hong Kong. Participants were interviewed between October 2021 and February 2022. Logistic regression analyses were employed to examine factors associated with vaccine resistance and hesitancy. Of the 2109 included participants, the mean age was 79.3 years (SD 7.6), 1460 (69.2%) were female, 1334 (63.3%) lived alone, and 1621 (76.9%) were receiving social security support. The vaccine uptake, non-uptake (i.e., resistance), and hesitancy rates were 50.1%, 34.4%, and 15.5%, respectively. The top four reasons for vaccine resistance and hesitancy were "Not feeling in good health" (27%), "Worry about vaccine side effects" (18%), "Feeling no need" (10%), and "Lack of recommendation from doctors" (9%). Vaccine resistance and hesitancy was significantly associated with older age, living alone, more chronic conditions, fewer types of social media use, and lower self-rated health status. Similar associations can be observed in their separate analysis for vaccine resistance and vaccine hesitancy, and ever hospital admission over the past 6 months was additionally related to vaccine hesitancy. Older people who live alone or only with an older partner had a low vaccination rate. Poor health or worry about vaccine side effects were the most common reasons for their vaccine resistance and hesitancy. Actions are greatly needed to improve the uptake rate among this vulnerable population, especially those who were older, have poorer health, and use less social media.

3.
J Ment Health ; 31(4): 585-596, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many workers experienced income reduction during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which may link to adverse mental health. AIMS: This study aimed to examine the association of current income and reduction in income during COVID-19 with anxiety and depression levels among non-healthcare workers. METHODS: This is a multi-city cross-sectional study. We used standardized questionnaires to collect information. We regrouped the current income and income reduction during COVID-19 according to the tertile and median value of each specific city. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 item short version (DASS-21) was used to assess anxiety and depression levels. We performed multinomial logistic regression to examine the association of current and reduced income with anxiety and depression. Path models were developed to outline the potential modification/indirect effect of subsidies from government. RESULTS: Large income reduction and low current income were significantly associated with more anxiety/depression symptoms. Path analysis showed that government subsidies could not significantly alleviate the impact of reduced income on anxiety/depression. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that large income reduction and low current income were independently associated with anxiety/depression, while these symptoms may not be ameliorated by one-off government funds. This study suggests the need for long-term policies (e.g. developing sustained economic growth policies) to mitigate negative impacts of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(6): e37334, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up-to-date and accurate information about the health problems encountered by primary care doctors is essential to understanding the morbidity pattern of the community to better inform health care policy and practice. Morbidity surveys of doctors allow documentation of actual consultations, reflecting the patient's reason for seeking care as well as the doctor's diagnostic interpretation of the illness and management approach. Such surveys are particularly critical in the absence of a centralized primary care electronic medical record database. OBJECTIVE: With the changing sociodemographic profile of the population and implementation of health care initiatives in the past 10 years, the aim of this study is to determine the morbidity and management patterns in Hong Kong primary care during a pandemic and compare the results with the last survey conducted in 2007-2008. METHODS: This will be a prospective, practice-based survey of Hong Kong primary care doctors. Participants will be recruited by convenience and targeted sampling from both public and private sectors. Participating doctors will record the health problems and corresponding management activities for consecutive patient encounters during one designated week in each season of the year. Coding of health problems will follow the International Classification of Primary Care, Second Edition. Descriptive statistics will be used to calculate the prevalence of health problems and diseases as well as the rates of management activities (referral, investigation, prescription, preventive care). Nonlinear mixed effects models will assess the differences between the private and public sectors as well as factors associated with morbidity and management patterns in primary care. RESULTS: The data collection will last from March 1, 2021, to August 31, 2022. As of April 2022, 176 doctor-weeks of data have been collected. CONCLUSIONS: The results will provide information about the health of the community and inform the planning and allocation of health care resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04736992; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04736992. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/37334.

5.
Challenges (20781547) ; 13(1):17-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1911208

ABSTRACT

Background: To fight the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important for the population to keep abreast of COVID-19 updates and comply with the suggested preventive measures. Understanding the influence of popular dissemination channels under the surge of an 'infodemic' is crucial, as the population may receive conflicting information from various sources. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between information source usage and COVID-19-preventive measures compliance. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2020. Four COVID-19-preventive strategies, including 'hand hygiene', 'mask wearing', 'household hygiene', and 'social distancing', were studied with respect to their usage from three common health information sources and three dissemination channels. Logistic regressions were modelled to study the odds ratio of the preventive behavior compliance in terms of information source usage. Results: A total of 1048 respondents completed the survey and the sample demonstrated high compliance in hand hygiene (81.4%) and mask wearing (93.5%), but lower compliance in household hygiene (22.4%) and social distancing (65.7%). Females and chronic diseases patients were found more likely to adopt COVID-19-preventive measures. Participants recorded highest usage in social media (80.1%) among information sources and respondents with frequent social media use had improved compliances in the preventive behaviors studied. Conclusions: The study presented evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of social media in disseminating information related to complying COVID-19-preventive behaviors. The impact of social media in spreading COVID-19 information should be recognized, despite the concerns regarding misinformation. With disciplined use, social media may help to halt the spread of COVID-19 and other communicable diseases by encouraging community participation. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Challenges (20781547) is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3046-3054, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an important preventive measure against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to examine the willingness to vaccination and influencing factors among college students in China. METHODS: From March 18 to April 26, 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among college students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The survey was composed of the sociodemographic information, psychological status, experience during pandemic, the willingness of vaccination and related information. Students' attitudes towards vaccination were classified as 'vaccine acceptance', 'vaccine hesitancy', and 'vaccine resistance'. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the influencing factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and resistance. RESULTS: Among 23,143 students who completed the survey, a total of 22,660 participants were included in the final analysis with an effective rate of 97.9% after excluding invalid questionnaires. A total of 60.6% of participants would be willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine, 33.4% were hesitant to vaccination, and 6.0% were resistant to vaccination. Social media platforms and government agencies were the main sources of information vaccination. Worry about the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccine were the top two common reason of vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis identified that participants who worried about the adverse effects of vaccination were more likely to be vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 2.30, 2.58) and resistance (aOR = 2.71, 95% CI = 2.40, 3.05). CONCLUSION: More than half of college students are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, whereas nearly one-third college students are still hesitant or resistant. It is crucial to provide sufficient and scientific information on the efficacy and safety of vaccine through social media and government agencies platforms to promote vaccine progress against COVID-19 and control the pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
7.
Collegian ; 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early phase of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, health care workers had elevated levels of psychological distress. Historical exposure to disease outbreak may shape different pandemic responses among experienced health care workers. AIM: Considering the unique experience of the 2003 SARS outbreak in Hong Kong, this study examined the association between prior epidemic work experience and anxiety levels, and the mediating role of perceived severity of COVID-19 and SARS in nurses. METHODS: In March 2020, a cross-sectional survey targeting practising nurses in Hong Kong was conducted during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic. The interrelationships among participants' work experience during the SARS outbreak, perceived severity of SARS and COVID-19, and anxiety level were elucidated using structural equation model (SEM). FINDINGS: Of 1,061 eligible nurses, a majority were female (90%) with a median age of 39 years (IQR = 32-49). A significant and negative indirect association was identified between SARS experience and anxiety levels (B=-0.04, p=0.04) in the SEM with a satisfactory fitness (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.06). SARS-experienced nurses perceived SARS to be less severe (B=-0.17, p=0.01), translated an equivalent perception to COVID-19 (B=1.29, p<0.001) and resulted in a lower level of anxiety (B=0.19, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The less vigorous perception towards the severity of SARS and COVID-19 may explain SARS-experienced nurses' less initial epidemic-induced anxiety. The possible role of outbreak-experienced nurses in supporting outbreak-inexperienced nurses, both emotionally and technically, should be considered when an epidemic commences. Interventions aiming to facilitate the understanding of emerging virus should also be in place.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 49, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692636

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, respiratory infections, including SARS, HINI and the currently spreading COVID-19, caused by various viruses such as influenza and coronavirus have seriously threatened human health. It has generated inconsistent recommendations on the mandatory use of facemasks across countries on a population level due to insufficient evidence on the efficacy of facemask use among the general population. This meta-analysis aimed to explore (1) the efficacy of facemask use on preventing respiratory infections, and (2) the perceptions, intentions, and practice about facemask use among the general population worldwide. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, bioRxiv, and medRxiv databases since inception to August 17, 2020. From 21,341 records identified, eight RCTs on facemask in preventing infections and 78 studies on perception, intention, and practice of facemask use among the general population were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis of RCTs found a significant protective effect of facemask intervention (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71-0.99; I2 = 0%). This protective effect was even more pronounced when the intervention duration was more than two weeks (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis of observational studies on perception, intention, and practice on facemask use showed that 71% of respondents perceived facemasks to be effective for infection prevention, 68% of respondents would wear facemasks, and 54% of respondents wore facemasks for preventing respiratory infections. Differences in perception, intention, and practice behavior of facemask use in different regions may be related to the impact of respiratory infections, regional culture, and policies. The governments and relevant organizations should make effort to reduce the barriers in the use of facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323618

ABSTRACT

Background: The evolving pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a severe threat to public health, and the workplace presents high risks in terms of spreading the disease. Few studies have focused on the impact of workplace policy on individual behaviours. This study aimed to examine the relationship of workplace guidelines and measures with employees’ behaviours regarding COVID-19 prevention. Methods: : A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was conducted to gather employees’ access to workplace guidelines and measures as well as their personal protection behaviours. Statistical associations between these two factors in different occupations were examined using multiple ordinal logistic regressions. Results: : A total of 1048 valid questionnaires across five occupational groups were analysed. Manual labourers reported lower availability of workplace guidelines and measures (76.9% vs. 89.9% for all, P = 0.003). Employees with available workplace guidelines and measures performed personal protection behaviours with higher frequency, and this association was more significant among managers/administrators and manual labourers. Conclusions: : Awareness about the disease and pandemic among employers and administrators should be promoted, and resources should be allocated to publish guidelines and implement measures in the workplace. Manual labourers may require specific attention regarding accessibility of relevant information, given their poorer experience of workplace policy and their work nature. Governments should guide the establishment of appropriate policies and responses at the workplace level. Further studies are needed to test the effectiveness of specific workplace policies on COVID-19 prevention.

11.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679275

ABSTRACT

Background Due to active involvement with patients for COVID-19 treatments, nurses are susceptible to adverse psychological outcomes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the distress, studies have suggested that nurses are able to experience positive changes (i.e. posttraumatic growth;PTG) during the pandemic. Research on other populations has also indicated that COVID-19-specific worries and work-related coping resources are associated with people’s positive changes during the pandemic. Objective This study examined how socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related worries, and work-related variables (satisfaction with work and workplace pandemic guidelines) were associated with PTG among nurses in Hong Kong. Methods Nurses (N = 1510) working in hospitals and community settings were recruited through nursing associations in Hong Kong between 8 August 2020 and 22 September 2020. They were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey measuring their sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 worries, and satisfaction with work and workplace pandemic-control measures. Results Results from hierarchical regressions found that those working non-full-time (β = −0.06), affiliating with a religion (β = 0.24), having higher COVID-19-related worries and psychological distress (βs ranging from 0.12–0.15), and having higher work satisfaction (β = 0.14) were associated with higher PTG (ps < .05). Moreover, a significant interaction between psychological distress and satisfaction with workplace pandemic control guidelines emerged in explaining PTG (β = 0.08, p < .05), such that guideline satisfaction was only associated with higher PTG among those with higher distress (β = 0.09, p = .03), but not those with lower distress (β = −0.05, p > .05). Conclusions Nurses in Hong Kong did report positive changes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies could focus on the contributing factors of PTG to design for effective strategies to enhance resources for nurses to promote positive psychosocial outcomes. HIGHLIGHTS Work satisfaction was associated with nurses’ posttraumatic growth (PTG) amid COVID-19. Workplace pandemic control guidelines satisfaction was associated with PTG only among nurses with higher distress. To enhance nurses’ PTG, those work-related factors should be addressed.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Living arrangements might greatly impact psychosocial health and quality of life, particularly during the COVID-19 lockdown. This pilot study aimed to examine the association of different common living arrangements with psychosocial health, life satisfaction, and quality of life among Chinese adults during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was conducted using convenience sampling through the WeChat application in February 2020. Mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and meaning in life), social health (UCLA-3), quality of life (EQ5D and EQ-VAS), and life satisfaction were measured. Linear regression models were used. RESULT: The study included 1245 adults (mean age: 34.14 ± 10.71) in China. Compared to other living arrangements, participants who "live with partner and children" or "live with partner, children and parents" were more likely to have better outcomes of mental health, social health, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Participants who "live with parents or grandparents" or "live with partner" were more likely to have better health outcomes compared with those who "live with children" or "live alone". CONCLUSION: Living with a partner, children, and/or parents could be a protective factor against poor psychosocial health during lockdown and quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2005346, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672008

