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1.
Hepatology ; 75(4): 1051-1052, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777556
2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331885

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on the impact of dysnatraemia and pre-existing hyponatraemia on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 remains elusive. Methods: We performed a territory-wide retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients between 23 January 2020 and 1 January 2021 in Hong Kong. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoint was intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Mild hyponatraemia, moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia, normonatraemia, and hypernatraemia were defined as serum sodium of 130-<135, <130, 135-145, and >145 mmol/L , respectively. Background sodium level was measured at least one month before COVID-19 diagnosis. Findings: Of 8,407 patients, 738 (8·8%), 143 (1·7%), and 24 (0·3%) had mild hyponatraemia, moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia, and hypernatraemia at COVID-19 diagnosis, respectively. At a median follow-up of 12 days, 156 (1·9%) patients died;413 (4·9%) patients were admitted to ICU and/or required IMV use. Moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·92, 95% CI 1·59–5·36, P<0·001) and hypernatraemia (aHR 7·60, 95% CI 5·16–11·20, P <0·001) were independently associated with an increased mortality rate . Mild (adjusted cause-specific HR [aCSHR] 1·94) and moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia (aCSHR 2·08) were independently associated with a higher rate of ICU admission/IMV use. Hypernatraemia was not associated with a higher rate of ICU admission/IMV use, yet was associated with a higher rate of competing death. Background hyponatraemia was associated with a higher rate of mortality. Interpretation: COVID-19 patients with dysnatraemia are associated with adverse clinical outcomes, in whom vigilant monitoring of serum sodium would be important.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052310, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between baseline use of glucose-lowering drugs and serious clinical outcome among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Territory-wide retrospective cohort of confirmed cases of COVID-19 between January 2020 and February 2021. SETTING: All public health facilities in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: 1220 patients with diabetes who were admitted for confirmed COVID-19. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite clinical endpoint of intensive care unit admission, requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or in-hospital death. RESULTS: In this cohort (median age 65.3 years, 54.3% men), 737 (60.4%) patients were treated with metformin, 385 (31.6%) with sulphonylureas, 199 (16.3%) with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and 273 (22.4%) with insulin prior to admission. In multivariate Cox regression, use of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with reduced incidence of the composite endpoint relative to non-use, with respective HRs of 0.51 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.77, p=0.001) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.71, p<0.001), adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), smoking, comorbidities and drugs. Use of sulphonylureas (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.24, p=0.022) and insulin (HR 6.34, 95% CI 3.72 to 10.78, p<0.001) were both associated with increased hazards of the composite endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Users of metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors had fewer adverse outcomes from COVID-19 compared with non-users, whereas insulin and sulphonylurea might predict a worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Metformin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Glucose , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hepatology ; 75(4): 1051-1052, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353453
5.
Hepatology ; 74(4): 1750-1765, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We compared risk of acute liver injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and current, past, and no HBV infection. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study in Hong Kong. Patients with COVID-19 between January 23, 2020, and January 1, 2021, were identified. Patients with hepatitis C or no HBsAg results were excluded. The primary outcome was mortality. Acute liver injury was defined as alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN; i.e., 80 U/L), with total bilirubin ≥2 × ULN (i.e., 2.2 mg/dL) and/or international normalized ratio ≥1.7. Of 5,639 patients included, 353 (6.3%) and 359 (6.4%) had current and past HBV infection, respectively. Compared to patients without known HBV exposure, current HBV-infected patients were older and more likely to have cirrhosis. Past HBV-infected patients were the oldest, and more had diabetes and cardiovascular disease. At a median follow-up of 14 (9-20) days, 138 (2.4%) patients died; acute liver injury occurred in 58 (1.2%), 8 (2.3%), and 11 (3.1%) patients with no, current, and past HBV infection, respectively. Acute liver injury (adjusted HR [aHR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.96; P < 0.001), but not current (aHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.61-2.70; P = 0.507) or past (aHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56-1.46; P = 0.681) HBV infection, was associated with mortality. Use of corticosteroid, antifungal, ribavirin, or lopinavir-ritonavir (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.55-5.63), but not current (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.88-4.24; P = 0.102) or past (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.62-2.55; P = 0.533) HBV infection, was associated with acute liver injury. CONCLUSION: Current or past HBV infections were not associated with more liver injury and mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/blood , Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medical History Taking/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab205, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and prognostic. Direct viral tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors in hepatocytes may be one of the mechanisms of liver injury. We aimed to determine the role of viral persistence of SARS-CoV-2, based on cycle threshold (Ct) value, in liver injury in COVID-19. METHODS: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study of all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was identified. Serial liver biochemistries and Ct values of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were analyzed. RESULTS: We identified 7622 COVID-19 patients (mean age, 47 years; 48.2% male) diagnosed from March 24 to January 1, 2021, who had serial liver biochemistries and Ct values. A total of 1363 (17.9%) COVID-19 patients had alanine transferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations with 2 temporal patterns-early (within first 14 days of symptom onset) and late (>14 days from symptom onset). COVID-19 patients with ALT/AST elevations had a lower Ct value at admission (23 vs 25; P < .001), day 5 (24 vs 26; P < .001), and day 20 (31 vs 32; P < .001) after admission, compared with those without ALT/AST elevations. COVID-19 patients with ALT/AST elevations had a longer duration from first positive to first negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for SARS-CoV-2 (13 vs 9 days; P < .001). ALT/AST elevation and presence of diabetes were independent risk factors of viral persistence. CONCLUSIONS: Liver injury in COVID-19 is linked to a higher SARS-CoV-2 viral load during the early phase of infection, signifying a possible direct viral injury to the liver. Prolonged viral persistence of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with liver injury.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are closely related. The effect of AKI on the clinical outcomes of these two conditions is unclear. METHODS: This retrospective, territory-wide cohort study used an electronic public healthcare database in Hong Kong to identify patients with SARS or COVID-19 by diagnosis codes, virologic results, or both. The primary endpoint was a composite of intensive care unit admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, and/or death. RESULTS: We identified 1670 patients with SARS and 1040 patients with COVID-19 (median ages, 41 versus 35 years, respectively). Among patients with SARS, 26% met the primary endpoint versus 5.3% of those with COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus, abnormal liver function, and AKI were factors significantly associated with the primary endpoint among patients with either SARS or COVID-19. Among patients with SARS, 7.9%, 2.1%, and 3.7% developed stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI, respectively; among those with COVID-19, 6.6%, 0.4%, and 1.1% developed stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI, respectively. In both groups, factors significantly associated with AKI included diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Among patients with AKI, those with COVID-19 had a lower rate of major adverse clinical outcomes versus patients with SARS. Renal function recovery usually occurred within 30 days after an initial AKI event. CONCLUSIONS: AKI rates were higher among patients with SARS than those with COVID-19. AKI was associated with major adverse clinical outcomes for both diseases. Patients with diabetes mellitus and abnormal liver function were also at risk of developing severe consequences after SARS and COVID-19 infection.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e466-e475, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The case-fatality ratios (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) appeared to differ substantially. We aimed to compare the CFR and its predictors of COVID-19 and SARS patients using a territory-wide cohort in Hong Kong. METHODS: This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study using data captured from all public hospitals in Hong Kong. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and SARS patients were identified. The primary endpoint was a composite endpoint of intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation, and/or death. RESULTS: We identified 1013 COVID-19 patients (mean age, 38.4 years; 53.9% male) diagnosed from 23 January to 14 April 2020 and 1670 SARS patients (mean age, 44.4 years; 44.0% male) from March to June 2003. Fifty-five (5.4%) COVID-19 patients and 432 (25.9%) SARS patients had reached the primary endpoint in 30 days. By 30 June 2003, 286 SARS patients had died (CFR, 17.1%). By 7 June 2020, 4 COVID-19 patients had died (CFR, 0.4%). After adjusting for demographic and clinical parameters, COVID-19 was associated with a 71% lower risk of primary endpoint compared with SARS (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, .21-.40; P < .0001). Age, diabetes mellitus, and laboratory parameters (high lactate dehydrogenase, high C-reactive protein, and low platelet count) were independent predictors of the primary endpoint in COVID-19 patients, whereas use of antiviral treatments was not associated with primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: The CFR of COVID-19 was 0.4%. Age and diabetes were associated with worse outcomes, whereas antiviral treatments were not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
9.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-876

