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J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1375-1385, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522100


Background: Nearly half of U.S. women experienced new or worsening health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) (food, housing, utilities and transportation difficulties, and interpersonal violence) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine racial/ethnic disparities in pandemic-related changes in HRSRs among women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (04/2020) of 3200 women. Pre- and early pandemic HRSRs were described by race/ethnicity. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression models generated odds of incident and worsening HRSRs by race/ethnicity. Results: The majority of Black, East or Southeast (E/SE) Asian, and Hispanic women reported ≥1 prepandemic HRSR (51%-56% vs. 38% of White women, p < 0.001). By April 2020, 68% of Black, E/SE Asian, and Hispanic women and 55% of White women had ≥1 HRSR (p < 0.001). For most HRSRs, the odds of an incident or worsening condition were similar across racial/ethnic groups, except Black, E/SE Asian and Hispanic women had 2-3.6 times the odds of incident transportation difficulties compared with White women. E/SE Asian women also had higher odds of worsening transportation difficulties compared with White women (adjusted odds ratios = 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.6). In the early pandemic, 1/19 Hispanic, 1/28 E/SE Asian, 1/36 Black and 1/100 White women had all 5 HRSRs (extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability). Conclusions: Prepandemic racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs persisted and prevalence rates increased for all groups early in the pandemic. Disparities in transportation difficulties widened. White women were much less likely than others to experience extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability. An equitable COVID-19 response requires attention to persistent and widening racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs among women.

COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469700


The role of resilience in mediating the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of US women is poorly understood. We examined socioeconomic factors associated with low resilience in women, the relationship of low resilience with psychiatric morbidity, and the mediating role of resilience in the relationship between pandemic-related stress and other coincident psychiatric morbidities. Using a quota-based sample from a national panel, we conducted a web-based survey of 3200 US women in April 2020. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of pandemic-related stress, and coincident depression and anxiety symptoms among those with and without low resilience. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate resilience as a mediator of the relationship between pandemic-related stress and other coincident psychiatric morbidities. Risk factors for low resilience included younger age, lower household income, lower education, unemployment, East/Southeast Asian race, unmarried/unpartnered status, and higher number of medical comorbidities. Low resilience was significantly associated with greater odds of depression symptoms (OR = 3.78, 95% CI [3.10-4.60]), anxiety symptoms (OR = 4.17, 95% CI [3.40-5.11]), and pandemic-related stress (OR = 2.86, 95% CI [2.26-3.26]). Resilience acted as a partial mediator in the association between pandemic-related stress and anxiety symptoms (proportion mediated = 0.23) and depression symptoms (proportion mediated = 0.28). In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, low resilience mediated the association between pandemic-related stress and psychiatric morbidity. Strategies proven to enhance resilience, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, and addressing socioeconomic factors, may help mitigate mental health outcomes.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 502-513, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169611


Background: During a pandemic, women may be especially vulnerable to secondary health problems driven by its social and economic effects. We examined the relationship between changes in health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) and mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3,200 women aged 18-90 years was conducted in April 2020 using a quota-based sample from a national panel (88% cooperation rate). Patterns of change in HRSRs (food insecurity, housing instability, interpersonal violence, and difficulties with utilities and transportation) were described. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress symptoms among those with and without incident or worsening HRSRs. Results: More than 40% of women had one or more prepandemic HRSRs. In the early pandemic phase, 49% of all women, including 29% with no prepandemic HRSRs, had experienced incident or worsening HRSRs. By April 2020, the rates of depression and anxiety were twice that of prepandemic benchmarks (29%); 17% of women had symptoms of traumatic stress. The odds of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were two to three times higher among women who reported at least one incident or worsening HRSR; this finding was similar for women with and without prepandemic HRSRs. Conclusions: Increased health-related socioeconomic vulnerability among U.S. women early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was prevalent and associated with alarmingly high rates of mental health problems. Pandemic-related mental health needs are likely to be much greater than currently available resources, especially for vulnerable women.

COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult