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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879314

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal clinical studies traditionally require in-person study visits which are well documented to pose barriers to participation and contribute challenges to enrolling representative samples. Remote trial models may reduce barriers to research engagement, improve retention, and reach a more representative cohort. As remote trials become more common following the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical evaluation of this approach is imperative to optimize this paradigm shift in research. The TestBoston study was launched to understand prevalence and risk factors for COVID-19 infection in the greater Boston area through a fully remote home-testing model. Participants (adults, within 45 miles of Boston, MA) were recruited remotely from patient registries at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the general public. Participants were provided with monthly and "on-demand" at-home SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antibody testing using nasal swab and dried blood spot self-collection kits and electronic surveys to assess symptoms and risk factors for COVID-19 via an online dashboard. Between October 2020 and January 2021, we enrolled 10,289 participants reflective of Massachusetts census data. Mean age was 47 years (range 18-93), 5855 (56.9%) were assigned female sex at birth, 7181(69.8%) reported being White non-Hispanic, 952 (9.3%) Hispanic/Latinx, 925 (9.0%) Black, 889 (8.6%) Asian, and 342 (3.3%) other and/or more than one race. Lower initial enrollment among Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals required an adaptive approach to recruitment, leveraging connections to the medical system, coupled with community partnerships to ensure a representative cohort. Longitudinal retention was higher among participants who were White non-Hispanic, older, working remotely, and with lower socioeconomic vulnerability. Implementation highlighted key differences in remote trial models as participants independently navigate study milestones, requiring a dedicated participant support team and robust technology platforms, to reduce barriers to enrollment, promote retention, and ensure scientific rigor and data quality. Remote clinical trial models offer tremendous potential to engage representative cohorts, scale biomedical research, and promote accessibility by reducing barriers common in traditional trial design. Barriers and burdens within remote trials may be experienced disproportionately across demographic groups. To maximize engagement and retention, researchers should prioritize intensive participant support, investment in technologic infrastructure and an adaptive approach to maximize engagement and retention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024451, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807755

ABSTRACT

Background Early reports from the COVID-19 pandemic identified coronary thrombosis leading to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a complication of COVID-19 infection. However, the epidemiology of STEMI in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. We sought to determine the incidence, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and outcomes in STEMI patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with data on presentation ECG and in-hospital myocardial infarction were identified from January 14, 2020 to November 30, 2020, from 105 sites participating in the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry. Patient characteristics, resource use, and clinical outcomes were summarized and compared based on the presence or absence of STEMI. Among 15 621 COVID-19 hospitalizations, 54 (0.35%) patients experienced in-hospital STEMI. Among patients with STEMI, the majority (n=40, 74%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography, but only half (n=27, 50%) underwent coronary angiography. Half of all patients with COVID-19 and STEMI (n=27, 50%) did not undergo any form of primary reperfusion therapy. Rates of all-cause shock (47% versus 14%), cardiac arrest (22% versus 4.8%), new heart failure (17% versus 1.4%), and need for new renal replacement therapy (11% versus 4.3%) were multifold higher in patients with STEMI compared with those without STEMI (P<0.050 for all). Rates of in-hospital death were 41% in patients with STEMI, compared with 16% in those without STEMI (P<0.001). Conclusions STEMI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is rare but associated with poor in-hospital outcomes. Rates of coronary angiography and primary reperfusion were low in this population of patients with STEMI and COVID-19. Adaptations of systems of care to ensure timely contemporary treatment for this population are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211067349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608774

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Disorders of serum sodium (SNa) are common in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and may reflect underlying disease severity. However, the association of SNa with patient-reported outcomes is not clear. METHODS: The Brigham and Women's Hospital COVID-19 Registry is a prospective cohort study of consecutively admitted adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 809). We examined the associations of SNa (continuous and tertiles) on admission with: (1) patient symptoms obtained from detailed chart review; and (2) in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Covariates included demographic data and comorbidities. RESULTS: Mean age was 60 years, 48% were male, and 35% had diabetes. The most frequent symptoms were cough (64%), fever (60%), and shortness of breath (56%). In adjusted models, higher SNa (per mmol/L) was associated with lower odds of GI symptoms (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-0.99), higher odds of confusion (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04-1.13), in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and ICU admission (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05-1.13). The highest sodium tertile (compared with the middle tertile) showed similar associations, in addition to lower odds of either anosmia or ageusia (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.74). CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, hypernatremia was associated with higher odds of confusion and in-hospital mortality. These findings may aid providers in identifying high-risk patients who warrant closer attention, thereby furthering patient-centered approaches to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(1): e022010, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599177

