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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2179549

ABSTRACT

Objective : To determine whether hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is safe and effective at preventing COVID-19 infections among health care workers (HCW). Methods: In a 1 :1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, superiority trial at 34 US clinical centers, 1360 HCW at risk for COVID-19 infection were enrolled between April and November 2020. Participants were randomized to HCQ or matched placebo for. The HCQ dosing included a loading dose of HCQ 600mg twice on Day 1 followed by 400mg daily for 29 days. The primary outcome was a composite of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 clinical infection by Day 30, defined as new onset fever, cough, or dyspnea and either a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (confirmed) or a lack of confirmatory testing due to local restrictions (suspected). Results : Study enrollment closed before full accrual due to recruitment challenges. The primary endpoint occurred in 41 (6.0%) participants receiving HCQ and 53 (7.8%) participants receiving placebo. No difference in the proportion of participants experiencing clinical infection (estimated difference of -1.8%, 95% confidence interval -4.6% to 0.9%, p=0.20) was identified, nor any significant safety issues. Conclusion : Oral HCQ taken as prescribed appeared safe in the HCW. No significant clinical benefits were observed. The study was not powered to detect a small but potentially important reduction in infection. Trial Registration : NCT04334148

2.
Cell Reports Methods ; : 100395, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2177945

ABSTRACT

Summary Assays detecting blood transcriptome changes are studied for infectious disease diagnosis. Blood-based RNA alternative splicing (AS) events, which have not been well-characterized in pathogen infection, have potential normalization and assay platform stability advantages over gene expression for diagnosis. Here, we present a computational framework for developing AS diagnostic biomarkers. Leveraging a large prospective cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infection and whole-blood RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data, we identify a major functional AS program switch upon viral infection. Using an independent cohort, we demonstrate the improved accuracy of AS biomarkers for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis compared to six reported transcriptome signatures. We then optimize a subset of AS-based biomarkers to develop microfluidic PCR diagnostic assays. This assay achieves nearly perfect test accuracy (61/62=98.4%) using a naive principal component classifier, significantly more accurate than a gene expression PCR assay in the same cohort. Therefore, our RNA splicing computational framework enables a promising avenue for host-response diagnosis of infection.

3.
Cell Systems ; 13(12):989-1001.e8, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165138

ABSTRACT

Summary The identification of a COVID-19 host response signature in blood can increase the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and improve diagnostic tools. Applying a multi-objective optimization framework to both massive public and new multi-omics data, we identified a COVID-19 signature regulated at both transcriptional and epigenetic levels. We validated the signature's robustness in multiple independent COVID-19 cohorts. Using public data from 8,630 subjects and 53 conditions, we demonstrated no cross-reactivity with other viral and bacterial infections, COVID-19 comorbidities, or confounders. In contrast, previously reported COVID-19 signatures were associated with significant cross-reactivity. The signature's interpretation, based on cell-type deconvolution and single-cell data analysis, revealed prominent yet complementary roles for plasmablasts and memory T cells. Although the signal from plasmablasts mediated COVID-19 detection, the signal from memory T cells controlled against cross-reactivity with other viral infections. This framework identified a robust, interpretable COVID-19 signature and is broadly applicable in other disease contexts. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.

