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Sci Transl Med ; 13(602)2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270875


Brain imaging studies of patients with COVID-19 show evidence of macro- and microhemorrhagic lesions, multifocal white matter hyperintensities, and lesions consistent with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy. Imaging studies, however, are subject to selection bias, and prospective studies are challenging to scale. Here, we evaluated whether serum neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neuroaxonal injury marker, could predict the extent of neuronal damage in a cohort of 142 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. NFL was elevated in the serum of patients with COVID-19 compared to healthy controls, including those without overt neurological manifestations. Higher NFL serum concentrations were associated with worse clinical outcomes. In 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir, a trend toward lower NFL serum concentrations was observed. These data suggest that patients with COVID-19 may experience neuroaxonal injury and may be at risk for long-term neurological sequelae. Neuroaxonal injury should be considered as an outcome in acute pharmacotherapeutic trials for COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14 , Biomarkers , Humans , Intermediate Filaments , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neurofilament Proteins , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 54(4): 312-322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067910


AIM: To evaluate five illustrative cases and perform a literature review to identify and describe a working approach to adult-onset white matter diseases (WMD). STATE OF THE ART: Inherited WMD are a group of disorders often seen in childhood. In adulthood, progressive WMDs are rare, apart from the common nonspecific causes of hypertension and other cerebrovascular diseases. The pattern of WMDs on neuroimaging can be an important clue to the final diagnosis. Due to the adoption of a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach, WMD is becoming better recognised, in addition to the rapidly evolving field of genomics in this area. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: While paediatric WMDs have a well-defined and literature-based clinical-laboratory approach to diagnosis, adult-onset WMDs remain an important, pathologically diverse, radiographic phenotype, with different and distinct neuropathologies among the various subtypes of WMD. Adult-onset WMDs comprise a wide collection of both acquired and inherited aetiologies. While severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neurological complications are emerging, we are as yet unaware of it causing WMD outside of post-anoxic changes. It is important to recognise WMD as a potentially undefined acquired or genetic syndrome, even when extensive full genome testing reveals variants of unknown significance. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: We propose a combined clinical-imaging-laboratory approach to WMD and continued exploration of acquired and genetic factors. Adult-onset WMD, even given this approach, can be challenging because hypertension is often comorbid. Therefore, we propose that undiagnosed patients with WMD be entered into multicentre National Organisation for Rare Diseases registries to help researchers worldwide make new discoveries that will hopefully translate into future cures.

Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Leukoencephalopathies/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/pathology