ABSTRACT

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index hospitalization for COVID-19 and longer-term outcomes. Methods and Results This is a prospective cohort of patients who were hospitalized at a single center between March and May 2020 with SARS-CoV-2. Cardiac biomarkers were systematically collected. Outcomes were adjudicated and stratified on the basis of myocardial injury. The study cohort includes 483 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T data during their index hospitalization. During index hospitalization, 91 (18.8%) died, 70 (14.4%) had thrombotic complications, and 126 (25.6%) had cardiovascular complications. By 12 months, 107 (22.2%) died. During index hospitalization, 301 (62.3%) had cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T≧14 ng/L); these patients had 28.6%, 32.2%, and 33.2% mortality during index hospitalization, at 6 months, and at 12 months, respectively, compared with 4.1%, 4.9%, and 4.9% mortality for those with low-level positive troponin and 0%, 0%, and 0% for those with undetectable troponin. Of 392 (81.2%) patients who survived the index hospitalization, 94 (24%) had at least 1 readmission within 12 months, of whom 61 (65%) had myocardial injury during the index hospitalization. Of 377 (96%) patients who were alive and had follow-up after the index hospitalization, 211 (56%) patients had a documented, detailed clinical assessment at 6 months. A total of 78 of 211 (37.0%) had ongoing COVID-19-related symptoms; 34 of 211 (16.1%) had neurocognitive decline, 8 of 211 (3.8%) had increased supplemental oxygen requirements, and 42 of 211 (19.9%) had worsening functional status. Conclusions Myocardial injury during index hospitalization for COVID-19 was associated with increased mortality and may predict who are more likely to have postacute sequelae of COVID-19. Among patients who survived their index hospitalization, the incremental mortality through 12 months was low, even among troponin-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Troponin T/blood
6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S16-S17, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564678

ABSTRACT

Background mRNA vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illicit strong humoral and cellular responses and have high efficacy for preventing and reducing the risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Since solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients were excluded from the phase 3 trials, the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Understanding the serological responses to COVID vaccines among SOT recipients is essential to better understand vaccine protection for this vulnerable population. Methods In this prospective cohort study, a subset of SOT recipients who were part of our center’s larger antibody study were enrolled prior to receipt of two doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer, Inc) vaccine for high resolution immunophenotyping. To date, plasma has been collected for 10 participants on the day of their first dose (baseline), day of their second dose, and 28 days post second dose. 23 healthy participants planning to receive either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (ModernaTX, Inc) were also enrolled, providing plasma at the same timepoints. Ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) assays were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S), S1, receptor-binding domain (RBD) and Nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibodies. Results Participant demographics and SOT recipient characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Low titers of anti-N IgG at all timepoints indicate no natural infection with COVID-19 during the study (Fig 1A). There were significantly lower magnitudes for anti-S (p< 0.0001), anti-S1 (p< 0.0001), and anti-RBD (p< 0.0001) IgG titers on the day of dose 2 and day 28 post second dose for SOT recipients compared to healthy controls (Fig 1B,C,D). Using the internally validated threshold of anti-S IgG >1.07 based on pre-pandemic controls, only 50% of the SOT sub-cohort responded to vaccine after series completion (Fig 2). There was a positive trend between months from transplant and anti-S IgG titer (Fig 3). Table 1: Demographics Figure 1: Anti-N, Anti-S, Anti-S1, Anti-RBD and Anti-N Ig G for healthy v. SOT cohort Black error bars denote median and 95% CI. The dotted line on panel B denotes an internally validated cutoff of 1.07;anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 denote a positive response. Figure 3: Time from Transplant v. anti-S IgG Titer SOT recipients further out from transplant tend to have a higher anti-S IgG response. The dotted line denotes an internally validated cutoff, with anti-S IgG titers greater than 1.07 indicating a positive response. Conclusion SOT recipients had a significantly decreased humoral response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines compared to the healthy cohort, with those further out from transplant more likely to respond. Further research is needed to evaluate T-cell responses and clinical efficacy to maximize the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response among SOT recipients. Disclosures Ann E. Woolley, MD, MPH, COVAX (Consultant) David Walt, PhD, Quanterix Corporation (Board Member, Shareholder)

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(49): 25966-25972, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427057

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests with high clinical variability and warrants sensitive and specific assays to analyze immune responses in infected and vaccinated individuals. Using Single Molecule Arrays (Simoa), we developed an assay to assess antibody neutralization with high sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities based on antibody-mediated blockage of the ACE2-spike interaction. The assay does not require live viruses or cells and can be performed in a biosafety level 2 laboratory within two hours. We used this assay to assess neutralization and antibody levels in patients who died of COVID-19 and patients hospitalized for a short period of time and show that neutralization and antibody levels increase over time. We also adapted the assay for SARS-CoV-2 variants and measured neutralization capacity in pre-pandemic healthy, COVID-19 infected, and vaccinated individuals. This assay is highly adaptable for clinical applications, such as vaccine development and epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1275-1278, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345718