4.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 18, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measuring host gene expression is a promising diagnostic strategy to discriminate bacterial and viral infections. Multiple signatures of varying size, complexity, and target populations have been described. However, there is little information to indicate how the performance of various published signatures compare to one another. METHODS: This systematic comparison of host gene expression signatures evaluated the performance of 28 signatures, validating them in 4589 subjects from 51 publicly available datasets. Thirteen COVID-specific datasets with 1416 subjects were included in a separate analysis. Individual signature performance was evaluated using the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) value. Overall signature performance was evaluated using median AUCs and accuracies. RESULTS: Signature performance varied widely, with median AUCs ranging from 0.55 to 0.96 for bacterial classification and 0.69-0.97 for viral classification. Signature size varied (1-398 genes), with smaller signatures generally performing more poorly (P < 0.04). Viral infection was easier to diagnose than bacterial infection (84% vs. 79% overall accuracy, respectively; P < .001). Host gene expression classifiers performed more poorly in some pediatric populations (3 months-1 year and 2-11 years) compared to the adult population for both bacterial infection (73% and 70% vs. 82%, respectively; P < .001) and viral infection (80% and 79% vs. 88%, respectively; P < .001). We did not observe classification differences based on illness severity as defined by ICU admission for bacterial or viral infections. The median AUC across all signatures for COVID-19 classification was 0.80 compared to 0.83 for viral classification in the same datasets. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic comparison of 28 host gene expression signatures, we observed differences based on a signature's size and characteristics of the validation population, including age and infection type. However, populations used for signature discovery did not impact performance, underscoring the redundancy among many of these signatures. Furthermore, differential performance in specific populations may only be observable through this type of large-scale validation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Datasets as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Transcriptome , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Adult , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Association Studies/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Publications/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Validation Studies as Topic , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/genetics
7.
Am J Transl Res ; 14(8): 5693-5711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness with public health importance. The Cabarrus County COVID-19 Prevalence and Immunity (C3PI) Study is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study designed to contribute valuable information on community prevalence of active COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as the pandemic and responses to it have and continue to evolve. We present the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of the C3PI Study. METHODS: We recruited 1,426 participants between June 2020 and August 2020 from the Measurement to Understand the Reclassification of Disease of Cabarrus/Kannapolis (MURDOCK) Study Community Registry and Biorepository, a previously established, community-based, longitudinal cohort. Participants completed a baseline survey and follow-up surveys every two weeks. A nested weighted, random sub-cohort (n=300) was recruited to measure the incidence and prevalence of active COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. RESULTS: The sub-cohort was younger (56 vs 61 years), had more men (39.0% vs 30.9%), and a higher proportion of Hispanic (11.0% vs 5.1%) and Black participants (17.0% vs 8.2%) compared with the overall cohort. They had similar anthropometrics and medical histories, but a greater proportion of the sub-cohort had a higher educational degree (36.1% vs 31.3%) and reported a pre-pandemic annual household income of >$90,000 (57.1% vs 47.9%). CONCLUSION: This study is part of a multisite consortium that will provide critical data on the epidemiology of COVID-19 and community perspectives about the pandemic, behaviors and mitigation strategies, and individual and community burden in North Carolina.

8.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 130, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008331

ABSTRACT

Mass surveillance testing can help control outbreaks of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, diagnostic test shortages are prevalent globally and continue to occur in the US with the onset of new COVID-19 variants and emerging diseases like monkeypox, demonstrating an unprecedented need for improving our current methods for mass surveillance testing. By targeting surveillance testing toward individuals who are most likely to be infected and, thus, increasing the testing positivity rate (i.e., percent positive in the surveillance group), fewer tests are needed to capture the same number of positive cases. Here, we developed an Intelligent Testing Allocation (ITA) method by leveraging data from the CovIdentify study (6765 participants) and the MyPHD study (8580 participants), including smartwatch data from 1265 individuals of whom 126 tested positive for COVID-19. Our rigorous model and parameter search uncovered the optimal time periods and aggregate metrics for monitoring continuous digital biomarkers to increase the positivity rate of COVID-19 diagnostic testing. We found that resting heart rate (RHR) features distinguished between COVID-19-positive and -negative cases earlier in the course of the infection than steps features, as early as 10 and 5 days prior to the diagnostic test, respectively. We also found that including steps features increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) by 7-11% when compared with RHR features alone, while including RHR features improved the AUC of the ITA model's precision-recall curve (AUC-PR) by 38-50% when compared with steps features alone. The best AUC-ROC (0.73 ± 0.14 and 0.77 on the cross-validated training set and independent test set, respectively) and AUC-PR (0.55 ± 0.21 and 0.24) were achieved by using data from a single device type (Fitbit) with high-resolution (minute-level) data. Finally, we show that ITA generates up to a 6.5-fold increase in the positivity rate in the cross-validated training set and up to a 4.5-fold increase in the positivity rate in the independent test set, including both symptomatic and asymptomatic (up to 27%) individuals. Our findings suggest that, if deployed on a large scale and without needing self-reported symptoms, the ITA method could improve the allocation of diagnostic testing resources and reduce the burden of test shortages.

9.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969137

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced researchers to reconsider in-person assessments due to transmission risk. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of using the Tasso-SST (Tasso, Inc, Seattle, Washington) device for blood self-collection for use in SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in an ongoing COVID-19 prevalence and immunity research study. 100 participants were recruited between January and March 2021 from a previously identified sub-cohort of the Cabarrus County COVID-19 Prevalence and Immunity (C3PI) Study who were under-going bimonthly COVID-19 antibody testing. Participants were given a Tasso-SST kit and asked to self-collect blood during a scheduled visit where trained laboratory personnel performed routine phlebotomy. All participants completed an after-visit survey about their experience. Overall, 70.0% of participants were able to collect an adequate sample for testing using the device. Among those with an adequate sample, there was a high concordance in results between the Tasso-SST and phlebotomy blood collection methods (Cohen's kappa coefficient = 0.88, Interclass correlation coefficient 0.98 [0.97, 0.99], p < 0.0001). The device received a high-level (90.0%) of acceptance among all participants. Overall, the Tasso-SST could prove to be a valuable tool for seroprevalence testing. However, future studies in larger, diverse populations over longer periods may provide a better understanding of device usability and acceptance among older participants and those with comorbidities in various use scenarios.

10.
J Appl Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmaceutical interventions to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 also decreased the spread of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. Viral diagnostic testing in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a necessary tool for patient management; therefore, sensitive and specific tests are required. This scoping literature review aimed to summarize the study characteristics of commercially available sample-to-answer RSV tests. CONTENT: PubMed and Embase were queried for studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of tests for RSV in patients with RTI (published January 2005-January 2021). Information on study design, patient and setting characteristics, and published diagnostic performance of RSV tests were extracted from 77 studies that met predefined inclusion criteria. A literature gap was identified for studies of RSV tests conducted in adult-only populations (5.3% of total subrecords) and in outpatient (7.5%) or household (0.8%) settings. Overall, RSV tests with analytical time >30 min had higher published sensitivity (62.5%-100%) vs RSV tests with analytical time ≤30 min (25.7%-100%); this sensitivity range could be partially attributed to the different modalities (antigen vs molecular) used. Molecular-based rapid RSV tests had higher published sensitivity (66.7%-100%) and specificity (94.3%-100%) than antigen-based RSV tests (sensitivity: 25.7%-100%; specificity:80.3%-100%). SUMMARY: This scoping review reveals a paucity of literature on studies of RSV tests in specific populations and settings, highlighting the need for further assessments. Considering the implications of these results in the current pandemic landscape, the authors preliminarily suggest adopting molecular-based RSV tests for first-line use in these settings.

11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11714, 2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927103

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers profound and variable immune responses in human hosts. Chromatin remodeling has been observed in individuals severely ill or convalescing with COVID-19, but chromatin remodeling early in disease prior to anti-spike protein IgG seroconversion has not been defined. We performed the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA-seq on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from outpatients with mild or moderate symptom severity at different stages of clinical illness. Early in the disease course prior to IgG seroconversion, modifications in chromatin accessibility associated with mild or moderate symptoms were already robust and included severity-associated changes in accessibility of genes in interleukin signaling, regulation of cell differentiation and cell morphology. Furthermore, single-cell analyses revealed evolution of the chromatin accessibility landscape and transcription factor motif accessibility for individual PBMC cell types over time. The most extensive remodeling occurred in CD14+ monocytes, where sub-populations with distinct chromatin accessibility profiles were observed prior to seroconversion. Mild symptom severity was marked by upregulation of classical antiviral pathways, including those regulating IRF1 and IRF7, whereas in moderate disease, these classical antiviral signals diminished, suggesting dysregulated and less effective responses. Together, these observations offer novel insight into the epigenome of early mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggest that detection of chromatin remodeling in early disease may offer promise for a new class of diagnostic tools for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chromatin , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for early detection of viral infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals to allow for timely clinical management and public health interventions. METHODS: Twenty healthy adults were challenged with an influenza A (H3N2) virus and prospectively monitored from 7 days before through 10 days after inoculation, using wearable electrocardiogram and physical activity sensors (Clinical Trial: NCT04204493; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04204993). This framework allowed for responses to be accurately referenced to the infection event. For each participant, we trained a semi-supervised multivariable anomaly detection model on data acquired before inoculation and used it to classify the post-inoculation dataset. RESULTS: Inoculation with this challenge virus was well-tolerated with an infection rate of 85%. With the model classification threshold set so that no alarms were recorded in the 170 healthy days recorded, the algorithm correctly identified 16 of 17 (94%) positive presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, on average 58 hours post inoculation and 23 hrs before the symptom onset. CONCLUSION: The data processing and modeling methodology show promise for the early detection of respiratory illness. The detection algorithm is compatible with data collected from smartwatches using optical techniques but needs to be validated in large heterogeneous cohorts in normal living conditions.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e928-e937, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and typically have milder illness courses than adults, but the factors underlying these age-associated differences are not well understood. The upper respiratory microbiome undergoes substantial shifts during childhood and is increasingly recognized to influence host defense against respiratory pathogens. Thus, we sought to identify upper respiratory microbiome features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and illness severity. METHODS: We collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs from 285 children, adolescents, and young adults (<21 years) with documented SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome and evaluated for age-adjusted associations between microbiome characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 infection status and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal microbiome composition varied with age (PERMANOVA, P < .001; R2 = 0.06) and between SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with and without respiratory symptoms (PERMANOVA, P  = .002; R2 = 0.009). SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with Corynebacterium/Dolosigranulum-dominant microbiome profiles were less likely to have respiratory symptoms than infected participants with other nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles (OR: .38; 95% CI: .18-.81). Using generalized joint attributed modeling, we identified 9 bacterial taxa associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 6 taxa differentially abundant among SARS-CoV-2-infected participants with respiratory symptoms; the magnitude of these associations was strongly influenced by age. CONCLUSIONS: We identified interactive relationships between age and specific nasopharyngeal microbiome features that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility and symptoms in children, adolescents, and young adults. Our data suggest that the upper respiratory microbiome may be a mechanism by which age influences SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adolescent , Bacteria/genetics , Child , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , Nasopharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227299, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787611

ABSTRACT

Importance: Bacterial and viral causes of acute respiratory illness (ARI) are difficult to clinically distinguish, resulting in the inappropriate use of antibacterial therapy. The use of a host gene expression-based test that is able to discriminate bacterial from viral infection in less than 1 hour may improve care and antimicrobial stewardship. Objective: To validate the host response bacterial/viral (HR-B/V) test and assess its ability to accurately differentiate bacterial from viral infection among patients with ARI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective multicenter diagnostic study enrolled 755 children and adults with febrile ARI of 7 or fewer days' duration from 10 US emergency departments. Participants were enrolled from October 3, 2014, to September 1, 2019, followed by additional enrollment of patients with COVID-19 from March 20 to December 3, 2020. Clinical adjudication of enrolled participants identified 616 individuals as having bacterial or viral infection. The primary analysis cohort included 334 participants with high-confidence reference adjudications (based on adjudicator concordance and the presence of an identified pathogen confirmed by microbiological testing). A secondary analysis of the entire cohort of 616 participants included cases with low-confidence reference adjudications (based on adjudicator discordance or the absence of an identified pathogen in microbiological testing). Thirty-three participants with COVID-19 were included post hoc. Interventions: The HR-B/V test quantified the expression of 45 host messenger RNAs in approximately 45 minutes to derive a probability of bacterial infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance characteristics for the HR-B/V test compared with clinical adjudication were reported as either bacterial or viral infection or categorized into 4 likelihood groups (viral very likely [probability score <0.19], viral likely [probability score of 0.19-0.40], bacterial likely [probability score of 0.41-0.73], and bacterial very likely [probability score >0.73]) and compared with procalcitonin measurement. Results: Among 755 enrolled participants, the median age was 26 years (IQR, 16-52 years); 360 participants (47.7%) were female, and 395 (52.3%) were male. A total of 13 participants (1.7%) were American Indian, 13 (1.7%) were Asian, 368 (48.7%) were Black, 131 (17.4%) were Hispanic, 3 (0.4%) were Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 297 (39.3%) were White, and 60 (7.9%) were of unspecified race and/or ethnicity. In the primary analysis involving 334 participants, the HR-B/V test had sensitivity of 89.8% (95% CI, 77.8%-96.2%), specificity of 82.1% (95% CI, 77.4%-86.6%), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.9% (95% CI, 95.3%-99.1%) for bacterial infection. In comparison, the sensitivity of procalcitonin measurement was 28.6% (95% CI, 16.2%-40.9%; P < .001), the specificity was 87.0% (95% CI, 82.7%-90.7%; P = .006), and the NPV was 87.6% (95% CI, 85.5%-89.5%; P < .001). When stratified into likelihood groups, the HR-B/V test had an NPV of 98.9% (95% CI, 96.1%-100%) for bacterial infection in the viral very likely group and a positive predictive value of 63.4% (95% CI, 47.2%-77.9%) for bacterial infection in the bacterial very likely group. The HR-B/V test correctly identified 30 of 33 participants (90.9%) with acute COVID-19 as having a viral infection. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the HR-B/V test accurately discriminated bacterial from viral infection among patients with febrile ARI and was superior to procalcitonin measurement. The findings suggest that an accurate point-of-need host response test with high NPV may offer an opportunity to improve antibiotic stewardship and patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Adult , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , Procalcitonin , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2209, 2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve as a global health crisis. Although highly effective vaccines have been developed, non-pharmaceutical interventions remain critical to controlling disease transmission. One such intervention-rapid, at-home antigen self-testing-can ease the burden associated with facility-based testing programs and improve testing access in high-risk communities. However, its impact on SARS-CoV-2 community transmission has yet to be definitively evaluated, and the socio-behavioral aspects of testing in underserved populations remain unknown. METHODS: As part of the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics-Underserved Populations (RADx-UP) program funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are implementing a public health intervention titled "Say Yes! COVID Test" (SYCT) involving at-home self-testing using a SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen assay in North Carolina (Greenville, Pitt County) and Tennessee (Chattanooga City, Hamilton County). The intervention is supported by a multifaceted communication and community engagement strategy to ensure widespread awareness and uptake, particularly in marginalized communities. Participants receive test kits either through online orders or via local community distribution partners. To assess the impact of this intervention on SARS-CoV-2 transmission, we will conduct a non-randomized, ecological study using community-level outcomes. Specifically, we will evaluate trends in SARS-CoV-2 cases and hospitalizations, SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater, and population mobility in each community before, during, and after the SYCT intervention. Individuals who choose to participate in SYCT will also have the option to enroll in an embedded prospective cohort substudy gathering participant-level data to evaluate behavioral determinants of at-home self-testing and socio-behavioral mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission. DISCUSSION: This is the first large-scale, public health intervention implementing rapid, at-home SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in the United States. The program consists of a novel combination of an at-home testing program, a broad communications and community engagement strategy, an ecological study to assess impact, and a research substudy of the behavioral aspects of testing. The findings from the SYCT project will provide insights into innovative methods to mitigate viral transmission, advance the science of public health communications and community engagement, and evaluate emerging, novel assessments of community transmission of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Public Health
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575228

ABSTRACT

Background: Attempts to quantify effect sizes of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to control COVID-19 in the US have not accounted for heterogeneity in social or environmental factors that may influence NPI effectiveness. This study quantifies national and sub-national effect sizes of NPIs during the early months of the pandemic in the US. Methods: Daily county-level COVID-19 cases and deaths during the first wave (January 2020 through phased removal of interventions) were obtained. County-level cases, doubling times, and death rates were compared to four increasingly restrictive NPI levels. Socio-demographic, climate and mobility factors were analyzed to explain and evaluate NPI heterogeneity, with mobility used to approximate NPI compliance. Analyses were conducted separately for the US and for each Census regions (Pacific, Mountain, east/West North Central, East/West South Central, South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic and New England). A stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial analysis was used, leveraging the phased implementation of policies. Results: Aggressive (level 4) NPIs were associated with slower COVID-19 propagation, particularly in high compliance counties. Longer duration of level 4 NPIs was associated with lower case rates (log beta -0.028, 95% CI -0.04 to -0.02) and longer doubling times (log beta 0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.03). Effects varied by Census region, for example, level 4 effects on doubling time in Pacific states were opposite to those in Middle Atlantic and New England states. NPI heterogeneity can be explained by differential timing of policy initiation and by variable socio-demographic county characteristics that predict compliance, particularly poverty and racial/ethnic population. Climate exhibits relatively consistent relationships across Census regions, for example, higher minimum temperature and specific humidity were associated with lower doubling times and higher death rates for this period of analysis in South Central, South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, and New England states. Conclusion and Relevance: Heterogeneity exists in both the effectiveness of NPIs across US Census regions and policy compliance. This county-level variability indicates that control strategies are best designed at community-levels where policies can be tuned based on knowledge of local disparities and compliance with public health ordinances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
Sci Adv ; 7(49): eabl7682, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550871

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are concerning in the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we developed a rapid test, termed CoVariant-SCAN, that detects neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) capable of blocking interactions between the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and the spike protein of wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and three other variants: B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1. Using CoVariant-SCAN, we assessed neutralization/blocking of monoclonal antibodies and plasma from COVID-19­positive and vaccinated individuals. For several monoclonal antibodies and most plasma samples, neutralization against B.1.351 and P.1 variants is diminished relative to WT, while B.1.1.7 is largely cross-neutralized. We also showed that we can rapidly adapt the platform to detect nAbs against an additional variant­B.1.617.2 (Delta)­without reengineering or reoptimizing the assay. Results using CoVariant-SCAN are consistent with live virus neutralization assays and demonstrate that this easy-to-deploy test could be used to rapidly assess nAb response against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2875-e2882, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection typically have mild symptoms that do not require medical attention, leaving a gap in our understanding of the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses that the viruses causes in children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of children and adolescents (aged <21 years) with a SARS-CoV-2-infected close contact. We collected nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs at enrollment and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: Of 382 children, 293 (77%) were SARS-CoV-2-infected. SARS-CoV-2-infected children were more likely to be Hispanic (P < .0001), less likely to have asthma (P = .005), and more likely to have an infected sibling contact (P = .001) than uninfected children. Children aged 6-13 years were frequently asymptomatic (39%) and had respiratory symptoms less often than younger children (29% vs 48%; P = .01) or adolescents (29% vs 60%; P < .001). Compared with children aged 6-13 years, adolescents more frequently reported influenza-like (61% vs 39%; P < .001) , and gastrointestinal (27% vs 9%; P = .002), and sensory symptoms (42% vs 9%; P < .0001) and had more prolonged illnesses (median [interquartile range] duration: 7 [4-12] vs 4 [3-8] days; P = 0.01). Despite the age-related variability in symptoms, wWe found no difference in nasopharyngeal viral load by age or between symptomatic and asymptomatic children. CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic ethnicity and an infected sibling close contact are associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk among children, while asthma is associated with decreased risk. Age-related differences in clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection must be considered when evaluating children for coronavirus disease 2019 and in developing screening strategies for schools and childcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Nasopharynx , Prospective Studies , Viral Load
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2128534, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441922

ABSTRACT

Importance: Currently, there are no presymptomatic screening methods to identify individuals infected with a respiratory virus to prevent disease spread and to predict their trajectory for resource allocation. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using noninvasive, wrist-worn wearable biometric monitoring sensors to detect presymptomatic viral infection after exposure and predict infection severity in patients exposed to H1N1 influenza or human rhinovirus. Design, Setting, and Participants: The cohort H1N1 viral challenge study was conducted during 2018; data were collected from September 11, 2017, to May 4, 2018. The cohort rhinovirus challenge study was conducted during 2015; data were collected from September 14 to 21, 2015. A total of 39 adult participants were recruited for the H1N1 challenge study, and 24 adult participants were recruited for the rhinovirus challenge study. Exclusion criteria for both challenges included chronic respiratory illness and high levels of serum antibodies. Participants in the H1N1 challenge study were isolated in a clinic for a minimum of 8 days after inoculation. The rhinovirus challenge took place on a college campus, and participants were not isolated. Exposures: Participants in the H1N1 challenge study were inoculated via intranasal drops of diluted influenza A/California/03/09 (H1N1) virus with a mean count of 106 using the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay. Participants in the rhinovirus challenge study were inoculated via intranasal drops of diluted human rhinovirus strain type 16 with a count of 100 using the TCID50 assay. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measures included cross-validated performance metrics of random forest models to screen for presymptomatic infection and predict infection severity, including accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 31 participants with H1N1 (24 men [77.4%]; mean [SD] age, 34.7 [12.3] years) and 18 participants with rhinovirus (11 men [61.1%]; mean [SD] age, 21.7 [3.1] years) were included in the analysis after data preprocessing. Separate H1N1 and rhinovirus detection models, using only data on wearble devices as input, were able to distinguish between infection and noninfection with accuracies of up to 92% for H1N1 (90% precision, 90% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and 90% F1 score, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.70-1.00] AUC) and 88% for rhinovirus (100% precision, 78% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 88% F1 score, and 0.96 [95% CI, 0.85-1.00] AUC). The infection severity prediction model was able to distinguish between mild and moderate infection 24 hours prior to symptom onset with an accuracy of 90% for H1N1 (88% precision, 88% sensitivity, 92% specificity, 88% F1 score, and 0.88 [95% CI, 0.72-1.00] AUC) and 89% for rhinovirus (100% precision, 75% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 86% F1 score, and 0.95 [95% CI, 0.79-1.00] AUC). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that the use of a noninvasive, wrist-worn wearable device to predict an individual's response to viral exposure prior to symptoms is feasible. Harnessing this technology would support early interventions to limit presymptomatic spread of viral respiratory infections, which is timely in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biometry/methods , Common Cold/diagnosis , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Rhinovirus , Severity of Illness Index , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , Area Under Curve , Biological Assay , Biometry/instrumentation , Cohort Studies , Common Cold/virology , Early Diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Mass Screening , Models, Biological , Rhinovirus/growth & development , Sensitivity and Specificity , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
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