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2.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(3): e12134, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the coronavirus pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) emerged, concerns were also raised regarding the safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) conducted a survey to collect real-world data on the daily routine of administering subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) and sublingual AIT (SLIT) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based retrospective survey using the online platform survio with 26 standardized questions was used to survey physicians treating allergic patients during the pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-five physicians who regularly offer and perform AIT in German-speaking countries responded to the questions. 70.4% of the respondents stated that they regularly initiated and dosed up SCIT for inhalant allergies (41.4% venom-SCIT, 73.6% SLIT), and 85.2% of the respondents stated that they continued SCIT for inhalant allergies during the maintenance phase in a regular way (59.1% venom-SCIT, 90.4% SLIT) in healthy patients without current symptoms indicating an infection with COVID-19. With regard to tolerability, there was no evidence for increased occurrence of adverse events in patients without current symptoms of COVID-19 infection during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrated adherence to national and international position papers of AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic in German-speaking countries. Besides, the survey has confirmed a good tolerability of AIT for both SCIT and SLIT.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314294

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine BNT162b2 received approval and within the first few days of public vaccination several severe anaphylaxis cases occurred. An investigation is taking place to understand the cases and their triggers. The vaccine will be administered to a large number of individuals worldwide and concerns raised for severe adverse events might occur. With the current information, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) states its position for the following preliminary recommendations that are to be revised as soon as more data emerges. To minimize the risk of severe allergic reactions in vaccinated individuals, it is urgently required to understand the specific nature of the reported severe allergic reactions, including the background medical history of the individuals affected and the mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal all clinical and laboratory information should be collected and reported. Mild and moderate allergic patients should not be excluded from the vaccine as the exclusion of all these patients from vaccination may have a significant impact on reaching the goal of population immunity. Health care practitioners vaccinating against COVID-19 are required to be sufficiently prepared to recognise and treat anaphylaxis properly with the ability to administer adrenaline. A mandatory observation period after vaccine administration of at least 15 minutes for all individuals should be followed. The current guidelines, which exclude patients with severe allergies from vaccination with BNT162b2, should be re-evaluated after more information and experience with the new vaccine develops.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313609

ABSTRACT

Immune modulation is a key therapeutic tool for allergic diseases and asthma. It can be achieved in an antigen-specific way via allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or in endotype-driven approach using biologicals that target the major pathways of the type 2 (T2) immune response: IgE, IL-5 and IL-4/IL-13. COVID-19 vaccine provides an excellent opportunity to tackle the global pandemics and is currently being applied in an accelerated rhythm worldwide. It works as well through immune modulation. Thus, as there is an obvious interference between these treatment modalities recommendations on how they should be applied in sequence are expected. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) gathered an outstanding expert panel under its Research and Outreach Committee (ROC). This expert panel was called to evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendation on the administration of COVID-19 vaccine in patients with allergic diseases and asthma receiving AIT or biologicals. The panel also formulated recommendations for COVID-19 vaccine in association with biologicals targeting the type 1 or type 3 immune response. In formulating recommendations, the panel evaluated the mechanisms of COVID-19 infection, of COVID-19 vaccine, of AIT and of biologicals and considered the data published for other anti-infectious vaccines administered concurrently with AIT or biologicals.

6.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 20(1): 45-57, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: TREATgermany, a registry for patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), established an additional questionnaire in spring 2020 to investigate the effects of the coronavirus pandemic on the daily life of patients with AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was used to analyze general information regarding a patient's experience of the coronavirus pandemic and, using the Inventory of Life-Changing Events, the resulting personal burden. To analyze possible associations between disease severity (EASI score, oSCORAD, IGA, PGA, POEM), quality of life (DLQI) and personal burden, t-tests, analyses of variance and correlations were evaluated, controlled for sex and age. RESULTS: 58 % (n = 233) of the included 400 registry patients reported high burden scores caused by the coronavirus pandemic, regardless of an actual infection. Men showed significantly higher burden scores than women, and younger than older respondents (both P = 0.03). There were no differences in burden scores related to the physician's assessment of disease severity. However, patients with higher quality of life impairments and higher disease severity perceived the burden of the coronavirus pandemic as less severe (DLQI P = 0.019, PGA P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that registry patients considered the coronavirus pandemic as a life-changing event and perceived the burden differently. This should be taken into account in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD as well as in further studies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Perception , Quality of Life , Registries , Severity of Illness Index
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291722

ABSTRACT

Systemic allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare. In this study we assessed the management and outcome suspected SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hypersensitivity. We present data of 219 individuals, who experienced symptoms suspicious for an allergic reaction after the first (n=214) or the second vaccination (n=5). 195 reactions occurred after the first application of mRNA-based vaccines (157 Comirnaty®, and 38 Spikevax®) and eighteen reactions were reported after first application of a vector vaccine (Vaxzevria®). Of these 162 experienced immediate symptoms. Skin symptoms occurred in 91 cases. The most frequent cutaneous symptom was angioedema (n=45), followed by generalized urticaria (n=36) and generalized erythema/flush (n=20). 70 patients had cardiovascular symptoms, 45 showed respiratory symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in 14 patients. The allergological assessment of 334 individuals (219 with reactions after COVID vaccination and 115 with a history of vaccine related reactions) showed in 17% a suspicion of sensitization against the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and/or their ingredients defined as one positive skin test and/or BAT. The majority of the SPT/IDT with the vaccines were negative. Of the 214 patients with suspected allergic symptoms after the first vaccination, 67/67 patients tolerated the re-vaccination. In this study, 334 individuals of a cohort resembling >2000 persons presenting for an allergy workup regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination only 45 were diagnosed in concordance with the anaphylaxis definition of the Brighton collaboration with anaphylactic immediate hypersensitivity reaction after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Identifiable characteristics of these patients with suspected, but also diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hypersensitivity were female gender and the symptom angioedema. Overall, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity towards SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is extremely low and not increased in comparison to the reported hypersensitivity for other vaccines.

9.
Allergol Select ; 5: 140-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the beginning and during the worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), patients with allergic and atopic diseases have felt and still feel insecure. Currently, four vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved by the Paul Ehrlich Institute in Germany, and vaccination campaigns have been started nationwide. In this respect, it is of utmost importance to give recommendations on possible immunological interactions and potential risks of immunomodulatory substances (monoclonal antibodies, biologicals) during concurrent vaccination with the approved vaccines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This position paper provides specific recommendations on the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the context of concurrent SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations based on current literature. RESULTS: The recommendations are covering the following conditions in which biologicals are indicated and approved: 1) chronic inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria), 2) bronchial asthma, and 3) chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Patients with atopic dermatitis or chronic spontaneous urticaria are not at increased risk for allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination may result in transient eczema exacerbation due to general immune stimulation. Vaccination in patients receiving systemic therapy with biologicals can be performed. Patients with severe asthma and concomitant treatment with biologicals also do not have an increased risk of allergic reaction following COVID-19 vaccination which is recommended in these patients. Patients with CRSwNP are also not known to be at increased risk for allergic vaccine reactions, and continuation or initiation of a treatment with biologicals is also recommended with concurrent COVID-19 vaccination. In general, COVID-19 vaccination should be given within the interval between two applications of the respective biological, that is, with a time-lag of at least 1 week after the previous or at least 1 week before the next biological treatment planned. CONCLUSION: Biologicals for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, bronchial asthma, and CRSwNP should be continued during the current COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. However, the intervals of biological treatment may need to be slightly adjusted (DGAKI/AeDA recommendations as of March 22, 2021).

