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1.
Med J Aust ; 219(1): 18-25, 2023 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal patterns of dispensing of antidepressant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, psychostimulant, and hypnotic/sedative medications to children and adolescents in Australia during 2013-2021. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; analysis of 10% random sample of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing data. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: People aged 18 years or younger dispensed PBS-subsidised psychotropic medications in Australia, 2013-2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Population prevalence of dispensing of psychotropic medications to children and adolescents, by psychotropic class, gender, and age group (0-6, 7-12, 13-18 years). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic dispensing to children and adolescents was 33.8 per 1000 boys and 25.2 per 1000 girls in 2013, and 60.0 per 1000 boys and 48.3 per 1000 girls in 2021. The prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy was 5.4 per 1000 boys and 3.7 per 1000 girls in 2013, and 10.4 per 1000 boys and 8.3 per 1000 girls in 2021. Prevalent dispensing during 2021 was highest for psychostimulants (boys, 44.0 per 1000; girls, 17.4 per 1000) and antidepressants (boys, 20.4 per 1000; girls, 33.8 per 1000). During 2021, the prevalence of dispensing was higher than predicted by extrapolation of 2013-2019 data for many classes, including antidepressants (boys: +6.1%; 95% CI, 1.1-11.1%; girls: +22.2%; 95% CI, 17.4-26.9%), and psychostimulants (boys: +14.5%; 95% CI, 8.0-21.1%; girls: +27.7%; 95% CI, 18.9-36.6%). The increases were greatest for girls aged 13-18 years (antidepressants: +20.3%; 95% CI, 16.9-23.7%; psychostimulants: +39.0%; 95% CI, 27.9-50.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both psychotropic dispensing and psychotropic polypharmacy for children and adolescents were twice as high in 2021 as in 2013. The reasons and appropriateness of the marked increases in psychotropic dispensing during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly to adolescent girls, should be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Appl Psychol ; 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136676

ABSTRACT

As greater numbers of people have worked at home during the COVID-19 pandemic, workers, organisations and policy makers have begun considering the benefits of a sustained move towards homeworking, with workers' satisfaction with homeworking often cited as a key driver. But is satisfaction with homeworking that relevant to workers' overall job satisfaction? In this study, we examine whether job and homeworking satisfaction are predicted by different demands and resources, namely, those well established in the job design literature (workload, job autonomy and social support) for the former and those specific to the context of homeworking (loneliness, work-nonwork interference, work-nonwork interference and adequacy of homeworking environment) for the latter. We also explore whether homeworking satisfaction mediates the relationship between homeworking demands and resources and job satisfaction. Findings of a study of university workers during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 753 in Phase 1, 471 in Phase 2) support our expectations about the domain-specific nature of the predictors of job and homeworking satisfaction, autonomy is positively related to job satisfaction, while loneliness, nonwork-to-work interference and inadequate homeworking environment are negatively related to homeworking satisfaction. Results also support the argument that satisfaction with homeworking mediates the relationship between homeworking factors and job satisfaction, reinforcing the value of differentiating the two concepts.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic heightened uncertainties in people's lives-and was itself a source of fresh uncertainty. We report a study of homeworkers on whether such uncertainties, and particularly those related to their work environment, are associated with lower levels of well-being and whether this association is exacerbated by prior poor well-being. We focus on five uncertainties surrounding the pandemic and employment-the virus, the job quality, workload, logistics of work lives, and support from the employer. Our empirical tests show that uncertainties around the virus, employer support, and their job quality have the strongest negative associations with well-being. These are based on data collected over three time periods in the first year of the pandemic from a sample of university staff (academics and non-academics) and well-being is measured on two continua, anxiety-contentment and depression-enthusiasm. The effects of uncertainties around workload and logistics are less pronounced, but more apparent among employees with better (not poorer) past well-being, at various times of the recession. The study adds to our understanding of the pandemic and highlights the need to link uncertainty to mental health more than it has in the past.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Uncertainty , Universities
4.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(9): 1727-1734, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888856

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate change in the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and associated morbidities between pre- and during COVID-19 pandemic periods in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study extracting the data from level-3 NICUs participating in Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN). The primary outcome was a composite of death in the first week after birth and/or stage 3 HIE (Sarnat and Sarnat). Secondary outcomes included rate and severity of HIE among admitted neonates, overall mortality, brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) usage. We included 1591 neonates with gestational age ≥ 36 weeks with HIE during the specified periods: pandemic cohort from April 1st to December 31st of 2020; pre-pandemic cohort between April 1st and December 31st of 2017, 2018, and 2019. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed no significant difference in the primary outcome (15% vs. 16%; OR 1.08; 95%CI 0.78-1.48), mortality in the first week after birth (6% vs. 6%; OR 1.10, 95%CI 0.69-1.75), neonates requiring resuscitation, organ dysfunction, TH usage, or rate of brain injury. In the ad hoc analysis, per 1000 live births, there was an increase in the rate of infants with HIE and TH use. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of HIE, associated morbidities, and mortality were not significantly different during the pandemic lockdown compared to a pre-pandemic period in Canada. Anticipated risks and difficulties in accessing healthcare have not increased the mortality and morbidities in neonates with HIE in Canada.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Brain Injuries/complications , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314652

ABSTRACT

As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments encouraged or mandated homeworking wherever possible. This study examines the impact of this public health initiative on homeworkers' well-being. It explores if the general factors such as job autonomy, demands, social support and work-nonwork conflict, which under normal circumstances are crucial for employees' well-being, are outweighed by factors specific to homeworking and the pandemic as predictors of well-being. Using data from four-week diary studies conducted at two time periods in 2020 involving university employees in the UK, we assessed five factors that may be associated with their well-being: job characteristics, the work-home interface, home location, the enforced nature of the homeworking, and the pandemic context. Multi-level analysis confirms the relationship between four of the five factors and variability in within-person well-being, the exception being variables connected to the enforced homeworking. The results are very similar in both waves. A smaller set of variables explained between-person variability: psychological detachment, loneliness and job insecurity in both periods. Well-being was lower in the second than the first wave, as loneliness increased and the ability to detach from work declined. The findings highlight downsides of homeworking, will be relevant for employees' and employers' decisions about working arrangements post-pandemic, and contribute to the debate about the limits of employee well-being models centred on job characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
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