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to active involvement with patients for COVID-19 treatments, nurses are susceptible to adverse psychological outcomes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the distress, studies have suggested that nurses are able to experience positive changes (i.e. posttraumatic growth; PTG) during the pandemic. Research on other populations has also indicated that COVID-19-specific worries and work-related coping resources are associated with people's positive changes during the pandemic. Objective: This study examined how socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related worries, and work-related variables (satisfaction with work and workplace pandemic guidelines) were associated with PTG among nurses in Hong Kong. Methods: Nurses (N = 1510) working in hospitals and community settings were recruited through nursing associations in Hong Kong between 8 August 2020 and 22 September 2020. They were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey measuring their sociodemographic characteristics, COVID-19 worries, and satisfaction with work and workplace pandemic-control measures. Results: Results from hierarchical regressions found that those working non-full-time (ß = -0.06), affiliating with a religion (ß = 0.24), having higher COVID-19-related worries and psychological distress (ßs ranging from 0.12-0.15), and having higher work satisfaction (ß = 0.14) were associated with higher PTG (ps < .05). Moreover, a significant interaction between psychological distress and satisfaction with workplace pandemic control guidelines emerged in explaining PTG (ß = 0.08, p < .05), such that guideline satisfaction was only associated with higher PTG among those with higher distress (ß = 0.09, p = .03), but not those with lower distress (ß = -0.05, p > .05). Conclusions: Nurses in Hong Kong did report positive changes amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies could focus on the contributing factors of PTG to design for effective strategies to enhance resources for nurses to promote positive psychosocial outcomes.


Antecedentes: Debido a la participación activa de pacientes en los tratamientos de COVID-19, las/os enfermeras son susceptibles a resultados psicológicos adversos en medio de la pandemia de COVID-19. A pesar de la angustia, los estudios han sugerido que las(os) enfermeras(os) pueden experimentar cambios positivos (es decir, crecimiento postraumático; CPT) durante la pandemia. Investigación en otras poblaciones también ha indicado que las preocupaciones específicas por COVID-19 y los recursos de afrontamiento relacionados con el trabajo están asociados a cambios positivos de las personas durante la pandemia.Objetivo: Este estudio examinó cómo las características sociodemográficas, las preocupaciones relacionadas a COVID-19 y las variables relacionadas con el trabajo (satisfacción con el trabajo y pautas pandémicas en el lugar de trabajo) se asociaron con el CPT entre las(os) enfermeras(os) de Hong Kong.Métodos: Las(os) enfermeras(os) (N = 1510) que trabajan en hospitales y entornos comunitarios fueron reclutadas(os) a través de asociaciones de enfermería en Hong Kong entre el 8 de agosto del 2020 y el 22 de septiembre del 2020. Los participantes fueron invitados a completar una encuesta transversal que midió sus características sociodemográficas, preocupaciones sobre COVID-19 y satisfacción con el trabajo y las medidas de control de pandemias en el lugar de trabajo.Resultados: Los resultados de regresiones jerárquicas encontraron que aquellos que: no trabajaban a tiempo completo (ß = −0.06), se afiliaban a una religión (ß = 0.24), tenían mayores preocupaciones y angustia psicológica relacionadas por COVID-19 (ßs que oscilan entre 0.12­0.15) y tenían una mayor satisfacción laboral (ß = 0.14), se asociaron con CPT más alto (ps < .05). Además, una interacción significativa entre la angustia psicológica y la satisfacción con las pautas de control de la pandemia en el lugar de trabajo, surgió al explicar el CPT (ß = 0.08, p < .05), de modo que la satisfacción de la guía sólo se asoció con un CPT más alto entre aquéllos con mayor angustia (ß = 0.09, p = .03), pero no en aquéllos con menor angustia (ß = −0.05, p > .05).Conclusiones: Las(os) enfermeras(os) en Hong Kong informaron cambios positivos en medio de la pandemia por COVID-19. Los estudios futuros podrían centrarse en los factores que contribuyen a la CPT para diseñar estrategias eficaces con el fin de mejorar los recursos de las(os) enfermeras(os) para promover resultados psicosociales positivos.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 793533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599113