ABSTRACT

The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination on viral characteristics of breakthrough infections is unknown. In this prospective cohort study, incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection decreased following vaccination. Although asymptomatic positive tests were observed following vaccination, the higher cycle thresholds, repeat negative tests, and inability to culture virus raise questions about their clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(6): 1561-1570, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological testing provides a record of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, but assay performance requires independent assessment. METHODS: We evaluated 3 commercial (Roche Diagnostics pan-IG, and Epitope Diagnostics IgM and IgG) and 2 non-commercial (Simoa and Ragon/MGH IgG) immunoassays against 1083 unique samples that included 251 PCR-positive and 832 prepandemic samples. RESULTS: The Roche assay registered the highest specificity 99.6% (3/832 false positives), the Ragon/MGH assay 99.5% (4/832), the primary Simoa assay model 99.0% (8/832), and the Epitope IgG and IgM 99.0% (8/830) and 99.5% (4/830), respectively. Overall sensitivities for the Simoa, Roche pan-IG, Epitope IgG, Ragon/MGH IgG, and Epitope IgM were 92.0%, 82.9%, 82.5%, 64.5% and 47.0%, respectively. The Simoa immunoassay demonstrated the highest sensitivity among samples stratified by days postsymptom onset (PSO), <8 days PSO (57.69%) 8-14 days PSO (93.51%), 15-21 days PSO (100%), and > 21 days PSO (95.18%). CONCLUSIONS: All assays demonstrated high to very high specificities while sensitivities were variable across assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Cell ; 184(12): 3205-3221.e24, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201121

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a focus in vaccine and therapeutic design to counteract severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Here, we combined B cell sorting with single-cell VDJ and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and mAb structures to characterize B cell responses against SARS-CoV-2. We show that the SARS-CoV-2-specific B cell repertoire consists of transcriptionally distinct B cell populations with cells producing potently neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) localized in two clusters that resemble memory and activated B cells. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of selected nAbs from these two clusters complexed with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimers show recognition of various receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes. One of these mAbs, BG10-19, locks the spike trimer in a closed conformation to potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the recently arising mutants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and SARS-CoV and cross-reacts with heterologous RBDs. Together, our results characterize transcriptional differences among SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells and uncover cross-neutralizing Ab targets that will inform immunogen and therapeutic design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2333-2344, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor blockade in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) who are not receiving mechanical ventilation is unclear. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, hyperinflammatory states, and at least two of the following signs: fever (body temperature >38°C), pulmonary infiltrates, or the need for supplemental oxygen in order to maintain an oxygen saturation greater than 92%. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive standard care plus a single dose of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary outcome was intubation or death, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The secondary efficacy outcomes were clinical worsening and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen among patients who had been receiving it at baseline, both assessed in time-to-event analyses. RESULTS: We enrolled 243 patients; 141 (58%) were men, and 102 (42%) were women. The median age was 59.8 years (range, 21.7 to 85.4), and 45% of the patients were Hispanic or Latino. The hazard ratio for intubation or death in the tocilizumab group as compared with the placebo group was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 1.81; P = 0.64), and the hazard ratio for disease worsening was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.10; P = 0.73). At 14 days, 18.0% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 14.9% of the patients in the placebo group had had worsening of disease. The median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 5.0 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.6) in the tocilizumab group and 4.9 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.69). At 14 days, 24.6% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 21.2% of the patients in the placebo group were still receiving supplemental oxygen. Patients who received tocilizumab had fewer serious infections than patients who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab was not effective for preventing intubation or death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Some benefit or harm cannot be ruled out, however, because the confidence intervals for efficacy comparisons were wide. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04356937.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Boston , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Therapy , Treatment Failure , Young Adult
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100504, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite over 4 million cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States, limited data exist including socioeconomic background and post-discharge outcomes for patients hospitalized with this disease. METHODS: In this case series, we identified patients with COVID-19 admitted to 3 Partners Healthcare hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts between March 7th, 2020, and March 30th, 2020. Patient characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes were determined. FINDINGS: A total of 247 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified; the median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-76 years), 58% were men, 30% of Hispanic ethnicity, 21% enrolled in Medicaid, and 12% dual-enrolled Medicare/Medicaid. The median estimated household income was $66,701 [IQR: $50,336-$86,601]. Most patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (72%), and statins (76%; newly initiated in 34%). During their admission, 103 patients (42%) required intensive care. At the end of the data collection period (June 24, 2020), 213 patients (86.2%) were discharged alive, 2 patients (0.8%) remain admitted, and 32 patients (13%) have died. Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids. Over a median post-discharge follow-up of 80 days (IQR, 68-84), 22 patients (10.3%) were readmitted. INTERPRETATION: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are frequently of vulnerable socioeconomic status and often require intensive care. Patients who survive COVID-19 hospitalization have substantial need for post-acute services.

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