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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
2.
Analyst ; 146(4): 1207-1215, 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137828

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top ten causes of death globally, despite being treatable. The eradication of TB disease requires, amongst others, diagnostic tests with high specificity and sensitivity that will work at the point of care (POC) in low-resource settings. The TB surface glycolipid antigen, mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) currently serves as the only POC molecular diagnostic biomarker suitable for use in low cost immunoassays. Here, we demonstrate the high affinity and exceptional specificity of microvirin-N (MVN), a 14.3 kDa cyanobacterial lectin, toward H37Rv TB ManLAM and utilize it to develop a novel on-bead ELISA. MVN binds to ManLAM with sub-picomolar binding affinity, but does not bind to other variants of LAM expressed by non-pathogenic mycobacteria - a level of binding specificity and affinity that current commercially available anti-LAM antibodies cannot achieve. An on-bead ELISA was subsequently developed using MVN-functionalized magnetic beads which allows for the specific capture of ManLAM from human urine with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.14 ng mL-1 and no cross-reactivity when tested with PILAM, a variant of LAM found on non-pathogenic mycobacteria.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Lectins , Lipopolysaccharides , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa596, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological features and outcomes of hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been described; however, the temporal progression and medical complications of disease among hospitalized patients require further study. Detailed descriptions of the natural history of COVID-19 among hospitalized patients are paramount to optimize health care resource utilization, and the detection of different clinical phenotypes may allow tailored clinical management strategies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 305 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 8 academic and community hospitals. Patient characteristics included demographics, comorbidities, medication use, medical complications, intensive care utilization, and longitudinal vital sign and laboratory test values. We examined laboratory and vital sign trends by mortality status and length of stay. To identify clinical phenotypes, we calculated Gower's dissimilarity matrix between each patient's clinical characteristics and clustered similar patients using the partitioning around medoids algorithm. RESULTS: One phenotype of 6 identified was characterized by high mortality (49%), older age, male sex, elevated inflammatory markers, high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and shock. Patients with this severe phenotype had significantly elevated peak C-reactive protein creatinine, D-dimer, and white blood cell count and lower minimum lymphocyte count compared with other phenotypes (P < .01, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of hospitalized adults, we identified a severe phenotype of COVID-19 based on the characteristics of its clinical course and poor prognosis. These findings need to be validated in other cohorts, as improved understanding of clinical phenotypes and risk factors for their development could help inform prognosis and tailored clinical management for COVID-19.

4.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(6): 63-70, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869242

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has required healthcare systems to be creative and adaptable in response to an unprecedented crisis. Below we describe how we prepared for and adapted to this pandemic at our decentralized, quaternary-care department of emergency medicine, with specific recommendations from our experience. We discuss our longstanding history of institutional preparedness, as well as adaptations in triage, staffing, workflow, and communications. We also discuss innovation through working with industry on solutions in personal protective equipment, as well as telemedicine and methods for improving morale. These preparedness and response solutions and recommendations may be useful moving forward as we transition between response and recovery in this pandemic as well as future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Planning , COVID-19/diagnosis , Communication , Disaster Planning , Emergency Medicine , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Morale , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Triage/organization & administration , Workflow
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1054-1058, 2020 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793418

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development and deployment of a web-based, self-triage tool for severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19 disease) aimed at preventing surges in healthcare utilization could provide easily understandable health guidance with the goal of mitigating unnecessary emergency department (ED) and healthcare visits. We describe the iterative development and usability testing of such a tool. We hypothesized that adult users could understand and recall the recommendations provided by a COVID-19 web-based, self-triage tool. METHODS: We convened a multidisciplinary panel of medical experts at two academic medical schools in an iterative redesign process of a previously validated web-based, epidemic screening tool for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We then conducted a cross-sectional usability study over a 24-hour period among faculty, staff, and students at the two participating universities. Participants were randomly assigned a pre-written health script to enter into the self-triage website for testing. The primary outcome was immediate recall of website recommendations. Secondary outcomes included usability measures. We stratified outcomes by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A final sample of 877 participants (mean age, 32 years [range, 19-84 years]; 65.3% female) was used in the analysis. We found that 79.4% of the participants accurately recalled the recommendations provided by the website. Almost all participants (96.9%) found the website easy to use and navigate. CONCLUSION: Adult users of a COVID-19 self-triage website, recruited from an academic setting, were able to successfully recall self-care instructions from the website and found it user-friendly. This website appears to be a feasible way to provide evidence-based health guidance to adult patients during a pandemic. Website guidance could be used to reduce unnecessary ED and healthcare visits.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Internet , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Self Care/methods , Triage/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comprehension , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Recall , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , User-Computer Interface , Young Adult
6.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 8: 1600103, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Worldwide efforts to protect front line providers performing endotracheal intubation during the COVID-19 pandemic have led to innovative devices. Authors evaluated the aerosol containment effectiveness of a novel intubation aerosol containment system (IACS) compared with a recently promoted intubation box and no protective barrier. METHODS: In a simulation center at the authors' university, the IACS was compared to no protective barrier and an intubation box. Aerosolization was simulated using a commercial fog machine and leakage of aerosolize mist was visually assessed. RESULTS: The IACS appeared to contain the aerosolized mist, while the intubation box allowed for mist to contact the laryngoscopist and contaminate the clinical space through arm port holes and the open caudal end. Both devices protected the laryngoscopist better than no protective barrier. DISCUSSION: The IACS with integrated sleeves and plastic drape appears to offer superior protection for the laryngoscopist and assistant providers from aerosolized particles.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 545-550, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-142205

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in the United States during January 2020 (1). Since then, >980,000 cases have been reported in the United States, including >55,000 associated deaths as of April 28, 2020 (2). Detailed data on demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes for persons hospitalized with COVID-19 are needed to inform prevention strategies and community-specific intervention messages. For this report, CDC, the Georgia Department of Public Health, and eight Georgia hospitals (seven in metropolitan Atlanta and one in southern Georgia) summarized medical record-abstracted data for hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed* COVID-19 who were admitted during March 2020. Among 305 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 61.6% were aged <65 years, 50.5% were female, and 83.2% with known race/ethnicity were non-Hispanic black (black). Over a quarter of patients (26.2%) did not have conditions thought to put them at higher risk for severe disease, including being aged ≥65 years. The proportion of hospitalized patients who were black was higher than expected based on overall hospital admissions. In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation† (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13). Given the overrepresentation of black patients within this hospitalized cohort, it is important for public health officials to ensure that prevention activities prioritize communities and racial/ethnic groups most affected by COVID-19. Clinicians and public officials should be aware that all adults, regardless of underlying conditions or age, are at risk for serious illness from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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