ABSTRACT

Background: Along with individual-level factors, vaccination-related characteristics are important in understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to determine the influence of these characteristics on vaccine acceptance to formulate promotion strategies after considering differences among respondents with different characteristics. Methods: An online discrete choice experiment was conducted among people aged 18-64 years in Hong Kong, China, from 26 to 28 February 2021. Respondents were asked to make choices regarding hypothetical vaccination programmes described by vaccination-related characteristics-the attributes derived from a prior individual interview. Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the differences in vaccination-related characteristics among respondents with different personal characteristics. Results: A total of 1,773 respondents provided valid responses. The vaccine efficacy and brand were the most important factors affecting acceptance, followed by the exemption of quarantine for vaccinated travelers, safety, venue for vaccination, vaccine uptake of people in their lives, and recommendations by general physicians or government. Frequent exposure to vaccination information on social media has been associated with increasing vaccine refusal. Substantial preference heterogeneity for the attributes was found among people of different ages, incomes, chronic conditions, and previous acceptance of influenza vaccines. Conclusion: The findings provided evidence to formulate interventions to promote vaccine uptake, including the provision of vaccination at housing estate or workplaces, involvement of general physicians and interpersonal communication in vaccine promotion and information dissemination, and exemption of quarantine for vaccinated people. Moreover, social media is a significant information channel that cannot be neglected in the dissemination of official information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 774504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581154

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is our generation's greatest global challenge to our public health system. Vaccines are considered one of the most effective tools available for preventing COVID-19 infection and its complications and sequelae. Understanding and addressing the psychological stress related to COVID-19 vaccination may promote acceptance of these vaccines. Methods: We conducted an online survey from January 29 to April 26, 2021 to explore stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination among the general public in China. Participants were asked to evaluate their psychological stress of considering whether or not to get vaccinated at the beginning period of the COVID-19 mass vaccination, after getting access to the information about the vaccine, as well as after getting vaccinated, using visual analog stress scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore factors potentially associated with COVID-19-related psychological stress levels before and after getting vaccinated. Results: A total of 34,041 participants were included in the final analysis. The mean stress score concerning COVID-19 vaccination was 3.90 ± 2.60 among all participants, and significantly decreased over time. In addition, the vaccine-related stress level significantly decreased after accessing information about the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 29,396), as well as after getting vaccinated (N = 5,103). Multivariable regression analysis showed higher stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination in participants who were younger, having lower education level, having history of chronic diseases, mistrusting vaccine's efficacy, experience of vaccine allergy events, being affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, and having mental illness symptoms. Moreover, mistrust in vaccine efficacy and experience of vaccine allergy events had a long-term impact on psychological stress levels about COVID-19 vaccination even after getting vaccinated. Conclusions: The current findings profiled the COVID-19 vaccine-related psychological stress among the general public in China. Population-specific management and interventions targeting the stress related to COVID-19 vaccination are needed to help governments and policy makers promote individual's willingness to get vaccinations for public well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 126: 104142, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A tailored immunization program is deemed more successful in encouraging vaccination. Understanding the profiles of vaccine hesitancy constructs in nurses can help policymakers in devising such programs. Encouraging vaccination in nurses is an important step in building public confidence in the upcoming COVID-19 and influenza vaccination campaigns. OBJECTIVES: Using a person-centered approach, this study aimed to reveal the profiles of the 5C psychological constructs of vaccine hesitancy (confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility) among Hong Kong nurses. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. SETTINGS: With the promotion of a professional nursing organization, we invited Hong Kong nurses to complete an online survey between mid-March and late April 2020 during the COVID-19 outbreak. PARTICIPANTS: 1,193 eligible nurses (mean age = 40.82, SD = 10.49; with 90.0% being female) were included in the analyses. METHODS: In the online survey, we asked the invited nurses to report their demographics, COVID-19-related work demands (including the supply of personal protective equipment, work stress, and attitudes towards workplace infection control policies), the 5C vaccine hesitancy components, seasonal influenza vaccine uptake history, and the COVID-19 vaccine uptake intention. Latent profile analysis was employed to identify distinct vaccine hesitancy antecedent subgroups. RESULTS: Results revealed five profiles, including "believers" (31%; high confidence, collective responsibility; low complacency, constraint), "skeptics" (11%; opposite to the believers), "outsiders" (14%; low calculation, collective responsibility), "contradictors" (4%; high in all 5C constructs), and "middlers" (40%; middle in all 5C constructs). Believers were less educated, reported more long-term illnesses, greater work stress, higher perceived personal protective equipment sufficiency, and stronger trust in government than skeptics. They were older and had higher perceived personal protective equipment sufficiency than middlers. Also, believers were older and had greater work stress than outsiders. From the highest to the lowest on vaccination uptake and intention were believers and contradictors, then middlers and outsiders, and finally skeptics. CONCLUSION: Different immunization programs can be devised based on the vaccine hesitancy profiles and their predictors. Despite both profiles being low in vaccination uptake and intention, our results distinguished between outsiders and skeptics regarding their different levels of information-seeking engagement. The profile structure reveals the possibilities in devising tailored interventions based on their 5C characteristics. The current data could serve as the reference for the identification of individual profile membership and future profiling studies. Future endeavor is needed to examine the generalizability of the profile structure in other populations and across different study sites. Tweetable abstract: Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy profiles of Hong Kong nurses (believers, sceptics, outsiders, contradictors and middlers) highlight the importance of tailored vaccine campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Respirology ; 27(4): 301-310, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few head-to-head evaluations of immune responses to different vaccines have been reported. METHODS: Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) antibody levels of adults receiving either two doses of BNT162b2 (n = 366) or CoronaVac (n = 360) vaccines in Hong Kong were determined. An age-matched subgroup (BNT162b2 [n = 49] vs. CoronaVac [n = 49]) was tested for plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT) and spike-binding antibody and T-cell reactivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: One month after the second dose of vaccine, BNT162b2 elicited significantly higher PRNT50 , PRNT90 , sVNT, spike receptor binding, spike N-terminal domain binding, spike S2 domain binding, spike FcR binding and antibody avidity levels than CoronaVac. The geometric mean PRNT50 titres in those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines were 251.6 and 69.45, while PRNT90 titres were 98.91 and 16.57, respectively. All of those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and 45 (91.8%) of 49 vaccinated with CoronaVac achieved the 50% protection threshold for PRNT90. Allowing for an expected seven-fold waning of antibody titres over 6 months for those receiving CoronaVac, only 16.3% would meet the 50% protection threshold versus 79.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees. Age was negatively correlated with PRNT90 antibody titres. Both vaccines induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses at 1 month post-vaccination but CoronaVac elicited significantly higher structural protein-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. CONCLUSION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 induces stronger humoral responses than CoronaVac. CoronaVac induces higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the structural protein than BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512752