10.
Allergol Select ; 5: 251-259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are intended to induce an immune response to protect against infection/disease. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is thought to induce a (different) immune response, e.g., to induce tolerance to allergens. In this position paper we clarify how to use AIT in temporal relation to COVID-19 vaccination. Four SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are currently approved in the EU, and their possible immunological interactions with AIT are described together with practical recommendations for use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the internationally published literature, this position paper provides specific recommendations for the use of AIT in temporal relation to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. RESULTS: AIT is used in 1) allergic rhinitis, 2) allergic bronchial asthma, 3) insect venom allergy, 4) food allergy (peanut). CONCLUSION: For the continuation of an ongoing AIT, we recommend an interval of 1 week before and after vaccination for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). For sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and oral immunotherapy (OIT), we recommend taking them up to the day before vaccination and a break of 2 - 7 days after vaccination. Initiation of a new SCIT, SLIT, or OIT should be delayed until 1 week after the day of the second vaccination. For SCIT, we generally recommend an interval of ~ 1 week to COVID-19 vaccination.

12.
Allergo J Int ; 30(3): 79-95, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For the preventive treatment of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an unprecedented global research effort studied the safety and efficacy of new vaccine platforms that have not been previously used in humans. Less than one year after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral sequence, these vaccines were approved for use in the European Union (EU) as well as in numerous other countries and mass vaccination efforts began. The so far in the EU approved mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are based on similar lipid-based nanoparticle carrier technologies; however, the lipid components differ. Severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination are very rare adverse events but have drawn attention due to potentially lethal outcomes and have triggered a high degree of uncertainty. METHODS: Current knowledge on anaphylactic reactions to vaccines and specifically the new mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was compiled using a literature search in Medline, PubMed, as well as the national and international study and guideline registries, the Cochrane Library, and the Internet, with special reference to official websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Robert Koch Institute (RKI), and Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). RESULTS: Based on the international literature and previous experience, recommendations for prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of these allergic reactions are given by a panel of experts. CONCLUSION: Allergy testing is not necessary for the vast majority of allergic patients prior to COVID-19 vaccination with currently licensed vaccines. In case of allergic/anaphylactic reactions after vaccination, allergy workup is recommended, as it is for a small potential risk population prior to the first vaccination. Evaluation and approval of diagnostic tests should be done for this purpose.

14.
Allergo Journal International ; 30(3):79-95, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1209777

ABSTRACT

SummaryBackgroundFor the preventive treatment of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an unprecedented global research effort studied the safety and efficacy of new vaccine platforms that have not been previously used in humans. Less than one year after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral sequence, these vaccines were approved for use in the European Union (EU) as well as in numerous other countries and mass vaccination efforts began. The so far in the EU approved mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are based on similar lipid-based nanoparticle carrier technologies;however, the lipid components differ. Severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination are very rare adverse events but have drawn attention due to potentially lethal outcomes and have triggered a high degree of uncertainty.MethodsCurrent knowledge on anaphylactic reactions to vaccines and specifically the new mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was compiled using a literature search in Medline, PubMed, as well as the national and international study and guideline registries, the Cochrane Library, and the Internet, with special reference to official websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Robert Koch Institute (RKI), and Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI).ResultsBased on the international literature and previous experience, recommendations for prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of these allergic reactions are given by a panel of experts.ConclusionAllergy testing is not necessary for the vast majority of allergic patients prior to COVID-19 vaccination with currently licensed vaccines. In case of allergic/anaphylactic reactions after vaccination, allergy workup is recommended, as it is for a small potential risk population prior to the first vaccination. Evaluation and approval of diagnostic tests should be done for this purpose.

15.
Allergol Select ; 5: 140-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the beginning and during the worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), patients with allergic and atopic diseases have felt and still feel insecure. Currently, four vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved by the Paul Ehrlich Institute in Germany, and vaccination campaigns have been started nationwide. In this respect, it is of utmost importance to give recommendations on possible immunological interactions and potential risks of immunomodulatory substances (monoclonal antibodies, biologicals) during concurrent vaccination with the approved vaccines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This position paper provides specific recommendations on the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the context of concurrent SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations based on current literature. RESULTS: The recommendations are covering the following conditions in which biologicals are indicated and approved: 1) chronic inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria), 2) bronchial asthma, and 3) chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Patients with atopic dermatitis or chronic spontaneous urticaria are not at increased risk for allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination may result in transient eczema exacerbation due to general immune stimulation. Vaccination in patients receiving systemic therapy with biologicals can be performed. Patients with severe asthma and concomitant treatment with biologicals also do not have an increased risk of allergic reaction following COVID-19 vaccination which is recommended in these patients. Patients with CRSwNP are also not known to be at increased risk for allergic vaccine reactions, and continuation or initiation of a treatment with biologicals is also recommended with concurrent COVID-19 vaccination. In general, COVID-19 vaccination should be given within the interval between two applications of the respective biological, that is, with a time-lag of at least 1 week after the previous or at least 1 week before the next biological treatment planned. CONCLUSION: Biologicals for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, bronchial asthma, and CRSwNP should be continued during the current COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. However, the intervals of biological treatment may need to be slightly adjusted (DGAKI/AeDA recommendations as of March 22, 2021).

16.
Allergy ; 76(10): 2952-2964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165737

ABSTRACT

Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension, and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances, the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully. An ARIA-EAACI-EuGMS (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and European Geriatric Medicine Society) Working Group has proposed some recommendations for older adults receiving the COVID-19 vaccines. Anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines is extremely rare (from 1 per 100,000 to 5 per million injections). Symptoms are similar in younger and older adults but they tend to be more severe in the older patients. Adrenaline is the mainstay treatment and should be readily available. A flowchart is proposed to manage anaphylaxis in the older patients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Aged , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epinephrine , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Allergo J Int ; 30(2): 51-55, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107917

ABSTRACT

Two employees of the National Health Service (NHS) in England developed severe allergic reactions following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The British SmPC for the BNT162b2 vaccine already includes reference to a contraindication for use in individuals who have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its components. As a precautionary measure, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has issued interim guidance to the NHS not to vaccinate in principle in "patients with severe allergies". Allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare, but vaccine components are known to cause allergic reactions. BNT162b2 is a vaccine based on an mRNA embedded in lipid nanoparticles and blended with other substances to enable its transport into the cells. In the pivotal phase III clinical trial, the BNT162b2 vaccine was generally well tolerated, but this large clinical trial, used to support vaccine approval by the MHRA and US Food and Drug Administration, excluded individuals with a "history of a severe adverse reaction related to the vaccine and/or a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to a component of the study medication". Vaccines are recognized as one of the most effective public health interventions. This repeated administration of a foreign protein (antigen) necessitates a careful allergological history before each application and diagnostic clarification and a risk-benefit assessment before each injection. Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare but can be life-threatening, and it is prudent to raise awareness of this hazard among vaccination teams and to take adequate precautions while more experience is gained with this new vaccine.

20.
Allergo J Int ; 29(8): 257-261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086715

ABSTRACT

The population prevalence of insect venom allergy ranges between 3-5%, and it can lead to potentially life-threatening allergic reactions. Patients who have experienced a systemic allergic reaction following an insect sting should be referred to an allergy specialist for diagnosis and treatment. Due to the widespread reduction in outpatient and inpatient care capacities in recent months as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the various allergy specialized centers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have taken different measures to ensure that patients with insect venom allergy will continue to receive optimal allergy care. A recent data analysis from the various centers revealed that there has been a major reduction in newly initiated insect venom immunotherapy (a 48.5% decline from March-June 2019 compared to March-June 2020: data from various centers in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland). The present article proposes defined organizational measures (e.g., telephone and video appointments, rearranging waiting areas and implementing hygiene measures and social distancing rules at stable patient numbers) and medical measures (collaboration with practice-based physicians with regard to primary diagnostics, rapid COVID-19 testing, continuing already-initiated insect venom immunotherapy in the outpatient setting by making use of the maximal permitted injection intervals, prompt initiation of insect venom immunotherapy during the summer season, and, where necessary, using outpatient regimens particularly out of season) for the care of insect venom allergy patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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