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1.
J Perinatol ; 43(6): 766-774, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess COVID-19 association with newborn critical care outcomes, including nursery level of care and ventilation, during three time periods: Pre-delta (May 2020-June 2021), Delta (July-November 2021), and Omicron (December 2021-February 2022). STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort of newborns born May 2020-February 2022 using the Premier Healthcare Database, we classified COVID-19 status and critical care using International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes, laboratory data, and billing records and assessed for variation during three time periods. RESULTS: Of 1,388,712 newborns, 0.06% had COVID-19 during the birth hospitalization (Pre-delta period: 0.03%; Delta: 0.07%; Omicron: 0.21%). Among newborns with COVID-19, the risks for admission to a higher-level nursery and for invasive or non-invasive ventilation were lower in the Omicron period compared to Pre-delta and Delta periods. CONCLUSION: From May 2020-February 2022, COVID-19 in newborns was rare and cases were less severe during the period of Omicron predominance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , Critical Care , Databases, Factual
3.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 50(2): 279-297, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295103

ABSTRACT

Evidence has consistently demonstrated that COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines are safe when given during pregnancy. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines protect pregnant people and their infants who are too young to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Although generally protective, monovalent vaccine effectiveness was lower during SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant predominance, in part due to changes in the Omicron spike protein. Bivalent vaccines, that combine ancestral strain and Omicron variant, may improve protection against Omicron variants. Everyone, including pregnant people, should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccines and bivalent booster, when eligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Family , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
4.
Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2259313

ABSTRACT

Synopsis: Evidence has consistently demonstrated that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are safe when given during pregnancy. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines protect pregnant people and their infants who are too young to receive COVID-19 vaccines. While generally protective, monovalent vaccine effectiveness was lower during SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant predominance, in part due to changes in the Omicron spike protein. Bivalent vaccines, that combine ancestral strain and Omicron variant, may improve protection against Omicron variants. Everyone, including pregnant people, should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccines and bivalent booster, when eligible.

5.
Pediatrics ; 151(4)2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280861

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although the US infant mortality rate reached a record low in 2020, the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) rate increased from 2019. To understand if the increase was related to changing death certification practices or the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we examined sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) rates as a group, by cause, and by race and ethnicity. METHODS: We estimated SUID rates during 2015 to 2020 using US period-linked birth and death data. SUID included SIDS, unknown cause, and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. We examined changes in rates from 2019 to 2020 and assessed linear trends during prepandemic (2015-2019) using weighted least squares regression. We also assessed race and ethnicity trends and quantified COVID-19-related SUID. RESULTS: Although the SIDS rate increased significantly from 2019 to 2020 (P < .001), the overall SUID rate did not (P = .24). The increased SIDS rate followed a declining linear trend in SIDS during 2015 to 2019 (P < .001). Other SUID causes did not change significantly. Our race and ethnicity analysis showed SUID rates increased significantly for non-Hispanic Black infants from 2019 to 2020, widening the disparities between these two groups during 2017 to 2019. In 2020, <10 of the 3328 SUID had a COVID-19 code. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnositic shifting likely explained the increased SIDS rate in 2020. Why the SUID rate increased for non-Hispanic Black infants is unknown, but warrants continued monitoring. Interventions are needed to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities in SUID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant Mortality , Sudden Infant Death , Humans , Infant , Asphyxia , Cause of Death , COVID-19/complications , Risk Factors , Sudden Infant Death/epidemiology , Sudden Infant Death/etiology , Black or African American
6.
J Adolesc Health ; 72(5): 667-673, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240984

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccinating adolescents against COVID-19 while avoiding delays in other routine vaccination is paramount to protecting their health. Our objective was to assess parental preferences to have their adolescents aged 12-17 years receive COVID-19 and other routine vaccines at the same time. METHODS: An online survey with a national, quota-based cross-sectional sample of United States parents of youth aged 12-17 years was fielded in April 2021 ahead of FDA's Emergency Use Authorization of COVID-19 vaccine for age 12-15 years. Parents were asked about their willingness to have their adolescents aged 12-17 years receive both COVID-19 and routine vaccines at the same visit and/or to follow their provider's recommendation. Predictors included demographic characteristics, being behind on routine vaccines, and perceived risks and benefits. RESULTS: Few parents were willing to have their adolescent receive COVID-19 and routine vaccines at the same visit (10.6%) or follow the healthcare provider's recommendation (18.5%). In multivariate analyses, demographic characteristics had no effect on willingness, reporting that the adolescent was behind on routine vaccines correlated with decreased willingness (p = .004). Greater concern about the adolescent getting COVID-19 (p = .001), lower concern about the adolescent having side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine (p = .013), and more positive feelings about vaccines in general (p = .002) were associated with higher willingness. DISCUSSION: Few parents would prefer to have their adolescents receive COVID-19 and routine vaccines at the same visit. Understanding what drives willingness to receive all recommended vaccines in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic could inform policies to optimize adolescent vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Adolescent , United States , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Parents
7.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245800

ABSTRACT

Public health emergencies, from Zika to COVID-19, have underscored the importance of addressing the needs of pregnant people and their infants. Recent events have underlined the critical role of mother-infant-linked longitudinal surveillance to characterize and assess the impacts of emerging, re-emerging, and persistent threats, including infectious diseases, on these populations. In partnership with state, local, and territorial health departments, CDC's National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities activated the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) to capture information about pregnant people with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and their infants. SET-NET data were critical in recognizing the severe risks of COVID-19 during pregnancy, which ultimately informed clinical decisions and public health policy, specifically vaccine prioritization at the local, state, and national levels. This commentary describes the activation of SET-NET to monitor COVID-19 in pregnancy and highlights the experiences of health departments. We provide examples of how SET-NET findings informed COVID-19 prevention efforts and public health policy. Lastly, we identify opportunities to improve and advance surveillance efforts to protect the health of pregnant people and their infants in the United States from current and future threats.

8.
Birth Defects Res ; 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We describe clinical characteristics, pregnancy, and infant outcomes in pregnant people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by trimester of infection. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network and included people with infection in 2020, with known timing of infection and pregnancy outcome. Outcomes are described by trimester of infection. Pregnancy outcomes included live birth and pregnancy loss (<20 weeks and ≥20 weeks gestation). Infant outcomes included preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), small for gestational age, birth defects, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated for pregnancy and selected infant outcomes by trimester of infection, controlling for demographics. RESULTS: Of 35,200 people included in this analysis, 50.8% of pregnant people had infection in the third trimester, 30.8% in the second, and 18.3% in the first. Third trimester infection was associated with a higher frequency of preterm birth compared to first or second trimester infection combined (17.8% vs. 11.8%; aPR 1.44 95% CI: 1.35-1.54). Prevalence of birth defects was 553.4/10,000 live births, with no difference by trimester of infection. CONCLUSIONS: There were no signals for increased birth defects among infants in this population relative to national baseline estimates, regardless of timing of infection. However, the prevalence of preterm birth in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy in our analysis was higher relative to national baseline data (10.0-10.2%), particularly among people with third trimester infection. Consequences of COVID-19 during pregnancy support recommended COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination.

9.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (NPC-19) was developed to provide information on the effects of perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 participating centers entered maternal and newborn data for pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 14 days before and 10 days after delivery. Incidence of and morbidities associated with maternal and newborn SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed. RESULTS: From April 6, 2020 to March 19, 2021, 242 centers in the United States centers reported data for 7524 pregnant persons; at the time of delivery, 78.1% of these persons were asymptomatic, 18.2% were symptomatic but not hospitalized specifically for COVID-19, 3.4% were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment, and 18 (0.2%) died in the hospital of COVID-related complications. Among 7648 newborns, 6486 (84.8%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 144 (2.2%) were positive; the highest rate of newborn infection was observed when mothers first tested positive in the immediate postpartum period (17 of 125, 13.6%). No newborn deaths were attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 15.6% of newborns were preterm: among tested newborns, 30.1% of polymerase chain reaction-positive and 16.2% of polymerase chain reaction-negative were born preterm (P < .001). Need for mechanical ventilation did not differ by newborn SARS-CoV-2 test result, but those with positive tests were more likely to be admitted to a NICU. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection was acquired by newborns at variable rates and without apparent short-term effects. During a period that preceded widespread availability of vaccines, we observed higher than expected numbers of preterm births and maternal in-hospital deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(4): 315-320, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest infants may be at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) relative to older children, but few data exist regarding the incidence of COVID-19 episodes and associated risk factors. We estimate incidence rates and describe characteristics associated with medically attended COVID-19 episodes among infants younger than 6 months of age. METHODS: We analyzed electronic medical record data from a cohort of infants born March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021. Data from 3 health care delivery systems included demographic characteristics, maternal and infant outpatient visit and hospitalization diagnoses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results. Medically attended COVID-19 episodes were defined by positive SARS-CoV-2 clinical tests and/or COVID-19 diagnosis codes during medical care visits. Unadjusted and site-adjusted incidence rates by infant month of age, low and high SARS-CoV-2 circulation periods and maternal COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated. RESULTS: Among 18,192 infants <6 months of age whose mothers received prenatal care within the 3 systems, 173 (1.0%) had medically attended COVID-19 episodes. Incidence rates were highest among infants under 1 month of age (2.0 per 1000 person-weeks) and 1 month (2.0 per 1000 person-weeks) compared with older infants. Incidence rates were also higher for infants born to women with postpartum COVID-19 compared with women without known COVID-19 and women diagnosed with COVID-19 during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infants of women with postpartum COVID-19 had a higher risk of medically attended COVID-19 than infants born to mothers who were diagnosed during pregnancy or never diagnosed underscoring the importance of COVID-19 prevention measures for their household members and caregivers to prevent infections in infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Child , Infant , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Risk Factors , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(45): 1442-1448, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116913

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates are highest among adults aged ≥65 years (1); however, COVID-19 can and does cause severe and fatal outcomes in children, including infants (2,3). After the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) BA.1 variant in December 2021, hospitalizations among children aged <5 years, who were ineligible for vaccination, increased more rapidly than did those in other age groups (4). On June 18, 2022, CDC recommended COVID-19 vaccination for infants and children aged ≥6 months (5). Data from the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)* were analyzed to describe changes in the age distribution of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations since the Delta-predominant period (June 20-December 18, 2021)† with a focus on U.S. infants aged <6 months. During the Omicron BA.2/BA.5-predominant periods (December 19, 2021­August 31, 2022), weekly hospitalizations per 100,000 infants aged <6 months increased from a nadir of 2.2 (week ending April 9, 2022) to a peak of 26.0 (week ending July 23, 2022), and the average weekly hospitalization rate among these infants (13.7) was similar to that among adults aged 65-74 years (13.8). However, the prevalence of indicators of severe disease§ among hospitalized infants did not increase since the B.1.617.2 (Delta)-predominant period. To help protect infants too young to be vaccinated, prevention should focus on nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination of pregnant women, which might provide protection through transplacental transfer of antibodies (6).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Adult , Infant , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
12.
Pediatrics ; 150(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the 6-month incidence of laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, postnatal care, hospitalization, and mortality among infants born to people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by timing of maternal infection. METHODS: Using a cohort of liveborn infants from pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infections in the year 2020 from 10 United States jurisdictions in the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mother and Babies Network, we describe weighted estimates of infant outcomes from birth through 6 months of age from electronic health and laboratory records. RESULTS: Of 6601 exposed infants with laboratory information through 6 months of age, 1.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.1) tested positive, 19.1% (17.5-20.6) tested negative, and 80.0% (78.4-81.6) were not known to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Among those ≤14 days of age, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred only with maternal infection ≤14 days before delivery. Of 3967 infants with medical record abstraction, breastmilk feeding initiation was lower when maternal infection occurred ≤14 days before delivery compared with >14 days (77.6% [72.5-82.6] versus 88.3% [84.7-92.0]). Six-month all-cause hospitalization was 4.1% (2.0-6.2). All-cause mortality was higher among infants born to people with infection ≤14 days (1.0% [0.4-1.6]) than >14 days (0.3% [0.1-0.5]) before delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Results are reassuring, with low incidences of most health outcomes examined. Incidence of infant SARS-CoV-2, breastmilk feeding initiation, and all-cause mortality differed by timing of maternal infection. Strategies to prevent infections and support pregnant people with coronavirus disease 2019 may improve infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
13.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S8): S787-S796, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089550

