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JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e42315, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286920


BACKGROUND: Long COVID induces a substantial global burden of disease. The pathogenesis, complications, and epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in the acute phase have been evaluated, while few studies have characterized the epidemiology, symptomatology, and risk factors of long COVID symptoms. Its characteristics among patients with COVID-19 in the general population remain unaddressed. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of long COVID symptoms, its symptom patterns, and its risk factors in 4 major Chinese cities in order to fill the knowledge gap. METHODS: We performed a population-based, multicenter survey using a representative sampling strategy via the Qualtrics platform in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong in June 2022. We included 2712 community-dwelling patients with COVID-19 and measured the prevalence of long COVID symptoms defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and their risk factors. The primary outcomes were the symptoms of long COVID, with various levels of impact. A descriptive analysis of the prevalence and distribution of long COVID symptoms according to disease severity was conducted. A sensitivity analysis of increasing the number of long COVID symptoms was also conducted. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the risk factors of severe long COVID symptoms, including age, gender, marital status, current occupation, educational level, living status, smoking habits, monthly household income, self-perceived health status, the presence of chronic diseases, the use of chronic medication, COVID-19 vaccination status, and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: The response rate was 63.6% (n=2712). The prevalence of long COVID, moderate or severe long COVID, and severe long COVID was 90.4% (n=2452), 62.4% (n=1692), and 31.0% (n=841), respectively. Fatigue (n=914, 33.7%), cough (n=865, 31.9%), sore throat (n=841, 31.0%), difficulty in concentrating (n=828, 30.5%), feeling of anxiety (n=817, 30.2%), myalgia (n=811, 29.9%), and arthralgia (n=811, 29.9%) were the most common severe long COVID symptoms. From multivariate regression analysis, female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.95); engagement in transportation, logistics, or the discipline workforce (aOR=2.52, 95% CI 1.58-4.03); living with domestic workers (aOR=2.37, 95% CI 1.39-4.03); smoking (aOR=1.55, 95% CI 1.17-2.05); poor or very poor self-perceived health status (aOR=15.4, 95% CI 7.88-30.00); ≥3 chronic diseases (aOR=2.71, 95% CI 1.54-4.79); chronic medication use (aOR=4.38, 95% CI 1.66-11.53); and critical severity of COVID-19 (aOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.07-2.15) were associated with severe long COVID. Prior vaccination with ≥2 doses of COVID-19 vaccines was a protective factor (aOR=0.35-0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: We examined the prevalence of long COVID symptoms in 4 Chinese cities according to the severity of COVID-19. We also evaluated the pattern of long COVID symptoms and their risk factors. These findings may inform early identification of patients with COVID-19 at risk of long COVID and planning of rehabilitative services.

COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010324


Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a leading cause of disability and mortality worldwide, particularly in the elderly population. With the implementation of the Government Vaccination Programme (GVP) and the Vaccination Subsidy Scheme (VSS), enabling factors and barriers in service provider scheme participation and vaccination uptake were examined in 32 interviews with doctors and 16 interviews with vaccine recipients. Interview data were analysed in NVivo 11.0 with reference to the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the REAIM Framework to develop codes and themes. Barriers to pneumococcal vaccination uptake included concerns on vaccine efficacy and poor understanding of the disease and vaccine schemes, whilst service provider participation was hindered by ill-defined parameters for patient eligibility and time, location, and logistical constraints. Enabling factors to improve intervention implementation were involvement of the government and physicians to encourage participation, clarifying eligibility criteria, and improving individual knowledge of IPD and vaccination schemes. As participation rates in the GVP and VSS remains low in Hong Kong, efforts concentrating on health promotion strategies encouraging pneumococcal vaccination amongst the elderly population are recommended.