ABSTRACT

Background: Recommendation from doctors is a well-recognized motivator toward vaccine uptake. Family doctors are in the prime position to advise the public on COVID-19 vaccination. We studied the practice and concerns of frontline family doctors concerning COVID-19 vaccination recommendations to patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of all family doctors in the Hong Kong College of Family Physicians between June and July 2021. Their practice of making COVID-19 recommendation to patients was assessed. Based on the Health Belief Model, factors associated with doctors' recommendation practices were explored and examined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the factors, including COVID-19 vaccine attributes, associated with doctors' practices in making recommendations. Their own vaccination status and psychological antecedents to vaccine hesitancy were measured. Results: A total of 312 family doctors responded (a 17.6% response rate). The proportion of doctors who had received COVID-19 vaccines was 90.1%. The proportion of doctors who would recommend all patients without contraindications for the vaccination was 64.4%. The proportion of doctors who would proactively discuss COVID-19 vaccines with patients was 52.9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that doctors' own COVID-19 vaccination status was the strongest predictor of family doctors making a recommendation to patients (aOR 12.23 95% CI 3.45-43.33). Longer duration of practice, willingness to initiate the relevant discussion with patients and less worry about vaccine side effects on chronic illness patients were the other factors associated with making a COVID-19 vaccination recommendation. Conclusions: Family doctors should be encouraged to get vaccinated themselves and initiate discussions with patients about COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine safety data on patients with chronic illness, training and guidelines for junior doctors may facilitate the COVID-19 vaccination recommendation practices of family doctors.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has affected over 220 countries by October 2021, there is limited research examining the patterns and determinants of adherence to infection control measures over time. AIMS: Our study examines the sociodemographic factors associated with changes in the frequency of adherence to personal hygiene and social distancing behaviors in Hong Kong. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional telephone survey in the general population was conducted during the first (March 2020) (n = 765) and third wave (December 2020) (n = 651) of the local outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents were asked about their level of compliance with various personal hygiene and social distancing recommendations. RESULTS: By the third wave, mask use increased to 100%, and throughout the study periods, >90% practiced frequent hand hygiene. However, adherence to social distancing measures significantly waned over time: avoidance of social gatherings (80.5% to 72.0%), avoidance of public places/public transport (53.3% to 26.0%), avoidance of international travel (85.8% to 76.6%) (p < 0.05). The practice of ordering food takeout/home delivery, however, increased, particularly among high-income respondents. Higher education, female gender and employment status were the most consistently associated factors with adherence to COVID-19 preventive practices in the multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: In urban areas of this region, interventions to improve personal hygiene in a prolonged pandemic should target males and those with low education. In addition to these groups, the working population needs to be targeted in order to improve adherence to social distancing guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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