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe prevalence of breast milk feeding among people with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and examine associations between breast milk feeding, timing of maternal infection before delivery, and rooming-in status during delivery hospitalization. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee of whether people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in 2020 initiated breast milk feeding at birth. Results. Among 11 114 (weighted number) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.4%, 87.6%) initiated breast milk feeding during birth hospitalization. People with infection within 14 days before delivery had significantly lower prevalence of breast milk feeding (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.94) than did those with infection at least 14 days before delivery. When stratified by rooming-in status, the association between timing of infection and breast milk feeding remained only among infants who did not room in with their mother (APR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.68, 0.88). Conclusions. Pregnant and postpartum people with SARS-CoV-2 infection should have access to lactation support and be advised about the importance of breast milk feeding and how to safely feed their infants in the same room. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S8):S787-S796. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307023).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Breast Feeding , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S317-S325, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attributable to the Delta variant in the United States among pregnant people is limited. We assessed the risk for severe COVID-19 by pregnancy status in the period of Delta variant predominance compared with the pre-Delta period. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among symptomatic women of reproductive age (WRA) were assessed. We calculated adjusted risk ratios for severe disease including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of invasive ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death comparing the pre-Delta period (1 January 2020-26 June 2021) and the Delta period (27 June 2021-25 December 2021) for pregnant and nonpregnant WRA. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, the risk of ICU admission during the Delta period was 41% higher (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.41 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.17-1.69]) for pregnant WRA and 9% higher (aRR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.00-1.18]) for nonpregnant WRA. The risk of invasive ventilation or ECMO was higher for pregnant (aRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.26-2.65]) and nonpregnant (aRR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.17-1.54]) WRA in the Delta period. During the Delta period, the risk of death was 3.33 (95% CI, 2.48-4.46) times the risk in the pre-Delta period among pregnant WRA and 1.62 (95% CI, 1.49-1.77) among nonpregnant WRA. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the pre-Delta period, pregnant and nonpregnant WRA were at increased risk for severe COVID-19 in the Delta period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1338-1345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe 1-month outcomes among newborns of persons with perinatal COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 14 days before and 3 days after delivery and their newborns, from 3/2020 to 3/2021 at two urban high-risk academic hospitals. Phone interviews were conducted to determine 1-month newborn outcomes. RESULTS: Among 9748 pregnant persons, 209 (2.1%) tested positive for perinatal SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatically infected persons were more likely to have a preterm delivery due to worsening maternal condition and their newborns were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with asymptomatic persons. Six of 191 (3.1%) infants tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2; none had attributable illness before discharge. Of 169 eligible families, 132 (78.1%) participated in post-discharge interviews; none reported their newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by 1 month of age. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic perinatal COVID-19 had a substantial effect on maternal health but no apparent short-term effect on newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Aftercare , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1328-1337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between trimester of SARS-CoV-2 infection, illness severity, and risk for preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 6336 pregnant persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 in the United States. Risk ratios for preterm birth were calculated for illness severity, trimester of infection, and illness severity stratified by trimester of infection adjusted for age, selected underlying medical conditions, and pregnancy complications. RESULT: Pregnant persons with critical COVID-19 or asymptomatic infection, compared to mild COVID-19, in the second or third trimester were at increased risk of preterm birth. Pregnant persons with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 did not show increased risk of preterm birth in any trimester. CONCLUSION: Critical COVID-19 in the second or third trimester was associated with increased risk of preterm birth. This finding can be used to guide prevention strategies, including vaccination, and inform clinical practices for pregnant persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2227437, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971189