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are two infectious diseases caused by coronaviruses - SARS-CoV-2 an

10.
Gut ; 70(4): 733-742, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Data on serial liver biochemistries of patients infected by different human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are lacking. The impact of liver injury on adverse clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains unclear. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from a territory-wide database in Hong Kong. COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other HCoV patients were identified by diagnosis codes and/or virological results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation was defined as ALT/AST ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ie, 80 U/L). The primary end point was a composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, use of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death. RESULTS: We identified 1040 COVID-19 patients (mean age 38 years, 54% men), 1670 SARS patients (mean age 44 years, 44% men) and 675 other HCoV patients (mean age 20 years, 57% men). ALT/AST elevation occurred in 50.3% SARS patients, 22.5% COVID-19 patients and 36.0% other HCoV patients. For COVID-19 patients, 53 (5.1%) were admitted to ICU, 22 (2.1%) received invasive mechanical ventilation and 4 (0.4%) died. ALT/AST elevation was independently associated with primary end point (adjusted OR (aOR) 7.92, 95% CI 4.14 to 15.14, p<0.001) after adjusted for albumin, diabetes and hypertension. Use of lopinavir-ritonavir ±ribavirin + interferon beta (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.13, p=0.006) and corticosteroids (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 2.14 to 7.16, p<0.001) was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation. CONCLUSION: ALT/AST elevation was common and independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Use of lopinavir-ritonavir, with or without ribavirin, interferon beta and/or corticosteroids was independently associated with ALT/AST elevation.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19 , Liver , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(8): 776-787, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611744

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide. It is common to encounter patients with COVID-19 with abnormal liver function, either in the form of hepatitis, cholestasis, or both. The clinical implications of liver derangement might be variable in different clinical scenarios. With growing evidence of its clinical significance, it would be clinically helpful to provide practice recommendations for various common clinical scenarios of liver derangement during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Asia-Pacific Working Group for Liver Derangement during the COVID-19 Pandemic was formed to systematically review the literature with special focus on the clinical management of patients who have been or who are at risk of developing liver derangement during this pandemic. Clinical scenarios covering the use of pharmacological treatment for COVID-19 in the case of liver derangement, and assessment and management of patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and liver transplantation during the pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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