ABSTRACT

Importance: Children aged 6 months through 4 years have become eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, but little is known about parental intentions regarding, concerns about, or facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. Objectives: To evaluate parental intentions, concerns, and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years and to help inform the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' deliberations and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study fielded an online survey from February 2 to 10, 2022, among a nonprobability sample of US parents of children aged 6 months through 4 years who were recruited through Qualtrics using quota-based sampling for respondent gender, race and ethnicity, and child age group. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 vaccination intentions, time to COVID-19 vaccination, COVID-19 vaccination concerns and facilitators, and trusted COVID-19 vaccination locations for children aged 6 months through 4 years. Results: The final weighted sample of 2031 participants (73.5% participation rate) had more respondents who identified as male (985; weighted percentage, 54.8%) or White (696; weighted percentage, 66.2%), were aged 25 to 49 years (1628; weighted percentage, 85.6%), had at least a bachelor's degree (711; weighted percentage, 40.0%), lived in a metropolitan area (1743; weighted percentage, 82.9%) or the South (961; weighted percentage, 43.4%), or received at least 1 dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (1205; weighted percentage, 59.8%). Half of respondents (645; weighted percentage, 45.6%) indicated that they "definitely" or "probably" will vaccinate their child aged 6 months through 4 years once they became eligible. However, only one-fifth (396; weighted percentage, 19.0%) indicated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine for their child in this age group within 3 months of them becoming eligible for vaccination. Vaccine safety and efficacy were parents' top concerns, and receiving more information about safety and efficacy were the top facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. A doctor's office or clinic and local pharmacy were the most trusted COVID-19 vaccination locations for this age group. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that only a minority of parents of children in this age group are eager to vaccinate their children within the first few months of eligibility, with widespread concerns about COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. Thus, considerable efforts to increase parental COVID-19 vaccine confidence for children aged 6 months through 4 years may be needed to maximize COVID-19 vaccination for this age group in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Male , Parents , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 859-868, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912316

ABSTRACT

On June 17, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) amendments for the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-5 years, administered as 2 doses (25 µg [0.25 mL] each), 4 weeks apart, and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-4 years, administered as 3 doses (3 µg [0.2 mL] each), at intervals of 3 weeks between doses 1 and 2 and ≥8 weeks between doses 2 and 3. On June 18, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued separate interim recommendations for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-4 years for the prevention of COVID-19.* Both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines met the criteria for immunobridging, which is the comparison of neutralizing antibody levels postvaccination in young children with those in young adults in whom efficacy had been demonstrated. Descriptive efficacy analyses were also conducted for both Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines during the period when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) predominated. No specific safety concerns were identified among recipients of either vaccine. ACIP recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and 6 months-4 years, respectively, are interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. Vaccination is important for protecting children aged 6 months-5 years against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Advisory Committees , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
19.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 36(4): 476-484, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple reports have described neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, including likely in utero transmission and early postnatal infection, but published estimates of neonatal infection range by geography and design type. OBJECTIVES: To describe maternal, pregnancy and neonatal characteristics among neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing results. METHODS: Using aggregated data from the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) describing infections from 20 January 2020 to 31 December 2020, we identified neonates who were (1) born to people who were SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR at any time during their pregnancy, and (2) tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR during the birth hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among 28,771 neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, 3816 (13%) underwent PCR testing and 138 neonates (3.6%) were PCR positive. Ninety-four per cent of neonates testing positive were born to people with infection identified ≤14 days of delivery. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was more frequent among neonates born preterm (5.7%) compared to term (3.4%). Neonates testing positive were born to both symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant people. CONCLUSIONS: Jurisdictions reported SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results for only 13% of neonates known to be born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. These results provide evidence of neonatal infection identified through multi-state systematic surveillance data collection and describe characteristics of neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection. While perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was uncommon among tested neonates born to people with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy, nearly all cases of tested neonatal infection occurred in pregnant people infected around the time of delivery and was more frequent among neonates born preterm. These findings support the recommendation for neonatal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, especially for people with acute infection around the time of delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 873-876, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771002

ABSTRACT

The Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network conducts longitudinal surveillance of pregnant persons in the United States with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy. Of 6,551 infected pregnant persons in this analysis, 142 (2.2%) had positive RNA tests >90 days and up to 416 days after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serologic Tests , United States
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